Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya.

History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) online

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fered with by the district police and in short to enjoy all kinds of
immunities; invest it with these immunities and take care that the
donation of the field and the immunities are duly registered." Verbally
ordered. The deed written down:by Lota the doorkeeper. The charter
executed by Sujivin in the year 24 in the 4th fortnight of the rainy
season on the 5th day. The donation had been made in the year 24 in
the second fortnightof summer on the 10th day.



IV — Beginning of No. 12 page 82. ♦

(Tran.: — In the year-42 in the month of Vesakha, Ushavadata sou
of Dinika son-in-law of king Nahapana the Kshaharata has best I'Wtd
this cave on the Samgha generally ).



CHAPTER XI

THE EASTERN CHALUKYAS OF VENGI AND KALINGA

( For the materials of this history we have many inscriptions of
i:astern Chalukya kings; these and other various sources are available
and have been utilized. )

The Chalukyas of Badami under Pulakesin II were
the overlords of the whole of the south. They had con-
quered the Andhras in the east, the Pallavas in the south,
the Gurjaras in the west and the Kosalas and others in
the north. Two separate branches of these Chalukyas
were also founded in the east and the west at this time
and Pulakesin placed two brothers of his in these subor-
dinate kingdoms. The first Eastern Chalukya king is
styled Kubja Vishnu Vardhana and he began to rule in
the Vengi kingdom wrested from the Pallavas from 605
A. D. according to one view or at the latest from 615 A. D.
S. Krishnasvami Aiyangar in his history of Ancient In^ia
says ( p. 27 ) "The Pallava generals marched up to ihe
capital of the Chalukyas and so completely destroyed it
that there was an interregnum for 13 years. It was to
maintain peace in the Pallava position that Pulakeshin
organised a separate viceroyalty at Vengi under his
brother who became the founder of a dynasty ". This is
incorrect. For Vatapi was plundered about 643 A. D. and
the Vengi kingdom had already been founded in 605 or
615 A. D. Pulakesin gave it to his brother in the natural
fulfilment of brotherly affection or for policy in order to
make a separate kingly provision for a royal brother. For
his second brother, he similarly provided a kingdom in
Gujarat or Lata (capital Navasari). But Kubja Vishnuvar-
dhana was fortunate enough to found a dynasty which was
longer lived than its parent stem and which ruled in
Vengi from the beginning of the 7th to the end of the 11th
century when it was merged into the Chola kingdom the
founder of which was a daughter's son of the last king
of this line.
38



298 THE FIRST HINDU KIITGDOMS

These Chalukyas of Vengi have left many grants and
inscriptions and what is peculiar they usually mention the
whole line with the regnal years of each king. Hence
a tolerably accurate genealogy of this line can be given,
like the one given at page 32 of the first volume of " South
Indian inscriptions " by Hultzsch. The initial date of
Vishnuvardhana is subject to discussion and is given by
Hultzsch as 605 and by Dr. Fleet as 615 A. D. Probably it
must be some years before 615 A. D. Five grants of these
Eastern Chalukyas are given in the first volume of Smiths'
Indian copperplates. The earlier of these grants do not
give any history or legend before the mention of Chalukya
Pulakesin I. But the fifth which is clearly later and the
Ranastipundi grant of Vimaladitya gives at the beginning
the new legend which had become then current about the
origin of the Chalukyas and which we have already
noticed. These two grants ( Chellur, p. 51. S. I. Ins. Vol. I
and Ranastipundi grant ditto Vol. V. ) give a long list
of kings with regnal yeai's and these we will give here
in detail as they are given in these two grants. Both
these grants also give dates in Saka year and the years
of the coronation of the two last kings and hence we
have a final date from which we may count back to
the very first Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the regnal years
of each and every king are given. But the list extends
over a period of about 500 years a very long time indeed
and certainty is unattainable. Dynastic lists appear
to have been preserved in every state in India in ancient
times and the records of Vengi as of Kashmir appear to
have been particularly well preserved. But an interregnum
of 27 years is mentioned and hence the list becomes again
somewhat subject to doubt.

The names of these kings with their years and rela-
tionship as mentioned in these two grants are as follows: —

1 Kubjavishnuvardhana, 18 years.

2 Son, Jayasinhavallabha, 33 years.

3 Brother, Indraraja, 7 days.

4 Son, Vishnuvardhana II, 9 years.



THE EASTERN CHALUKYAS OF VENOI 299

5 Son, Mangi Yuvaraja, 25 years.

6 Son, Jayasinha, 13 years.

7 Brother Kokkili, 6 months. Set aside by his
elder brother : —

8 Vishnuvardhana III, 37 years

9 Son, Vijayaditya, 18 years

10 Son, Vishnuvardhana IV, 36 years

11 Son, Vijayaditya Narendra Mrigaraja a famous
king who has left a grant, 48 years

12 Son, Kalivishnuvardhana V, IV^ year

13 Son, Gunaka Vijayaditya, 44 years

14 Nephew, Chalukya Bhima, 30 years

15 Son, Kollabhi Ganda Vijayaditya, 6 months

16 Son, Ammaraja, 7 years. His child son was set
aside by: —

17 Tadapa, I month

18 Setting him aside, son of BhIma (14) Vikrama-
ditya, 11 months

19 Son of 17, Yuddhamalla, 7 years

20 Setting him aside, brother of 16 from country
Bhima, 12 years

21 Son, Ammaraja II, 25 years

22 Half-brother Dananripa, 3 years
Interregnum for 27 years.

Here the line seems to have been broken off but the
next king Saktivarman is said to be son of Danarnava
who may be taken to be the last king Dananripa No.
22, and the line proceeds as follows: —

23 Saktivarman, son of.22, 12 years

24 Brother Vimaladitya, 7 years

25 Son Rajaraja, 41 years, of the lunar race married
Ammanga daughter of Rajendra Choda of the
solar race.

26 Son, Rajendra Choda.

The last first became king of Vengi and then overlord
of the whole of the south conquering Kerala, Pandya,
Kuntala etc. He was then anointed king of the Choda
kingdom (Chola). He married the Princess Madhurantaki



300 Tf*E FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

born of the solar Chela family. He had many sons. The
account here related is not quite clear as it mixes up the
Chola and Vengi kingdoms and families. Virachoda finally
was anointed king on Thursday 13th Tithi ( #g"^f:?5?T ),
Sravana Nakshatra, Bright fortnight, Sun being in Lion
in Saka 1001. This king makes this Chellur grant of a
village in Guddavali Vishaya to a temple of Vishnu built
by his commander-in-chief Medarya born in a Brakmin
family of the Mudgala gotra. This inscription is very im-
portant (p. 57, Vol. 1 S. Ind. Ins.) and we will further on
describe it fully.

This inscription then gives us the names of kings, the
length of the reign of each, his relation to the predecessor
and the fact wherever the succession was violent. But
unfortunately we have no other materials to co-ordinate a
detailed consecutive history. Dr- Fleet has by the aid of
other Eastern Chalukya grants made out a detailed story
of this line and has also tried to fix the dates of the reigns
of each king for which antiquarians will certainly be grate-
ful to him (see his articles in Indian Antiquary Vol. XX),
But there are certain facts even unexplained by him and
we shall try to solve these difficulties- Now the first
difficulty is about the succession of "Kokkili No. 7. He
was a younger son and yet he succeeded his eldest brother
before his elder brother. After six months of possession he
was set aside by this elder brother Vishnuvardhana who
thereafter had a long reign of 37 years. What was the
probable story of this apparent usurpation of Kokkili ?
We have already made a guess and it seems to be the
proper one. Supposing that Vishnuvardhana the founder
came to the throne in 605 A. D. we have for the ertd of the
reign of Kokkili's eldest brother Jayasinha A.D. 703 (Vish-
nu 18 + Jay 33 + Vishnu 9 + Mangi 25+ Jayasinha 13 = 98
years). Now it is probable that the world-conquering
expedition of Lalitaditya of Kashmir happened at this
time. Jayasinha had just died or was killed in battle.
His full brother must have fled owing to his dissentions
with his step-mother and as stated in Kashmir chronicles



THE EASTERN CHlLUKYAS OF VENGI 301

that step-mother a Ratta lady offered submission toLalita-
ditya. When Lalitaditya went away as usual, returning
the subject kingdom to its owner, Kokkili the youngest
brother was crowned king in the absence of his elder
brother and proper claimant. He (Vishnuvardhana) how-
ever returned, forcibly ejected his younger brother and
seized the throne which was his due. ( Kokkili is said
plainly to be half brother of Jayasinha and Vishnuvardhana
may have been Jayasinha's full brother. There was Ihus
the enmity of step relation too see S. I. Ind. Vol. I page 41).
If we place the founder Vishnuvardhana's reign in 615
A. D this Vishnuvardhana's reign and Jayasinha's death
would fall in 713 A. D. Lalitaditya's whole digvijaya
ended before 712 A. D. the date of the conquest of Sind by
the Arabs as we have stated in Kashmir history. This
may at first sight make the story of Lalitaditya's coming
to the south improbable. But as there is only a difference
of a few years we hold that Vishnuvardhana the founder's
reign may well be placed in 605 A. D. According to Dr.
Fleet who takes Vishnuvardhana the founder's rule to begin
in 615 A. D. Kokkili came to the throne in 709 AD. (For he
takes for Jayasinha 30 years ). And this date 709 A. D.
also fits in with Lalitaditya's conquest of the south.*

The slokas in the Raitarangini are as follows :—

Tif^'i^ -^M ' um ' jg ? ; t^fff ^Vi^ wp?rt 5roi7fr flTifr frm \\ ^^r^-^ '-^-r - " - '^.

The translator Stein has, vre think, wrongly said in a note here that this queen was a
Rashtrakiita lady. In the Maharashtra the ChSlukya family was still supreme and the
Rashtrakutas had yet to rise for they came to power after 750 A. D. The ChHlukya king
v/as at this time Vijayaditya who may have probably been in prison at this time in
KanchI (see Chalukya history). The mention of Vindhya passes -indicates that Lalitl-
ditya crossed the Eastern Ghauts into Vensi country. These hills have to be crossed
whether you come into Vizagapattan from Orissa or from Raipur side. A Ratta Karnata
queen would again probably indicate an Eastern ChSlukya queen for they were Maha-
rashtra by origin and Karniita by language or in modern language they were Southern
Mahratta country people. North and South India appear then as nov.- differentiated in
the matter of Pardah and we need not wonder that this Ratta queen presented herself
before Lalitaditya and did him homage. She appears to have been a young lady also
from Raiatarangin; and she must have been so from inscriptions also as she v.'as a step-
mother to the last king Jayasinha and her child son Kokkili was a half-brother of the
former (see S. I. In, iiultzsch Vol. I. p. ■11>.



302 THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

The next disputed succession appears to be that of
Tadapa. King Ammaraja (no. 16} left a child son and he
was set aside by one Tadapa who seems to be an outsider.
Adding up the reigns of the intervening kings who appear
to have mostly enjoyed long rule we have from 8 to 16 /. ^•
for 9 reigns 222 years and adding 703 A. D. the beginning
of 8 we have 925 A. D, approximately for the usurpation
of Tadapa. But he' was promptly set aside after one month's
reign by a younger son of Bhima the I4th king who must
have been a sardar of the kingdom enjoying a few
villages. After 11 months he was himself set aside by
another and better claimant to the throne Yudhamalla a
son of king no. 17. He reigned for 7 years. But he too
was supplanted by another still better claimant viz. a
brother of Ammaraja, the last king no 17. The expression
used here is very important viz. 5=15531557 ^[^tt^wt^stt^it:. This
is wrongly translated as "having expelled him from the
country ;" for in a similar previous mention, the w^ords
cl^'^T^ alone are used. Hence V^iPi; does not go with the
previous word but with the following. It means reaccord-
ing to our view ''coming from the mother country" i. e-
Maharashtra. The Eastern Chalukyas were Maharashtra
in origin and had full intercourse with their parent land.
A younger brother of Ammaraja must have sought fortune
in Maharashtra and gained some jaghir there. When he
found his brother dead and his throne the subject of dispute
between rival claimants he returned and succeeded as the
rightful claimant to the last king undisputed. This
happened 8 years after 925 i. e. in 933 A. D. The line con-
tinued unbroken for three generations further. He
himself ruled for 12 years, his son Amma II 25 years
and another son of his by another wife and hence half-
brother of the last king ruled for 3 years. Here an
explanation is necessary how Danarnava who appa-
rently is an elder brother of Amma II succeeded before
him. We think the facts must have been as follows.
Chalukya Bhima his father came as we have said from
the Deccan to claim his right to the Vengi throne as



THE EASTERN CHALUKYAS OF VENGI 303

brother of Arama I. He was most likely a jagirdar in the
Deccan. His eldest son he must have left to continue his
Jagir there. Having succeeded in getting the throne of
Vengi he married Loka Mahadevi a Chpla princess probably
and had by her Amma II who succeeded to the throne
of Vengi getting also the name of Amma. He apparently
died childless. His elder brother Danarnava, therefore,
gave up his jagir in the Deccan and came to the throne of
Vengi. He reigned for 3 years only. Clearly enough his
claims were contested and gave pretext to the Chola
rising power to overthrow him. The Vengi kingdom
remained without a king for 27 years. This explains the
interregnum as also the coming to the throne of Danarpava
later than Amma II. His son Saktivarman however
succeeded in establishing eventually his claim as we see
further on. Now the grant says "by the evil turn of
fortune the Vengi country was without a king for 27
years." Thus 12 + 25 + 3 = 40 years after 933 A. D. i.e. in
973 A. D. this interregnum began and lasted till 973 + 27 =
1000 A. D. What the cause of this interregnum really was
it is difficult to surmise. Perhaps the disputes between
rival claimants still continued and civil war was still
raging, or the now rising power of the Cholas laid the
kingdom waste. But a marriage relation between Chola
and Vengi gave Vengi a further lease of life. The line
was again established by Saktivarman a son of Dananripa
the last king. He reigned 12 years and his brother Vima-
laditya 7 years and his son Rajaraja 41. 60 years brings
the end of the reign of Rajaraja to 1060 A. D. His son
born of Ammanga daughter of Rajendra Choda and there-
fore himself called Rajendra, after 15 years' rule of an
uncle and one year's rule of a brother gave the kingdom to
his son named Virachoda also born of a Chola princess in
Saka 1001 i- e. 1079 A. D, Now from the above data we get
1076 A. D. a difference of three years only. These 3 years
may either be added to the interregnum or to the initial
date of Kubja Vishnuvardhana or may be due to the
residue months and days of intervenning rulers which are



304 THE FIRST HINDU KINGDOMS

yjiven only in whole years. The'beginning of the Eastern
Chalukya rule under Vishnuvardhana may thus be taken
at any date between 605 A. D, and 615 which last however
tallies well with a grant of this very king in 632 A. D.
in the 18th year of his reign made on account of an
eclipse in Sravana (see Ind. Anti. Vol XX p. 13).

The political history of the Eastern Chalukyas does
not seem to be very disturbed and they enjoyed a long rule
from 605 A, D. to 1078 A. D, when they were merged into
the new risen power of the Cholas. Their rule extended
much beyond Vengi itself which is now a small town
( Pedda Vegi ) between the Godavari and the Krishna.
They must have been lords of Kalinga also i. e. the
territory to the north of the Godavari as far as the confines
of .modern Orissa. Raja-Mahendri was founded by the
Eastern Chalukya later king named Arama called also by
the biruda Rajamahendra. However, Kalinga seems to
have had during this period a dynasty of its own called
in their inscriptions the Ganga family. It must be noted
that Kalinga is an ancient name and Vengi is much later.
Kalinga like Maharashtra is said to be composed of three
countries and hence the name Trikalinga which by
Prakrit phonetic change has become Telanga of the
modern times. This Trikalinga is expressly mentioned
in a grant'of Vijayaditya ( S. I. In. Hultzsch Vol. I. p. 45)
as under the king Chalukya Bhima. The expression is
??1% ^^^•^^ l ?•^^^c!>i^'^l



Online LibraryChintaman Vinayak VaidyaHistory of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 28 of 38)