Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya.

History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) online

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and so on. These were undoubtedly aboriginal peoples
and aboriginal kingdoms i. e. kingdoms which in the
beginning did not claim to be Aryans.

Now the question naturally occurs why was the large
tract of the country to the north sparsely populated compar-
ed with the tract to the south, of the Tungabhadra? Answer
to this natural question is supplied by the story of the
Ramayana interpreted historically. The whole of this tract
was certainly covered with forest and was called Danda-
karanya. From Chitrakuta down to Rishyamuka in the
Malaya mountains (i. e. from Rewa down to Mysore) was
Dandakaranya clearly enough. For Rama could not have
taken his abode on Chitrakuta if it was not in Dandaka-
ranva. Now it is possible that the hilly portion of this
country was covered with forest in those ancient days down
to about 1000 B. C. For it was still covered with forests at
the beginning of the British rule ; the Vindhya, the Satapuda
and the Mahendra mountainous tracts were under forest
even so late as 1858 A. D. But why should the level country
inBerar or about Paithana and in theDeccan be under for-
est ? It should have been and still is an open country.
The explanation is that it was infested by Rakshasas or in.
historical language by car nibals. Sociology tells us that
the man-eating tribes do not prosper and hence this country
was only sparsely populated. The Mahars and the
Mangs who subsist on carrion, appear also to be other old
inha])itants of this land. The invading and settling
Aryans felled the jungle and brought the land under culti-
vation, retaining the Mahars and the Mangs (Sanskrit
Matangas) as an out-cast people. It may, therefore, be said
that the Aryans did not so much conquer the Deccen as
settle it. They killed the few cannibals, cleared the for-
ests and founded towns and villages compelling the
Mangs to live as out-casts outside each village. It is



THE CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI 261

thus that the cultivating population of the Deccan is
Aryan. The significance of this fact we shall notice
elsewhere. They were not perhaps pure Aryans but; mixed
Aryans or Yaduvansi Aryans of the second race of
invaders called the Lunar race which first settled in
Xurukshetra, and then in Surasena, Surashtra etc. These
had already taken Naga women to wife and were therefore
mixed to a large extent.

A second cause of this difference in populonsness
which may also be noticed here is that the seaboard of a
country is usually more fertile though less healthy than
the inner tableland and that it is also more prosperous on
account of trade. The Dravidian population therefore on
the sea-coast of the Madras Presidency was thriving and
denser and more advanced than the population of the
tableland of the Deccan and it is hence that we find the
real Dravidian peoples (treated as Mlechha even in the
Mahabharata) settled all along the coast viz. Chola, Dra-
vida, Pacdya and Kerala, (Kalabhra ? ) on the eastern
and western coast upto Malabar. There were Kalinga and
Andhra on the eastern coast and Konkan on the western
higher up. But the former two had come before the Maha-
bharata under Aryan influence though not completely
settled by the Aryans and they are included in the list of
northern kingdoms or peoples in the Mahabharata, while
Konkana was not yet in the days of the Mahabharata
under Aryan influence and hence is given in the southern
list, only a part viz. Aparanta or modern Northern Konkan
being mentioned in the north.

Such was the condition then about 300 B. C. the date
of the Mahabharata in its last form. The same thing
appears to be true of later centuries. The Rashtrikas
Peithanikas and Assakas mentioned in Asoka's edicts are
all Deccan Aryan people now being called Maharathis or
Maharattis as can be seen from the Nasik cave inscrip-
tions. The Periplus and Ptolemy also call this country
Ariake or the country of the Aryans and mention three
parts of it viz. the western coast, now come under Aryan



26'i THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

influence and Aryan speech and the Maharashtra and
Kuntala presumably, as they are called in later Sanskrit
with Paithan and Koihapur or Karahata as their chief
towns. The kings through all these days i. e. from the
earliest settlements down to Asoka's time were of course
Aryans and Maharathis. But we come now to the Satava-
hanas or Andhrabhrityas from the first century B. 0.
to the 3rd century A. D. as overlords of all this vast
country including Konkan, Maharashtra, Kuntala" and
even further south as far as Banavasi.

Who were the^e Satavahanas ? Were they mixed
Aryans or non-Aryans, Marathas or Dravidas? That is the
next question, difficult yet important, which has not yet
been answered. As we solved the first question by the aid
of the Ramayana, we will try to solve this question bj' the
aid of inscriptions and the Puranas. The latter call them
Sudras. The popular tradition which of course is usually
absurd with some truth behind it tells us that Satavahana
or Salivahana was born of a Brahmin girl from Sesha or the
sacred Serpent. The Andhras appear to be distinct from the
other Dravidians. They came under Aryan influence very
early and their country is mentioned (as we have seen) in
the Mahabharata among the northern i. e. Aryan or mixed
Aryan peoples and not among the southern ralechchhas.
Were the Andhras Nagas ? Apparently the Naga popula-
tion is still predominant in the Nagpur division which is
contiguous to the Andhra or Telagu country. The Telagu
Brahmins are unquestionably Aryans and have still mar-
riage relations with the Maharashtra Brahmins. The
Telagu Kshatriyas so to speak have however no marriage
relations with the Maratha Kshatriyas^'. It may be sur-
mised that the Satavahana family was a family belonging
to the Naga race which became predominant in the middle
country by conquering Pataliputra about the middle of the
1st century B. C. — and conquered Maharashtra also.
They made Pratishthana or Paithana their capital as it

' The Andhra Kshatriyas however were probably the descendants of the same
mixed Aryans from whom the Marathas are descended. See note on Aryan Advance
ir. the Eouch added further on.



THE CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI 265

must have been the capital already of Maharashtra during
the times of Asoka and earlier kings and thus made it the
centre of an extensive empire. They called themselves
Andhrabhrityas because they still owed allegiance to the
Andhra original seat of power at Dhanakataka. But
Paithana was their favourite seat. Being the capital of
a vast empire extending from the north to the south of
India ( from Patna to Mysore ) Paithana became famous
and a centre of commerce and of rich manufactures. Hence
its fame in the days of Ptolemy and hence the name
Paithani in Marathi des-ignating a silk gold bordered
cloth. The Satavahanas also appear to have been learned
men themselves and patrons of learned men. And Pai-
thana became the chief seat of learning in India next only
to Benares. Paithana retained this predominance through-
out the succeeding centuries down even to the end of the
Mahomedan power. Maratha kingdoms after the Satava-
hanas never ruled in Paithana. But their new capitals
Vatapi or Mankhed, Kalyan or Devagiri never rose to the
importance of Paithana which still remained the chief
place in Maharashtra for learning and for rich manu-
factures. Strangely enough, its pre-eminence remained so
far recognised that even during Mahomedan and Maratha
times complicated cases were settled at Paithana under
the Panchayats of its learned men. All this pre-eminence
is of course due to its being the capital of the extensive
empire of the Satavahanas who therefore must have been
thoroughly orthodox Hindus although some kings of the
family may have extended patronage to Buddhists also.

They were, as we have said, originally of the Naga
race but they appear to have married Kshatriya wives.
The Sakas of Ujjain a foreign people, yet perfectly Hindu-
ised, were predominant beyond the Nerbudda, and it appears
from inscriptions that Rudradaman's daughter was married
to a Satavahana king. That is not strange. For Chandra-
gupta married a daughter of a Yavana king Sudra, nay
oven Kshatriya kings may takeMlechha girls in marriage.
But it is strange that the Satavahana Naga kings were



264 THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

given Kshatriya daughters, as appears quite clear. F(iv
what is the significance of the name Gautamiputra and
Vaishthiputra which appear so conspicuously in theiv
inscriptions? The epithets admittedly mean son of a queen
born of the Gotaraa or Vasishtha gotra. Was the name
of the gotra of the queen mother of importance? They
were certainly not Brahmin women for their mention
would not be of importance. It therefore seems that they
were daughters of well-known Kshatriya kingly families in
the Deccan. And the Satavahanas lower as they them-
selves were in the social scale deemed it honourable to
mention the gotra of their Kshatriya mothers. The mention
of the gotra of the mother was not a new thing to Aryans.
We find in the Brihadaranya Upanishad in the Vamsas so
many names given by the gotra of the mother e. g.
^rai^'ig^T, 3lTi=iq'T35,', TTfTS'TTS^ and so on. (See ff^Rt^f i^ VIII 5)
And even in modern times Rajput kings call their queens
by their honoured father's families such as Rathodani, Cho-
hani and so on. A queen born of a royal family would
insist on her gotra being mentioned and hence we surmise
that these Satavahanas married Maratha Kshatriya
daughters, and honourably mentioned their gotras. It
also foilow^s that these Maratha Kshatriya royal families
had particular gotras which they then carefully remem-
bered and proclaimed. The Satavahana marriage relations
thus give a historical basis of very old standing to the
generally accepted three Vamsas among the Maratha
Kshatriyas viz: Surya, Soma and Naga. There were Naga-
vamsi Mtaratha Kshatriyas in later history of the seventh
century also as we shall notice hereafter.

We now come to the history of the Chalukyas of
Badami. How the Satavahana rule came to an end we do
not know. By the usual decrepitude which, from history,
overtakes every royal family after two or three hundred
years, these Satavahanas from the 1st century B. C. to the
end of the 2nd century A. D, flourished at Paithana and
then declined. Before 500 A. D. i. e. during a period of 300
years we do not definitely know what happened in Maha-



THE CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI 265

rashtra. Dr. Bhandarkar has held that there must have been
petty Maratha kingdoms among whom the Rashtrakuta
family was one. Of this family we shall speak later on.

But we can make another surmise." We believe that the
heart of Maharashtra at least, viz. Paithanaand the country
around came under the sway of the Vakatakas. This was
a Brahmin family ruling in the present Nagpur division as
ppears from their many inscriptions found. Their founder
/indhyasakti is mentioned in an inscription in the Ajanta
caves which Dr. Bhau Daji had the honour to first decipher,
though Dr, Bhau Daji's surmise that this Vindhyasakti was
the same as is mentioned in Vishnu Purana is not correct
as we shall show in the chapter on Andhra history. These
Vakatakas held extensive sway over the northern part of
Maharashtra and A«inaka was under their suzerainty, a
subordinate king of Asmaka being also mentioned in these
cave inscriptions. The original founder of the Vakataka
family and his immediate successors were certainly or-
thodox Aryans who performed the Asvamedha and other
Vedio sacrifices. But the people of the Vakataka country
and some ministers of the family were Buddhists and these
buiit many caves at Ajanta. This Buddhist tendency of the
ministers and the people naturally led to the reassertion of
the orthodox religion under Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas
in the sixth century A. D. For as usual these Chalukyas
signalise their rising power by performing the Asvamedha
and other Vedic sacrifices.

Coming to our period of Indian history and the
Chalukyas in Maharashtra, we may first observe that it
is difificult to decide whether the Chalukya family was
founded by a Kshatriya .warrior from Ayodhya as later
inscriptions declare or whether it was a local Maratha
family. The earliest grants give only the information that
the Chalukya family was of the Manavya gotra and were
Haritlputras. The importance of this latter epithet will
appear clear from what we have said above about Gauta-



The same surmise is made by G. Jouvean Dubreuil in his book Ancient History
of the Dcccan recently issued p. I'l,

34



266 THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

miputra and Vasishthiputra. In fact this epithet Haritl-
putra connects the Chalukya tradition with the Satavahana
forms of titles. This family was certainly Kshatriya both
on the father's side and on the mother's. The gotra of
the founder of the family was Manaya on the father's
side and Harita on the mother's side and hence the family
takes pride in calling itself Haritiputra as well as Manaya-
sagotra. It rose to power according to earlier grants by
conquering Govinda a Rashtrakiita king. Its greatest re-
presentative Pulakesin the first performed the Asvamedha
sacrifice so c|;iaracteristic of the Kshatriya race and power.
It also indicates as we have said, that this family came
to power by opposing Buddhistic tendencies and by
establishing the ascendancy of the Vedic religion much
in the same way as the rise of the Guptas in the north
may be said to represent the ascendancy of the orthodox
Vedic Aryans, against the Buddhists of the north. These
Guptas, though Vaisyas apparently, also performed the
Asvamedha. In the same way the first assertion of
power by this Pulakesin Kshatriya Maratha king was the
celebration of the Asvamedha a fact of which the family
appears to have been proud and always made mention.

That these Chalukyas were not DravidiansorKanarese
as their capital Badami would induce some to believe is
quite clear from the fact that Hiuen Tsang states that
Pulakesin was a Kshatriya and that he reigned in Maha-
rashtra. In fact, as stated before, when an empire falls the
provinces are usally seized by great officers and feudatory
chiefs and we may thus explain the rise of the Rashtra-
kutas, the Chalukyas, the Kadambas. and the Pallavas all
Maharashtra or Marathi speaking Aryan Kshatriya
families. The Kadambas were, also of the same race as
the Chalukyas. They claimed to be of the Manavya gotra
and sons of a Harita-gotra mother. They could have there-
fore no marriage relations with the Chalukyas, but with
other Maratha kingly families. The later legends of both
we shall presently discuss. The Kadambas had possession
of Banavasi and Konkanapura. The Pallavas simply ,



THE CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI 26?

called themselves of the Bharadvaja gotra and ha^
possession of Vengi and other eastern districts of the
Satavahanas. We shall speak of their rise in the next chap-
ter. And now we may discuss the origin of the Chalukyas
as given by their later documents and tradition.

This tradition is given in the grants of the Eastern
Chalukyas of Vengi. The legend given by Bilhana in
the Vikramankadevacharita in the time of the
later Chalukyas wa may at once set aside as absurd and
imaginary. Bilhana poetically changes the name Chalukya
into Chaulukya and says that the first progenitor was born
from the chuluka or handful of Brahma who, as he was
giving water-oblations, was approached by Indra and re-
quested to create a warrior to punish irreligious men i'n
the Kali age. The Eastern Chalukya tradition is not
poetical but is genealogical and as mentioned m their in-
scriptions is as follows. ( See e. g. Ranastute grant of
Vimaladitya No. 36 p. 357 Ep. Ind. Vol VI ). First we have
the genealogy of the whole lunar vamsa given from the
moon through the Pandavas down to Udayana ( we will
discuss this genealogy in a note ) and then we are told : —
"After 59 kings (Chakravartis) in unbroken line had
ruled in Ayodhya, a descendant by name Vijayaditya came
to the south with a desire to conquer the Deccan. He had a
fight with Trilochana Pallava and was killed in battle. His
queen being pregnant was received by one Vishnubhatta
Somayaji in a Brahmin Agrahara. There she gave birth
to a prince named Vishnuvardhana. The priest performed
all the ceremonies necessary on the birth of a Kshatriya
of the m^j3T(t^]5{ and fTT^cff^^'^ This prince having learnt every-
thing of his family, performed austerities on the chalukya
mountain and having propitiated the goddess Gauri and
Kuraara and Narayana got through their favour white
umbrella, Eka-Sankha, the five great Sabda, Paliketana,
Pratidhakka, Varaha Lanchhana, Panchakanta Sinhasana,
Makara Torana, Kanakadanda and Ganga Yamuna and
other signs of royalty of his family and having conquered



'268 THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

Kadamba, Ganga and others ruled the whole of Dakshina-
pathi:, from Setu to the Nerbudda, oil\i lakhs. Vijayaditya
was born of this Vishnuvardhana king from a Pallava
princess His son was Bollakeshi Vallabha. His son
was Kirtivarman." Here curiously enough the newly added
portion ends and the grant begins again with the tradi-
tional beginning of Chalukya grants ^sf^'"^'^ JT^R^JipH-^rl:

^^■v^-^^Mc^Ji^i\\';im etc. to w^\-'jr^^i^*{^^ v^mr f^^f^'^^'^^^-iM mm i I'^^i

%^c^i:WM'^?T^ ' Now in this added part at the beginning, the
only credible part appears to bethat Vijayadityacame from
Ayodhya Eifter 59 generations from Udayana. If Udayana
be placed in 600 B. C. we have 59 generations or 1180 years
after him, thus assigning Vijayaditya to about 580 A. D.
This is late by about a hundred years. Of course the
average of 20 years for a king, over 59 generations cannot
give us an exact date and hence we may say that Vijaya-
ditya's coming to the Deccan is probable.

All else is fable. The early grants of the Chalukyas
do not state whether they were of the Lunar race or Solar
race. Eastern Chalukya tradition finally assigned them to
the Lunar. But even this tradition as recorded in this
grant of 933 Saka or 1011 A. D. cannot explain the mean-
ing of Haritiputra in the usual formula of the Chalukya
kings. Then again the fight between Chalukya and
Pallava kings being a hereditary fight in later years may be
taken to be reflected back to the first king and so their also
marriage relations In fact Chalukyas and Pallavas like
England and France in the middle ages were always fighting
and always marrying one another's daughters Lastly, the
story of the founder of a dynasty being born fatherless of
a mother in adversity and then gaining power by the
favour of gods is the usual story in every dynasty and may
therefore be treated as imaginary. It is not untrue that
Kshatriya war^^iors often came from the north to seek for-
tune in the south and founded families like the forefather of
Sivaji and others, yet as this theory is given in a later
grant we will confine ourselves to the grants of the
earlier Chalukyas themselves and give their history as it
appears from them.



THE CH5LUKYAS OF BADAMI 269

From these the Chalukyas appear to be a Maratha
Kshatriya family of the Manavya gotra. The founder was
also a Haritiputra i. e. son of a Kshatriya princess born
in the Harita gotra. The Aihole inscription of this family
is very detailed. From it and other grant-inscriptions it
appears that Jayasinha was the tirst king who made
himself conspicuous by conquering the Rashtrakuta
family. His son was Ranaraga. His son was Pulakesin
the first who founded the kingdom of Maharashtra
and performed an Asvamedha. He made Vatapi his
capital and conquering many provinces, established
an overlordship. He assumed the title of Satya-
sraya Prithvivallabha. This title Vallabha became the
patronymic with all Maharashtra kings in later times and
was also favourite with foreigners. They also called
themselves Asraya of something as Sryasraya, Janasraya
and so on. The date of Pulakesin's death may be taken-
tobe Saka489 or A. D. 567.

He was succeeded by his son Kirtivarman who con-
quered the Kadambas of North Kanara and the Mauryas
of North Konkan. He was succeeded (in 59L A. D.) by his
brother Mangalisa. He conquered the Chedis of Tripura
near Jubbulpur. He was lord of the country from^sea to
sea (Western to the Eastern). After him (in 610 A.D.) came
Pulakesin the second, the greatest monarch of this line ;
he was the son of Kirtivarman. His exploits are extolled
by the Aihole grant. He conquered the Pallavas of Kanchi
and in fact became the lord of the whole of Dakshinapatha
i. e. from the Nerbudda to Cape Kamorin. He was the
direct "lord of the three Maharashtras containing 99000
villages." And his greatest exploit was that he defeated
Harsha Emperor of the North. He was visited by Hiuen
Tsang whose most flattering description of him and his
Marathas we have already quoted. In fact this was the
most flourishing period of ancient Maratha history. He
cocquered many kings in the West, also, such as kings of
Lata, Gurjara and Malava. He established his brother
Kubja Vishnuvardhan in the Vengi country on the east



270 THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

coast where these Eastern Chrllukyas continued to rule for
a long time. And he established his other brother Jaya-
sinha in the Lata country where the Gujarat Chalukya
branch like the Gaikwads in modern Maratha historv ruled
for a long time His eldest son Chandraditya ruled in
■Sawantwadi and Goa where the latter's queen made grants
recorded on copperplates. Another son of his ruled in
Karnatak between the Krishna and the Tungabhadra. A
grant of Pulakesinll has been found made at the request of
his maternal uncle Senanandaraja of the Sendraka family.
This was a well-known family in these parts viz. Chiplun etc.
and is probably the same as the* modern Scindia family of
Gwalior. In fact, the Pulakesin Maratha empire of
736 A. D. was jast a protolype of the Shahu Maratha Em-
pire of 1736 A. D., a thousand years later, curiously illus-
trating the well-known maxim history repeats itself.

Pulakesin IPs reign has become memorable owing to
two events of foreign importance. He received an em-
bassy from Khushru II of Persia in reply to one sent by
him. A painting in cave No. 1 at Ajanta represents the
scene of the reception of this embassy by Pulakeshin
(625 A. D). The second event was the visit of Hiuen Tsang
who has recorded a most flattering description of the Mara-
thas and the power of this king who, as he says, "was-
obeyed with perfect submission by his many subjects" in
( 640 A, D. )

Sir V. Smith observes that this king was unfortunate in
his end. He was conquered eventually by his enemy the
Pallava of Kanchi"whotook and plundered his capital and
presumably put him to death." The authority for this is
apparently a record of the Pallavas which may be of doubt-
ful credit, and Dr. Bhandarkar does not relate this event
in his history of the Deccan ; for he merely states that
Pulakesin was succeeded by his son Vikramaditya I,
This king Vikramaditya certainly inflicted a crushing
defeat on the Pallavas and took their capital Kanchi
though he did not plunder it. He even built and repaired
certain temples in Kanchi which is still famous for its



THE CHALGKYAS OF BADAME 271

trreat temples. He was a valorous conqueror. "Seated
on the back of his horse Chitrakantha and sword [in hand
he vanquished his enemies and established his power like
his father between the three seas. " He is rightly named
Vikramaditya I.

He was succeeded by his son Vinayaditya in Saka G02
or 680, A. D. He has left three grants dated 611, 613 and
616 Saka in his 10th, ilth and 14th years of reign. Thus
his date is certain. He was also a powerful king and a
warrior. He had assisted his father in his famous fight with
the Pallavas, who were assisted by Pandya, Chola and
Kerala. He in his own time vanquished these and Kala-
bhra, Haihaya, Nlla and Malava,*and made them steadfast
allies as also Ganga and Alupa and even Sinhala. He defeated
likewise a king of the north whose name is not given ;
( this event we shall try to explain later )• These facts are
mentioned in the records of his descendants and must
have happened after Saka 616 (694 A. D.) the date of his
last grant found ( Bhandarkar). He died in 696 A. D.

He (Vinayaditya) was succeeded by his son Vijaya-
ditya who also has left many grants which give us an
idea of his reign. In one conflict with the Pallavas he
was taken prisoner by accident though he had defeated his
enemies- He, however, contrived to escape and returning
to his kingdom ruled vigorously for a long time. As we



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