had also distinctive animals on them such as a lion, a
monkey and so on. The colour of the Dhvaja also seems
to have been distinctive in each royal family-distinctions
-which are still observed.
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The royal umbrella was always of the white colour.
The emblems of royalty as enumerated in a Sloka of the
Bhagavata Purana were (1) Chamara, (2) Vyajana, (fan)
(3) Sankha, (4) White Umbrella, (5) Crown, (6) Sinhasana and
(7) Sayyana or Couch. These things those who were not
kings were not allowed to have (Bhagavata X, 26-61).
» 5^ is given in dictionaries as a wild animal —.entioned in the Atharvaveda.
System of Valabhi Administration A. D. 500-TOO.
(We give below an extract from Bombay Gazatteer, History of Gujarat p. 81-8J
detailing Valabhi administration between 500-700 A.D. with our observations )
The Valabhi grants supply information regarding the leading office,
bearers in revenue, police and village administrators whose names
generally occur in the following order: —
1 Ayuktaka ; ") . . ^ , .,
f meaning appointed, appearently any supperior
2 Viniynktaka:) o^^^^'"-
3 Drunghika: apparently an officer in charge of a town as
Drangha means a town.
4 Mdhattara or Ser.ior: has the derivative meaning high in rank*
Mhatara, the Marathi for an old man is the same word. In the
Valabhi plates Mahattara seems to be generally used to mean
accredited head-man of a village, head man recognised both by
the people of the village and by the government.
5 Chatahhata: i. e. Bhatas or sepoys for Chatas or rouges,* police
mounted or on foot, represent the modern police Jamadars
Havaldars and constables. Kumarapala Charita mentions that
Chatabhatas were sent by Siddharaja to apprehend the fugitive
Kumarapala. One plate records the grant of a village ' unen-
terable by Chatabhatas.'
6 Dhruva: fixed or permanent, is the hereditary officer in charge
of the records and accounts of a village, Talathi or Kulkarni
of the modern times. One of the chief duties of the Dhruva was
to see that revenue farmers did not take more than the royal
share. The name is still in use in Cutch where village accoun-
tants are called Dhru or Dhruva. Dhru is alSo a common
surname among Nagar Brahmins and Modh and other Vanias
in Cutch, Gujarat and Kathiawad.
7 Kd/nkaranika: means the chief judicial magistrate or judge
of a place.
8 Dandapasika : literally holding the fetters or noose of punish-
ment, is used both of the head of the police officer or of the
hangman or executioner.
9 Chauroddharanika: the catcher of thieves. Of the two Indian
ways of catching thieves, one of setting a thief to catch a thi&^
• Our view is that chata is a policeman and bhata is a soldier see above.
SYSTEM OF VALABHI ADMINISTRATION A. D. 500-700 157
the other of pagi or tracking system ; the second answers well
in sandy Gujarat and Kathiawad whero the tracker or pagi is
one of the Barabalute or regular village servants.
10 Rajasthaniya: the foreign secretary, the officer who had to do
with other states and kingdoms or Rajasthanas. Some authori-
ties take Rajasthaniya to mean viceroy. ( We look upon him as.
Govt. District officer ).
11 Amatya: Minister and sometimes counciller, is generally
coupled with Kumara or prince. (Kumaramatya is Amatya for
princes and differs from Rajamatya )
12 Anutpannadanasamudgrahaka: the arrears gatherer.
13 S' aulkika : the superintendent of tolls or customs.
14 B/iof/ika: or Bhogoddharanika : the collector of the Bhoga i. e.
the state share of the land produce taken in kind, as a rule,,
one sixth. The term Bhoga is still in use in Kathiawad for the
share usually }.^th which land-holders receive from land cultivat-
15 Vartmapala: thejroad watch were often mounted and stationed
in Thanas or small road side shades.