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History of Fulton county, Illinois; online

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L I B RAR.Y

OF THE
U N 1 VLR_SITY
Of ILLINOIS



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HISTORY



OF



FULTON COUNTY



ILLINOIS



TOGETHER ^V1TII SKETCHES OF ITS CITIES, VILLAGES AND TOWNSHIPS, EDUCA-
TIONAL, RELIGIOUS, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND POLITICAL HISTORY: POR-
TRAITS OF PROMINENT PERSONS AND BIOGRAPHIES OF
REPRESENTATIVE CITIZENS.



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS,

KMRRACING ACCOUNTS OF TUK PKK-HISTORIC RACES, ABORIGINES, FRENCH.

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN CONQUESTS, AND A GENERAL REVIEW

OF ITS CIVIL, POLITICAL AND MILITARY HISTORY.

D1GE8T OF STATE LAWS.



ILLUSTRATED.



PEORIA:

CHAS. C. CHAPMAN & CO., '
1879a



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.7. W. FRANKS A SONS,

PRINTERS, BINDERS AND PUBLISHERS,

PEORIA, ILL.



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PREFACE.



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O

/ For centuries prior to the coming of the pioneers the woodland and jirairie

; of Fulton county had been the home of the red man. He had full swav over
this, one of the finest sections of the globe. But nature's hand had been too
lavish in the distribution of natural advantages to let it remain longer in pos-
session of those who refused to develop, even in the slightest degree, any of
her great resources, accordingly she directed hitherward the Anglo Saxon.
The westward tread of the sturdy pioneer was heard and felt by the savage
race during the early part of the present century. On thej' came with a firm
resolute step, until this fair clime and country was reached, when they pitched
their tents and ere long a fruitful field was blooming where the large forest
trees and wild grass had waved in the breezes for hundreds of years, undis-
turbed. They transformed the wigwams into cities; dotted the knolls with
school-houses and churches; replaced the buffalo, deer, elk, ami wolf, which
had been driven further westward, with domestic animals ; erected factories,
built railroads, and reared a refined, enlightened and cultured people.

In this volume we have attempted to portray these changes; to picture
them that future generations, as well as the present, may know something of
what it cost to give them such a fair land. That they may have an idea of its
once primitive condition, and learn of the brave men and women who have
subdued the country; converted the wilderness into wbfft we now behold.
If we have placed facts upon record so that they are thus understood we will
have fulfilled our mission.

We have taken much care in recording the pioneer history, that coming
generations, those who will not have the early settler to relate to them the
history incident to the settlement and development of this county, may famil-
iarize themselves with it through this medium ; and that the reader may see
the county in its various stages of progression. We do not profess to have
fully delineated the trials, s .fferings, and hardships that were experienced in
converting even this fertile land from its virgin wildness into the luxuriant
and densely populated country it now is. I'Vo ! for human tongue or pen is far
from being adequate to that task.



350,54



/



PREFACE.

Different persons have given us honest and sincere, but nevertheless
conflicting accounts of the same events, and it has been both a difficult and
delicate task to harmonize them, and draw therefrom reasonable and
approximately correct conclusions. We had only one aim in view, one plan to
carry out, and that was, to record events impartialh' — to detail them as they
actualh' occurred.

That we have completed our work, fulfilled all our promises to the utter-
most, we feel conscientiously assured, and we submit the result of our labors
to the charitable consideration of this intelligent and liberal people. It must
not be expected that, in the multiplicity of names, dates, and events, no
errors will be detected. "We do not dare hope that in the numerous
and varied details this book is absolutly correct, nor is it expected that it is
beyond criticism, yet we believe it will be found to be measurably correct and
reliable. We have labored assiduously and Mith studious care to make it a
standard work of reference, as well as an authoritative record for future histo-
rians to build upon.

Believing a work of this nature would be comparatively incomplete with-
out speaking of the history of the State, of which Fulton county forms no
unimportant portion, we have carefully prepared a condensed, yet very com-
plete history of Illinois, which we incorporate in this volume. And as a
valuable aid in transacting every-day business, we append a carefully com-
piled digest of Illinois State Laws, which both the business man and farmer
will find of great value.

Before laying aside our pen, we de.sire to express our warmest thanks to
the editors of the various newspapei-s published throughout the county ; to
the county officials, and to the people in general for the assistance and liberal
patronage given us. ■»

CHAS. C. CHAPMAN & CO..
'— 1879. Publishers.



i



\



I



I



CONTE^^TS



HISTORY

MOUND-BUILDERS 17

INDIANS 21

Illinois Confederacy 23

Starved Rock 23

Sacs and Foxes 24

Manners and Customs 27

Single-handed Combat with Indians... 29

EARLY DISCOVERIKS 31

Nicholas Perrot 31

.Toliet and Marquette 31

l^aSalle's Explorations 33

Great Battle of the Illinois 34

Tonti Safe at Green Bay 41

I^aSalle's Assassination 43

FRENCH OCCUPATION 44

First Settlements 44

The Mississippi Company 45

ENGLISH RULE 47

Gen. Clark's Exploits 51

ILLINOLS 55

County of Illinois 55

NORTHWESTERN TERRITORY .55

Ordinance of 17S7 56

St. Clair Governor of N. W. Territory... 59

ILLINOIS TERRITORY 59

WAR OF ISrj— THE OUTBREAK .59

Massacre of Fort Dearborn (iO

Expeditions up the Mississippi..., 71

ILLINOIS AS A STATE 74

Organization 74

Derivation of the name "Illinois" 77

State Bank 7,S

LaFayette's Visit 79

Grammar and Cook (Jontrasted 82

HISTORY OF FULTON

CHAPTER III.



CHAPTER I.

EARLY SETTLEMENT 191

The Military Tract 191

Fulton County 191

Dr. Davison, the Hermit.. 194

John Eveland 195

Ossian M. Ross 196

Feuner Brothers 197 |

The Sergeants and Barnes 197

Sergeant's wedding 200 |

"When my Commission

Comes" 202

Other Settlers 203

The First Mail Carriers... i203

A Trading Expedition 204

Frightened by Indians... 204
The Battle of Malony's

Ferry 205

Trouble in Settling the

Military Tract 206

Robert Fulton 209

CHAPTER IL

EARLY SETTLEMENT— i

CONTINUED 2111

Early Preachers 211 i

Training day 212 1

A Few First Things 214

Organization of Fulton

County 218

Trade 219

Early Milling 221

Wild Hog.s 222

The Deep Snow 224

Sudden Change 227

High Water 227

The Severe Winter of

1842-3 228

Money 228

The Beautiful Prairies.. 230
Incidents of Pioneer

Life 232

What the Pioneers Have .

Done 235



OF ILLINOIS.

INDIAN TROUBLES

Winnebago War

BLACK HAWK WAR

Stillman's Run

Battle of Bad Axe

Black Hawk Captured

Biographical Sketch of Black Hawk

FROM 1834 TO 1842

Internal Improvements

Illinois and Michigan Canal

ilartvr for Liberty

PRAIRIE PIRATES.:

MORMON WAR

MEXICAN WAR

Battle of Bueiiii Vista

THE WAR FOR THE UNION

States Seceding

The Fall of Sumter

Call for Troops Promptly Answered

The War Ended— The Union Restored..

Schedule of Regiments

DUELS

DRESS AND MANNERS

PHY'SICAL FEATURES OF ILLINOIS

AGRICULTURE

GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS

Lieutenant Governors

State Officials

U. S. Senators

Representatives in Congress

CHICAGO

The Great Fire

Commerce of Chicago

STATES OF THE UNION

COUNTY.

County Court

'J'ownship Organization

County Expenditures...

CHAPTER VIII.

BLACK HAWK WAR

Troops Raised



IMPORTANT LABORS OF
COUNTY' COMMIS-
SIONERS' COURT 237

First Meeting 237

("ounty-Seat Located 239

Tavern Licenses 239

Ferry Licenses 240

More Justices of the

Peace 241

The First Court-House.. 241

First Treasurer 245

First Grand Jury 245

First Marriage 245

I'av for Assessment of

Taxes 246

First Petit Jury 247

Militia Precincts 247

First Marriage in Chi-
cago 248

Niew ("ommissioinerR

and a New Clerk 248

First Mart-iage License.. 249

Estray Pen 249

County Revenue 2.50

A New Court-House 250

Another Jail 251

The Present Court-

Hou.se 252

First Temperance Work 2.54

Paupers Sold 2.55

A New Jail 2.55

First Poor Farm 255

Last Meeting 256

CHAPTER IV.
GEOLOGY a57

CHAPTER V. /

ZOOLOGY' 265

CHAPTER VI.
BOTANY' 271

CHAPTER VII.

IMPORTANT LABORS
OF THj'. BOARD OF
SUPER .'ISORS 282



Stillman's Defeat

Horrible Massacre

The Westerfield Defeat.

CHAPTER IX.
CRIMINAL RECORD

CHAPTER X.
PIONEER LIFE

CHAPTER XI.
ARCHAEOLOGY

CHAPTER XII.
MEXICAN WAR

CHAPTER XIII

THE REBELLION

First Indications of the
War

First Call for Troops

Various Meetings Held
in the County

Death of Senator Doug-
las

A Picture of a Sad and
Desolate Home

Soldier's Aid Society...

Soldiers in Fulton Co...

The Close

Fulton County Volunteers

CHAPTER XIV.

THE BAR OF FULTON

COUNTY y

Pioneer Courts

Court Days

Circuit Judges

Pro.secuting Attorneys..

The Bar :..

Present Bar



83

83
84
87
90
91
92
95
95



102
104
118
119
125
126
127
128
137
ViS
141
149
1.54
1.55
157
160
161
162
165
170
172
173
177



282
283
288

289
290
292
294
294

307

318



335



340

S12

U-2
343

343

346

346
:M8
349
353
355



392
392

3i)4
394
39'



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XV.

TOWNSHIP HISTOPJES:—

Astoria 409

Banner 469

Buckheart 477

Bernadotte 506

Canton 515

Cass 582

Deerfielfl 602

Ellisville 615

Fairview 623

Farmers' 648

Farmington 678

Harris 697

Isabel 712

Joshua 724

Kerton 748

Lee 760

Le\vistown 769

Liverpool 820

Orion 843

Pleasant 84-S

Starved Rock 25

An Iroquois Chief 37

Gen. Geo. R. Clark 49

Gen. Arthur St. Clair .58

Old Fort Dearborn 61

Old Kinzie House 65

Pontiae 69

Black Hawk 85

Abbott, Daniel 395

Addi.s, A. I) 468

Babcock, W. H 468

Barker, J. W 661

Beam, O. J 883

Bearce, Orson 369

Benson, Hon. Jesse 225

Bovington, E. L 733

Breed, C. G 571

Brown, Jacob 715

Brown, Mrs. Jacob 715

Bvbee, T. T 4S5

Chapman, S. S 449

Coleman, W. D 537

Colter, Hon. H. R 243

Cummings, Hon. S. P 431

Curtis Dr. L. W -537

Custer, P. Y 571

Foutch. John 721

Gallagher. P. W 873

Gardiner, J. H 727

Gardiner. Margaret 727

Haacke, Capt. David 297

Laws 1039

Jurisdiction of Courts 1039

County Court.*^ 1040

Com. of Highwavs 1040

Fences 1042

Drainage 1044

Trespa.ss of Stock 1014

Estravs 1015

Horses 1016

Marks and Brands 1017

Articles of Agreement 1017 ,

Notes 1018 I

.Judgment Note lOi'.i

fnterest 1049 |

'Is 10.51

nt 1055

1056

•es and Trust Deedsl057

>eds 1058

1058

e 1060



Putman 865

Union 880

Vermont 897

Waterford 936

Woodland 940

Young Hickory 969

CHAPTER XVI.

POLITICAL 975

Election Returns 976

CHAPTER XVII.

COUNTY OFFICIALS 984

CHAPTER XVin.

THE PRE.SS 990

Fulton County Ledger.. 991
Lewistown Democrat... 993

Canton Register 995

News-Chronicle 997

Vermont Chronicle 1000

Farmington News 1001

Weeklv Times 1002

Stream of Light 1004

Avon Sentinel 1005

II.HJSTRATIOX.S.

C, R.-I. & P. R. R. Depot... 99

Eye and Ear Infirmary Ill

Deaf and Dumb Institute... 115
Scene on Fox River 221

. Lincoln Monument. 137

Asylum for Feeble Minded 143

I Southern Normal Univer- i
sity 151 1

PORTRAITS.

Hartough, H. H 625

Herring. J. R 867

Herring, Mrs/M. A 867

Higgins, H .:.^^ 369

Holni.e.'?, C...j..-..r„.v 73:?

Hulit, N ■..„.,..;..'.™T 857

Hummel, I. M;.';........„ 801

Hummel, Mrs. I. M....^.:..... 80L

Hummel, Jessie L .SOI

John.son, B. C 733

Leslie, L. T 369

Maus, Jacob 825

McCall.J. H 207

McCune. J. L.. 8.51

McCune, Mrs. J. L 851

McDowell, W. M 261

Merrill, H. S 413

Miner, Wm 661

Moore, B. H -537

Mower\', Jacob 3:i3

Onion.'j. M 369

Orendorff. John .519

Orendorff, W. J .519

DIGEST OF STATE LAWS.

Days of Grace 1061 i

Limitation of Action 1061

Receipt.< 1062

Exemptions from Forced {

Sales 1062

Landlords and Tenants Uh;3

Criminal Law 1066

Taxes 10(W

Subscription 10<;9 '

Contract for Personal Ser-
vices 1070

Newsjjaper LiVjel 1071 |

Tender 1071 i

Drunkenness 1073

Marriage Contract 1074

School Months 1076

Infants 1076

Adoption of Children 1077

Church Organizations ...Wrt-i

Game .....1078 i



CHAPTER XIX.

RAILROADS lOOC

C, B. <fc Q.—

Rush%-ille Branch 1006

Quincv Branch 1009

St. L. Di\-ision 1009

T., P. & W. Rv 1010

Fulton Co. N.-G. Ry 1038

CHAPTER XX.

MLSCELLANEOUS 1014

C. & L. Plank Road 1014

Count\ - .Seat Contest 1015

Matrimonial 1018

School Statistics 1020

Table of Distances 1022

Population 1023

Wealth of Fulton Co. -.1023

Fulton Countv Fair 1025

Avon Fair 1027

Reminiscences 1028

" Fulton County" 1032

Miscellaneous B i o g -
raphies 1035

Central Insane Hospital 160

Indufstrial University 160

The Crib 176

Court- House 190

Map of Fulton County 14-15

Present Jail 643

Old Court House 811

First Court- House. Frontispiece



Parlin, Wm 351

Peirsol, J. E 333

Peirsol, Dr. J. H 781

Phelps, Wm 791

Phelps, Mrs. Wm 791

Potts. L. W Si5

Powell, E. G 315

Quillin. E 857

Robb, Andrew 679

Ross, Mrs. Mary 771

Rothman, J. R 279

Sa-vill. J. M 315

Sheplev, T. J 571

Smith,'Wm. H 468

Standard, Thos 739

Standard, Rachel 739

Stockdale, Jas .537

TenEvck, Peter 625

Toler, Dr. B. C 413

Turner, James 468

Welch. Dr. J. K 873

Wedge, Dr. D. 825

Worrell, J. J 679

Millers 1080

Paupers 1080

Public and Private Convey-
ances 1082

Wages and Stakeholders 1083

Sunday , 10a5

Definition of Commercial

Terms 1085

Legal Weights and Meas-
ures 1085

Bees 1084

Dogs lf)81

Crueln- to Animals 108<i

Names. 108<>

U. S. Mails 108<;

Rates of Postage 1088

Rates of Postage on Third-

Cla.ss Matter 1069

Registered Matter 1090

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HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.



FORMER OCCUPANTS.



MOUND-BUILDERS.

The numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities
found in various parts of our country, clearly demonstrate that a
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad
surface of our continent before its possession by the present In-
dians; but the date of their rule of the Western World is so re-
mote that all traces of their history, their progress and decav, lie
buried in deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Euro-
peans came, had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the
forests were all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many cen-
turies; and naught existed to point out who and what they were
who formerly lived, and loved, and labored, and died, on the conti-
nent of America. This pre-historic race is known as the Mound-
Builders, from the numerous large mounds of earth-works left by
them. The remains of the works of this people form the most in-
teresting class of antiquities discovered in the United States. Their
character can be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences
and the peculiarities of the only remains left, — the mounds. They
consist of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples,
idols, cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure
grounds, etc., etc. Their habitations must have been tents, struc-
tures of wood, or other perishable material; otherwise their remains
would be numerous. If the Mound-Builders were not the ancestors
of the Indians, who were they? The oblivion whicli has closed over
them is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answei to
the question. Those who do not believe in the common parentage
of mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of the West-
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came
from the East, and imagine they can see coincidences in the religion
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of






18 mSTOKV ()1<" ILLINOIS.






the Mound- Builders, They were, no doubt, idolators, and it hh^
been conjectured tiiat the sun was tlie object of their adoration. Tl»e
mounds were generally built in a situation aifording a view of the
rising sun: when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried alwaye
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially en-
closed by a semi-circular pavement, it was on the east side; wheb
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were
laid in a direction east and west; and, tinully. medals have been
found representing the sun and his raj's of light.

At what period they came to this country, is likewise a matter oi
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among
them, it has been inferred that the time was verv remote. Their
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoved
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people
would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing.

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact
that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the
bluffs which border the narrower vallej's; so that when one finds him-
self in such positions as to command the grandest views for river
scenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing upon,
or in close proximity to, some one or more of these traces of the
labors of an ancient people.



GALEKA MOUNDS.



On the top of the high blufis that skirt the west bank of the Mis-
sissippi, about two and a half miles from (J-alena, are a number of
these silent monuments of a pre-historic age. The spot is one of
surpassing beauty. From that point may be obtained a view of a
portion of three States, — Illinois, Iowa and "Wisconsin. A hundred
feet below, at the foot of the perpendicular clifis, the trains of the
Illinois Central Railroad thunder around the curve, the portage is
in full view, and the " Father of Waters," with its numerous bayous



HISTOKV OK ILLINOIS. 19

and islands, sketches a grand pamorama for miles above and below.
Here, probably thousands of years ago, a race of men now extinct,
and unknown even in the traditions of the Indians who inhabited
that section for centuries before the discovery of America by Colum-
bus, built these strangely wonderful and enigmatical mounds. At
this point these mounds are circular and conical in form. The larg-
est one is at least forty feet in diameter at the base, and not less
than fifteen feet high, even yet, after it has been beaten by the
storms of many centuries. On its top stands the large stump of an
oak tree that was cut down about tifty years ago, and its annual
rings indicate a growth of at least 200 years.

One of the most singular earth-works in the State was found on
the top of a ridge near the east bank of the Sinsinawa creek in the
lead region. It resembled some huge animal, the head, ears, nose,
legs and tail, and general outline of which being as perfect as
if made bv men versed in modern art. The ridjje on which it was
situated, stands on the prairie, 300 yards wide, 100 feet in height,
and rounded on the top by a deep deposit of clay. Centrally,
along the line of its summit, and thrown up in the form of an
embankment three feet high, extended the outline of a quadruped
measuring 250 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the
tail, and having a width of 18 feet at the center of the body. The
head was 35 feet in length, the ears 10 feet, legs 60 and tail 75. The
curvature in both the fore and hind leijs was natural to an animal
lying on its side. The general outline of the figure most nearly
resembled the extinct animal known to ojeoloo-ists as the Mcirathe-
rium. The question naturally arises. By whom and for what pur-
pose was this earth figure raised? Some have conjectured that
numbers of this now extinct animal lived and roamed over the prai-
ries of Illinois when the Mound-Builders first made their appearance
on the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and that their wonder
and admiration, excited by the colossal dimensions of these huge
creatures, found some expression in the erection of this figure.
The bones of some similar gigantic animals were exhumed on this
stn'eam about three miles from the same place.



LARGE CITIES.



Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the Western
country ia 1817, speaking of the mounds in the American Bottom,
says: "The great number and extremely large size of some of



20 HISTORY OF ILLINOIS.

them may be regarded as furnishing, with other circumstances,
evidences of tlieir antiquity. 1 have sometimes been induced to
think that at the period wlien they were constructed there was a
population here as numerous as that which once animated the
borders of the Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most num-
erous, as well as considerable, of these remains are found in pre-
cisely those parts of the country where the traces of a numerous
population might be looked for, namely, from the mouth of the
Ohio on the east side of the Mississippi, to the Illinois river, and
on the west from the St. Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly
satisfied that cities similar to those of ancient Mexico, of several
hundred thousand souls, have existed in this country."

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds —
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments
were built, and the race who built them vanished from the face
of the earth, ages before the Indians occupied the land, but their
date must probably forever baffle human skill and ingenuity.

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greater number
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincina; a his-her deo'ree of civ-
ilization than that attained by the Indians. The ancient earth-
works of the Mound -Builders have occasionally been appropriated
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by
their greater stature.

What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was
their posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first
visited by the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with
the exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Pelics com-
mon to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is believed
that the religious uses which tliey subserved were the same. If,
indeed, the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the
more ancient Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the
cause of their overthrow, and final extermination.

A thousand other queries naturally arise respecting these nations



lIlSrOKV OF ILLINOIS. 21

which now repose under the ground, but the most searching investi-
gation can give us only vagne speculations for answers. No histo-
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given an
account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting
them.

INDIANS.

FoUowino; the Monnd-Builders as inhabitants of North America,
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magniticent
cities the ruins of which are found in Central America. This peo-
ple was far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the
Mound-Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins
of broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples,
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the
ground, must have been of great extent, magnificent and very pop-
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect



Online LibraryChas. C. Chapman & CoHistory of Fulton county, Illinois; → online text (page 1 of 114)