Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya.

History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) online

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end sometime between 759 A. D. the date of Jayadeva's
long inscription and 879 A. D. the starting date of
the Nepali era.



The Lichhavis, we have seen in Jayadeva's inscription dated Harsha
"Era 153 or A. D. 759, connect themselves with the solar line of Kshatri-
yas, alleging that Lichhavi was the name of a king eighth in descent
from Dasaratha father of Rama. This was of course in consonance with
the prevailing notions of the 8th century A. D. and those preceding and
following it when every king tried to assign his family either to the
solar or the lunar race. We similarly find the Cholas of the south call
themselves solar Kshatriyas in inscriptions noted in the history of the
Eastern Chaluky as and the Pandya-Chola aroDravid as pre-eminently from
the times of the Mahabharata. It seems that the kingly families in the
outlying territories who accepted the Aryan faith were, even in the days
of the Manusmriti ( 2nd century B. C. ), conceded by the orthodox
Aryans to be Kshatriyas, but a distinction was made and taey were
called Vratya Kshatriyas, that is, Kshatriyas who had lost the Samska-
ras or discontinued Aryan religious ceremonies owing to the loss of
contact with Brahmins. These Vratya Kshatriyas Manu enumerates
in the following sloka : —

=T?5Q- ^^^ W^ ^fnS ^ =TI I (iT5 X, 22).

This sloka clearly contains the names of those outlying foreign peoples
whose kingly families were admitted to be Vratya Kshatriyas. The
Dravidas are the well known Chola-Pandya-Kerala kings of the south,
while the Nichhavis or^Lichhavis and the Khasas are well known people*^
of the north. (Nata, Karana and Zalla are lost to history while the
Mallas are also lost probably, though Malla kingdoms are mentioned in
the Mahabharata list). Both the Khasas and Lichhavis are historical
peoples and undoubtedly belong to the Mongolian race. The Lichhavis
were rulers in India also and were allied to the Sakyas in which cian
Buddha was born. They were included within Aryanism in most
ancient times and a Lichhavi princess was the mother of the Gupta line
of eraperors of India. Perhaps she was a Nepal princess. It is not
therefore strange that in later history the Lichhavis were
practically treated as Kshatriyas and had marriage relations with most
undoubted Aryan Kshatriya families like the Maukharis. The Khasas
will be noticed in the next note.


Between Kashmir and Nepal there were then and there are even
now many minor hill states in the Himiilayan region. The chief in-


habitants of this region were the Khasas or Khasas raentioned even ici
the Manusinriti as one of the Vratya Kshatriyas. This people are cer-
tainly Mongolian in race and at one time must have had their own kings
in these regions. The Aryans, however, viz. Bcahrnins and Kshairiyas
migrated into these regions probably about the time of the Greek orSaka
or Kushan invasions of the Panjab and the Kshatriyas founded Aryan
kingdoms which have subsisted almost to this day. As has often bean
said these Himalayan dynasties of kings are very long lived like ifieat
or fruit preserved in ice. These dynasties in the cold regions of the
H-imalayan mountains continued undecayed and undisturbed for cen-
turies and many of them subsist to-day. They have also preserved old
mainuers and traditions very faithfully and we can often go to the
Himalayas for the purpose of ascertaining old customs which once pre-
vailed in India Some information relating to these states is given
below from CunniHgham's Archaeological Survey Report (Vols.Vand IX)

Chamba : — The ancient name of this state is Champa as mentioned
in the RajataranginI The state occupies the whole course of the Ravi
and its tributaries within the mountains. The Raja there is a Surya-
varpsi king and bis Purohita has preserved a genealogy of the reigning
family which as usual begins with Brahma. Some inscriptions at
Barmavar or Varraapura on the Ravi preserve a few names of kings and
the RajataranginI also mentions some.- The inscriptions mention the
Vamsr» as Moshanasva Gotradityavams'a ( jfr^pTr^Iin^rrfrq"^^ ), a gotra
name which we do not find in the modern lists of Gotras which is a
remarkable fact. The Rajas as usual are worshippers of Siva, Parvati
Ganesa, Lakshmi and NarSyana or Vishnu and have founded many
temples to them at Barmavar, and Champa. The names of the kings
all end in Varma and we give the following names pertaining to our
period from the list given by Cunningham, of course from the lists
supplied by local Rajas (Arch. S. R. Vol. IX p. 114 and 115) (1 ) Adi.
varma (2)DevaV. ( 3 ) Mandra V. (4)KantaraV. { 5) Parakalpa V.
(6) Aja V. (7) Meru V. (8) Suvarna V, and (9) Lakshmi V. said in
the local list to be killed in an invasion of Mlechhas. This invasion
Cunningham strangely enough, takee to be that of Sankarvarman of
Kashmir in 890 A. D. Taking 30 years as overage for each reign in
this Himalayan line of kings we may take it that these nine kings
ruled for about 270 years and that Adiv. began to reign in about 620
A. D. The next king mentioned isMoshana V. (who may perhaps be the
Moshanasva of the inscriptions. )

The names o: later kings need not be given but those kings who are
mentioned in the RajataranginI are the following, 1 Sala killed by
Ananta of Kashmir in 1030 A. D. 2 Asata whose sister was married by
Kalasa (A. D. 1060 ) and 3 Udaya who is mentioned about 1121 in this
history of Kashmir.


Nurpur : — The ancient name of this state was Udumbara. The
chief city is now called Pathankot which is situated in a narrow neck
of land 16 miles in width which divides the valleys of the Bias and
the Ravi. It is a great emporium of trade between the villages of Chamba
and Kangra in the hills and Lahore and Juilandar in the plains".
The name Pithan is also written Paithan which, is clearly an abbrevia-
tion of Pratisht^apa and is the same name as that of Paithan
on the Godaval^.

The old name of the country Udumbara is mentioned in Varaha-
mihira'slist of countries along with Kapisfehala who are the Kumbist/ioU
of Arrian's Indica. In the Vishnu Purana, the name is mentioned with
Trigarta and Kulinda which are Kaugra and Kulu of modern days. The
present Rajas are called Pathaniyas and trace their origin to twenty
generations back. Probably before that time the small kingdom was
under Jalandhara. The local list of kings given by Devi Sah Bral.min
to Cunningham commenced with Jayapala who is said to be a Pundir
or descendent^ of Pandu i.e. a Tomar Rajput descended from Arjuna*
The list extended from Jayapala of about 109-5 A. D. to Jaswantsing
of 1846. These Rajas of Nurpur were of great note during Mahomedan
times from the days of Raja Bakhtamalla who sided with Sikandur Sur
against Akbar and who was pufc to death by Bairamkhan who placed his
brother Takhtamalla on the gadi in his place.

Mandi : — The mountain course of the Bias is divided between the
three kingdoms of Kulu, Mandi and Kangra; Kangra being lowest; Mandi
in the middle and Kulu, highest up. The Mandi family is a
younger b-anch of the Suketa family the separation having taken
place about 1200 A. D. as the story of the family tells. But the copper-
plate inscription of the temple at Nirmand gives four names all of whom
take the suffix Sena which is peculiar to the family of Suketa and
Mundi and these four correspond to certain names in the local list of
kings. The date of the last (Samudrasena) of the four is probably
Samvat 1227 or 1170 A. D. which agrees well with the succeeding 27
names upto the death of Bala Birasena in 1857.

The letters of the inscription at Nirmand are of the Gupta type
which has misled some to believe that it must be dated in the 4th or 5th
century A. D. " But these Gupta characters have been always in use in
the hills between the .Jumna and the Indus. They are found on the
coins of the Kangra rajas so late as the time of Trailokya Chandra
contemporary of Jehangir and in all inscriptions of Kashmir, Kangra,
and Mandi whose kicg Jalamsena died in 1838 and the sati pillars in
his reign bear the words Maharaja in the same Gupta characters.
In fact the Banias of Mandi still keep their accounts in Gupta charac-
ters and a Bania could tasiiy read Saraundra Gupta's inscription on
the Allahabad PilUir when shown to him. " This illustrates what we


have said in the beginning viz. that things in the sno-ws of the Hima-
layas are long preserved.

The genealogy given by Cunningham from the local list begins with
Virasena whom he places about 765 A. D. from whom Saraundrasena the
recorder of the Nirmand inscription above noted is the 17th and his
date is 1166 A. D. The genealogy comes down to the 45th generation
in Vijayasena of 1851 A. D. The number of sati pillars here is very
large indeed the last being so late as J838 A. D.

Kuhi and Simla states — In all these States especially between
Nepal and Kangra are spread the Kunet people who are a bratch of the
Khasas. They are very numerous in these regions. These are,
according to Cunningham, the ancient Kunindas mentioned by Varalfa
Mihira and the Kulindas mentioned in the Vishnu Furilna. Kulindas are
mentioned in the Mahabharata list cf peoples also bm as no locations or
even directions are mentioned in that list it is impossible to decide
whether these Kulindas are the Himalayan Kunets, When the Aryan
immigration among them took place cannot be determined. But the
following observations of Cunningham may be given here. ■' The
Kunets and the Khasas both pi'ofess to have been the masters of these
hills before the Aryan immigration which followed the Mahomedan
conquest. All the ancient remains within the present area of Eunet
occupation are assigned to a people who are called Moi? or Mons and
all agree that these were the Kunets themselves. The fact is that
Mon is simply their Tibetan name while Kunind or Kunet is their
Indian name" (Arch. S. R. Vol. IX p. 127 ). Further " in Dvara Hath in
Garhwal there are a number of monuments like tombs built of large flat
tiles which the people attribute to the Mois or Mons. These I take to
be the ancient Kunets before they were driven from Dvara Hath
to Joshimath".

Plere is a possible explanation of the riddle in the Puranas already
noticed as to who the Monas were whose mlechha rule is said to follow
that of the Sakas and Tukharas. It seems that these Monas of the
Puranas were the very ancestors of the Kulindas who were a Tibetan
people and who ruled for some time even in the plains of the Panjab
and Cis-Sutlej provinces after the Kushans. They are said properly to be
the ancestors of the modern Kunets because they were then unmixed
mlechhas and the modern Kunets appear to be mixed Aryan and non-
Aryan people or they may have been Khasas proper who also are now
mixed. But the Kunets themselves use that name (Mona) for the ancient
possessors of these hills. These Cis — Himalayan Monas may also,
Cunningham thinks, be connected with the Mundas of Eastern India -
and strangely enough their name also appears in the Kaliyuga future
kings of mlechha race. The following line from the Vishnu Purana has
been quoted already, frrar^r JT^^iag^ J^^sc^rq- ^y^ie 5r$i^ T^l^^T tlRf "iar^
Tt^r^'TH'l: TT^J^f ^^^JTrrrf^ ^^Tr^nvT^rf^ i^^ (it. ST?T V 3TcTrr. =-»."').

The period 1090 years is absurd but probably it represents the total of


the reigns even if they were contemporaneous. However, the Mundas
and the Monas mentioned here may well be identified according to
Cunningham with these Eastern Indian and Cis-Himalayan peoples who
may have become predominant after the Turushkas or Tukharas i. e.
the Kushans were overthrown.

Whatever that may be, the Kunindas were certainly a noted people
in the days of Varaha-mihira (500 A. D.) who mentions them among the
uorth-west section of India peoples and who even mentions them sepa-
rately as pointed out by Cunningham (p. 134 ditto) where the evil influence
of bad planets on each set of triple Nakshatras is mentioned. "The
following in regular order will perish viz. Panchala, Magadha, Kalinga.
Avanti, Anarta, Sindhu-Sauvira, Harahuna, Madra, and finally, king of
the Kunindas. " Therefore there must have been in even Hiuen Tsang's
days a Kuninda powerful separate kingdom. Cunningham identified
their country with Srughna, the capital of which near Baria on the west of
the Jumna has been identified as Sugh by him. It comi rised the greater
part of the Kunet country, the remaining portion being divided between
Kuluta or Kuiu and Satadru or Panjor. "This is the very district in
which the coins of Amoghabhuti king of the Kunindas are found most
plentifully. His date I have fixed approximately as B. C. 150 as three
coins were found in company with 30 coins of the Greek king Apollodo-
tus in a field near Jvalamukhi (p. 134).*

The people of these kingdoms were then Buddhists as all Mongolian
peoples, generally were. Aryan influence must have therefore pene-
trated these hilly regions in ancient times. Who the kings were
from the 7th to 12th century we cannot say. Certain it is that the
Kunets the modern people of these parts are a mixed race " aboriginal
Tartars by the mother's side but Aryans by the fathers," sons of
Brahmins and Kshatriyas born of Kunet or Khasa women who as
mentioned in Nepal history were never unArilling to form such connec-
tions. Their progeny was and is treated as ii^shatriyas; a fact which seems
to western scholars inexplicable. But the simple explanation is that the
Khasas were from Manu's time treated as VriStya Kshatriyas (see the
sloka already quoted) and the marriage of Brahmins and Kshatriyas with
them was never illegal in ancient times down even to the mediaeval period-
The progeny was of course treated as Kshatriyas. Marriage was formal
but binding, the Ksbatriya Khasas being Vratya. Hence there was no
setting aside of Sastra in this custom which prevailed in the Himalayan
regions where the emigrating Aryans. Brahmins and Kshatriyas having
necessarily few women with them had perforce to take Kunet wives.

■" Another ancient king of Sru;4hna is mentioned ui inscriptions at Barhut vrhere
Cunningham lias found an inscription on a Torana or gatev;av mentioning a Srughna
king Dhanabhuti, whose inscription also was found in Mathura and who Cunningham
savs was contemporaneous with Aoollodotus and Agnimitra. The Kunindas tluis
had once extensive sway upto Barhut in C. See Cunningham's Barh, pp. 127-13C.


{We now come to the history of the Pan>ab-the land par excellence of
th« Indo-i» ry^ns, — during the first portion of the mediaeval Hindu period.
That history is certainly very meagre and it is hence that -we are taking
it the last. It seems there wete do powerful kingdoms in the Pan jab
during this period and the details too that ai:e to be found in the records
of adjoining countries are scanty and fitful. Yet, we may make an
attempt to understand the history of this important part of India from
such materials as are at present available)

Hiuen Tsar.g mentions in the B*anjab the following
kingdoms or rather taacts that were independent
kingdoms at one time ; for many of them in his time were
subject to Kashmir. He mentions on coming into India
proper after crowing the Indus: — 1 Taxila (Rawalpindi)
2 Sinbapura (Salt range tract bounded on the west by the
Indus ) and 3 Urasa (Haripur or Hazara). These kingdoms
were formerly subject to Gandhara but were then under
Kashmir. The fact appears to be that when the Hun
empire fell, Kashmir made itself master of most of its
Indian provinces. The seat of the Hun power was at
Gandhara and it had even engulfed Kashmir; but Kashmir
regained its independence under Pravarasena when
Mihirakula was defeated by Yaso-dharman of Mandsaur
about 500 A. D. Kashmir grew stronger still under the
Karkota dynasty before the very time of the visit of
Hiuen Tsang, i. e about 600 A. D. and ruled over Taxila,
"Sinhapura'^ and Urasa. The next kingdoms mentioned by
him are 4 Punach and 5 Rajapuri or Rajauri, Thege were
also subject fo Kashmir and were in fact normally so. The

'■'' Sinhapur of Hiuen Tsang has been identified with the Salt Range mountain
resion by Cunningham properly enough. He thinks that the capital was at Mallot
where there are ruire. The fort is situated on a precipitous outlying spur of the Salt
Range overlooking the plains at a height of about 3(100 feet above the sea-level. The
temple and gateway which are the only remains of antiquity here are in the Kashmirian
style of architecture showing that the country as stated by Hiuen Tsang was in
pjssesioi of Kashnir fo: S3 n: faie. ( A.r;i. S.- (. CiT i n i'u n Vo! VN


next kingdoms mentioned are 6 Tekka 7 Chinabhukti»
8 Jalandhara 9 Kuluta and 10 Batadru. We do not know
much of Chinabhukti which was probably only a
province (Bhukti) and is mentioned by Hiuen Tsang
because it tv^as once inhabited by some Chinese princes. We
know very little also of Kuluta and Satadru where no
kings are mentioned and which probably were subject to
Kanauj in his time, for Hiuen Tsang mentions that the
Sutlej was to the west of this Satadru kingdom. We get
some information about Tekka and Jalandhara from
contemporary records which we proceed to relate.

Taking Jalandhara first, a name still surviving in
the Jalandhara city we find the following short notice of
it by Cunningham which we take from his "Coins of
Mediaeval India" ( pp. 9^-100 ) *'The rich district of
Jalandhara originally comprised the two Doabs lying
between the rivers Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. The capital of
the country was Jalandhara and Kot Kangra was its chief
stronghold. The name is derived from the Danava
Jalandhara killed by Siva.* The dead demon stretched:
it is said, across the Panjab. The Titan's mouth is said to
be Jvalamukhi and his feet are at Multan; and the part
about Jalandhara is said to be his back and hence it is called
Jalandhara Pitha a name slightly altered by Akbar to
Jalandhara Bit. Another name for this country is
Trigarta 1. e. watered by the three rivers Ravi, Bias and
Sutlej. Hemachandra in his Kosa says -ii

Online LibraryChintaman Vinayak VaidyaHistory of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 35 of 38)