Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya.

History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) online

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entered by soldiers or the police. It is not to give the
increase of cows and bulls. It is not to be subject to the
payment on flowers and milk or on pasturage, hides and
charcoal. It is not to pay tax on salt or wet salt, on sale and
purchase and on mine produce. It is free of forced labour
of every kind. It is granted with treasure trove and other
minor finds and with klipta and mrnor klipta. ( I follow
here the translation by Dr. Fleet with some exceptions ).
The words Ri% and W^ followed by the words ^^TT^f'T and
^^^f{ meaning the same things but of a minor kind suggest
that ^i^i and ^^fr^^ may also be taken to be the same
tax on the chief produce viz. that of land and on
minor products such as flowers, fruit, milk, etc. brought
for sale as is provided for in the Manu Smriti. How the
"3^ or land tax was levied, whether by apportioning from the
actual produce or by average yield, is not clear. Land was



CIVIL ADMINISTRATION 13J3rT3^^?T'J5q: 'A^\f^^ ^W
(H.C. p. 176) which means that outside every village were
erected spacious mendaps for sabJ.a, satra, prapa and prag-
ra/>sa. These mandapas were of course temporary sheds
erected for temporary purposes, that is, to be kept open
during the summer and winter seasons and not during
the rainy season and autumn, when travellers were not
expected to move or be in need.

We will now pass on from the village to the
Vishaya or Tehsil. As the headman of the village
was its chief officer, so for the Vishaya there was neces-
sarily a chief government officer called Vishayapati in
several inscriptions (e. g. i%q?rTi'"riq^3T^l?ri%jt) (Corp. Ins.
Ill p. 70). Manu declares that there should be a chiefnian
for each village, a chief man for ten villages, for twenty,
for one hundred and for one thousand. (VII, 115).

MiJdlVl 51^51 ^ tlf^^^f^W^ =^ II

This is perhaps academical but we have clear references
to the Vishayapati in records and the Vishaya consisted of
a number of villages, the average of which was a hundred.
The district i.e. Bhukti or Mandala may be taken to con-
tain one thousand villages more or less, and there was a
district officer also called Mandalesvara or Eashtrapati.
The Vishayapati and the Mandalesvara represented the
king and hence they often are called Rajasthaniya in in-
scriptional records.* Subordinate to these there were
other officers also, chiefly a police officer and a magistrate.
The duty of catching thieves and exterminating robbers

'See e.g. Corp, Ins, III p.eSi. ( TTPRy m". .J ^ rj,' [ &c.)



138 HARSHA AND HIS TIMES

was always considered paramount and police stations were
established for every ten or less number of villages as pro-
vided for even in the Manusmriti VII. 114. ( 5#T^^-i(i'iit t^tt-
iTt JT^% gcfFH^^ i i=f?^ iTfT^^TRt ^ f fe'^^ 'T5T?q I ) The police
officer of 100 villages or rather of the Vishaya ( Tehsil or
Taluka) is called Chauroddharanika (wr^^'Jl^), while the
magistrate or dispenser of punishment was called ^??fnr=fi.
These names occur in several inscriptions of the time. Of
course, in different states, names of officers sometimes
differed, but apparently the system was generally the
same. We give below some names of officers appearing in
the Deo-Barnak inscription (of Bengal) Corp. Ins. Vol.
Ill p. 216 ^tt^Qt^ ^^^^r^i^RT^ >Tr^TT^''kiT:;^:'Tn%k.l'ij|'-f, I nm- . ...
%^ ^Iwmw. *T^-3T vuii^^vi^ii^^irJjq^o^ffT^r^ JTgTSl^rfTv:. C illegible )
^WnJ. . .^JHKm!c'TTr^'^I^ft^%. . . 1%^ =^Tyi4



Online LibraryChintaman Vinayak VaidyaHistory of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 14 of 38)