Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya.

History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) online

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the lower part an elephant, an ox-goad; an expanded water-
lily and a device resembling the letter ^. These latter are
omitted in seals on other grants. The Chellur grant of
Virachoda enumerates the Chalukya ensignias, the white
umbrella, the single conchshell, Panchamaha-Sabda,
Paliketana, double drum, boar crest, bunch of feathers of
peacock's tail, the spear, the throne, the Makaratorana,
golden sceptre, Ganga and Yamuna and others unspecified.*
A similar list occurs in the Ganga grants of Kalinga
Nagara. Their importance and meaning which is a
riddle to many including Dr. Fleet we will try to eluci-
date later on. Golden coins of these Eastern Chalukyas
are found even in Arakan-

What became eventually of the Eastern Chalukya line?
The kingdom of Vengi of course disappeared under the
Chola supremacy. Some later Chalukyas, however, still
ruled there. They claimed descent from the child son of
Amma I who was set aside by Tadapa. He was not killed
and he grew somewhere and had many generations after
him. The last Malla Vishnuvardhana has left an inscrip-
tion dated 1202 A. D. Some Chalukya kings or chiefs are
found in the west to the south of the Tungabhadra also.

* The relevent portion in the Chellur grant may be quoted here. Speaking of the
criginaHounder of the Chalukya race viz, f^TTTT'l^ v»ho was born an orphan of the
;rjf^7 queen it is said "^ ^ ^T^\■ ffffcTf^TT^: fT^ Rjffq- ^g'^PTr'td' ^T^TVR-^ m#-

r'_ \ ^^^ Ff=ss?prr r%Tr?T^ ir^Ttitw ^f^-t^^ j; ^- i ■'■^ y -t i yrs.1003 „

24 Saktivarm 1. ... 1015 „

13 GunakaVijayadityalllSSS

I— The Chandravamsa Pedigree in later ChAlukya grants.
The Ranastipundi grant of Vimaladitya (Ep. Ind. Vol. VI p. 351)
gives the Chandravarasa as follows: I (1) Brahma (2) Manasa son arf^
(3) Moon (4) f f (5) J^^T (6) s^rg (7) ^^^ (^) JT^rrfff ^sp^di' f^FFcT? (9) ^i^ic-
^^( (10) i^^'krj^r-'^-'^f^^t^ ^'^'i\ll) ^r^r^ (i2) ^f^mfrf {Id) rwit (14) ?rrw-
trm (15) ^r^+r^ (16) ^fnrm (17) >^r^5F (18) jpF'^t^^ (19) ^^t% (20) r^cjt

(21) -:«:w-T (22) JTfa^R T^irFPTPfr y^^WfTpT^i^r^T: (23) qvTrqr^^ (24) ^1??-

(?5) g i the country where the spoken language changes to
another. Ditto page 84. At page 95 ditto, we read that the new invaders
were called in Tamil poems VadaVadukar(the northern northerners) and
VambaVadukars (or the new northerners). Further it is stated that the-
Malayaman chief of MuUer defeated single-handed the Aryans that had
laid siege to his fort. Finally in summing this chapter on Aryan in-
vasion of South India, Mr. Krishnasvami Aiyangar says : "The Aryan
invasion went along the western ghats avoiding Dandaranya asitis^
called by the Tamils. This inference is supported by the fact (1) that
the Tamils regarded the land north of Pulikat as foreign in language
and (2) their regarding the Dandaranya as the land of the Aryans.
Again in the chapter on the Dawn of the Christian era he observes at
page 128. "The northern frontier of the Tamil lands was held by
Nannan of the TuUu country in the west and Pulli of Vengadam
(Tirupati) in the east, further north being the land of the Aryas (Vadu-
kars) and Dandaranya." Thus it is clear from incieat Tamil literature
that from about 250 B. C. to the'first century A. D. South India as far as
Pulikat in the east and Bhatkal in the west was under Aryan sway and-
spoke the Aryan language.


This view of Mr. Krishnasvami Aiyangar is supported by epigra-
phic evidence. We tind inscriptions in this part of the country recorded
in Prakrit not only doAvn to the rirst century A. D , but even to the third
and the country was ruled by Kshatriyas who professed the Vedio reli-
gion. These kingdoms are given by Mr. Dubreuil in his Avork "Ancient
History of the Deccan" just published. The first inscription on a stupa at
Jagayyapetha (Krishna District) gives the name of a king called Ma-
dhariputra Sri ViraPurushadatta of the Ikshvakus, in an alphabet which
points to the 3rd century A. D." (p. 86). The inscription (Ind. Ant. XI
p. 25(5) is in Prakrit. 2. The Davanagere inscription (Ep. Kar. Vol. XI
No. 161) mentions a people called Kekayas who intermarried with the
Ikshvakus. 3. The Brihatphalayanas mentioned in an inscription of
Jayavarman who ruled in Kudura ( Krishna District again ) are also
Vedic Aryans. This inscription is in archaic Prakrit. "The language
and phraseology of the inscription is so similar to the Nasik
inscriptions of Gautamiputra Satakarni and of Vashishtiputra
Pulamayi that Jayavarman's date cannot have been distant
from the date of these two Andhra kings." ( Ep. Ind. Vol. VII
p. 315). 4. The next people are the Salankayanas also a gotra
name mentioned in an inscription found at Peddaveggi (Vengi). The
•plates of king VIra Devavarman are in Prakrit also. (Ep. Ind. Vol. IX
page 56). 5. The Vishnu Kundiras are mentioned in the Ramatirthaaa
grant (Ep. Ind. XI p. 134) and other records. This name is also a gotra
name which has now disappeared from the list of gotras. (Gotras it is
said in Dharmasastra are innumerable and many gotras have disappear-
ed.) 6. The early Pallavas also have left records in Prakrit as we
have shown in the body of the book. Lastly 7. the Kadambas of Vana-
vasi have also left early records which are in Prakrit. These records
prove that Kshatriya Aryans ruled in the frontier of the Tamil land and
spoke an Aryan language viz. Prakrit at least in the higher ranks, viz.
the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas.

The point we have further to urge is that these Aryan-Bralimins
and Kshatriyas were allied to the Deocan Aryans i.e. the ancestors
of the Marathas of the modern day. Not only do these .Aryans i.e.
Brahmins of Andhra and Kanara intermarry with the Brahmins of
the Deccan but we find from an inspection of these Prakrit records that
the language therein used is allied to the Maharashtri. Thas the in-
scription at Jagayyapetha mentions Kamakarathe the Ratraor Rashtra
' f Kamaha. The word Rashtra belongs to the Maharashtros and points
to this king being a Maratha Kshatriya. Again the word Apano instead
ofAttano (Sans. Atmano) is the Marathi word Apana. So again the
inscription of the Brihatphaliiyana Jayavarman uses the expression
'3'??'?jrfr for Sanskrit ?=frTfr^rjj??r which is plainly Marathi. Here we have
the Marathi word ^fr^r f or ^^ and the word anr for sfpf is not modera
Telagu which uses aT=:^r but is plainly the parent of the Marathi -srnrr.
'The inscriptions lastly of the Fr-'.llavas and the Kadambas about this


time viz. the first to the 3rd century A. D. are in Prakrit and the re-
presentatives of these are plainly the modern Maratha families Palave
and Kadam.

The Prakrit inscription of the Kadambas on the Malavalli pillar
especially leaves no doubt that Maharashtri must have been spoken so
far south as the northern part of the present state of Mysore. On this
i nscription Mr. Rice at page 6 of his introduction to the Ep. Kama. Vol.
VII observes: "From the script, style and situation of this inscription
and the relationship of the donee, it is evidently not removed very far
in time from the first inscription of Satakarni which precedes it. I have
therefore marked its date as 250 A. D. The Prakrit employed is the
Maharashtari form, and Dr. Buhler considered the inscription as evi-
dence that this was already at that time a cultivated language in the
south." Thus -nscriptions indubitably prove that the Maharashtri
in a cultivated form was spoken in the country now the home of Kana-
rese. This is not to be wondered at as this part of the country was
ruled by Maharathis in the days of the Satakarnis and the Kadambas,
Even coins bearing the legend in Prakrit ^"S'qrcrr

Online LibraryChintaman Vinayak VaidyaHistory of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 29 of 38)