1900; third-tlass medal at Salon, 1903; first prize of the
Union of Women Painters and Sculptors, 1902 ; chevalier .
of the Order Nichau Iftikar; Officer of Public Instruc-
tion. Member of the Association of Baron Taylor, of the
Soci6t6 des Artistes Fran^ais, of the Union of Women
Painters and Sculptors, and of the Association of Profes-
sors of Design of the City of Paris. Bom at Noyen
(Sarthe). Pupil of P. V. Galland, Albert Maignan, and
Mme. Faux-Froidure's pictures are principally of fruit
and flowers, and three have been purchased by the Gov-
ernment. One, " Raisins " (Grapes), is in the Museum at
Commerey; a second," Hortensias " (Hydrangeas), is in
the Museum of Mans; the third, which was in the Salon
of 1903, has not yet been placed. In 1899 she exhibited
a large water-color called " La Barque fleurie," which was
much admired and was reproduced in " L'lUustration."
Her water-color of " Clematis and Virginia Creeper " is in
the Museum at Tunis. In the summer exhibition of 1903,
at fivreux, this artist's " Peonies " and " Iris " were de-
lightfully painted â€” full of freshness and brilliancy, such
as would be the despair of a less skilful hand.
At the Limoges Exposition, May to November, 1903,
Mme. Faux-Froidure was announced as hors concours in
La Sociit^ Fran^ais des Amis des Arts purchased from
the Salon, 1903, two water-colors by Mme. Faux-Froidure
â€” "Roses" and "Loose Flowers," or "Jonchde fleurie."
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 125
Her pictures at the Exposition at Toulouse, spring of
1903, were much admired. In one she had most skilfully
arranged " Peaches and Grapes." The color was truthful
and delicate. The result was a most artistic picture, in
which the art was concealed and nature alone was mani-
fest. A second picture of " Zinnias " was equally admira-
ble in the painting of the flowers, while that of the table
on which they were placed was not quite true in its per-
Of a triptych, called the " Life of Roses," exhibited at
the Salon des Artistes Fran^ais, 1903, Jules de Saint
Hilaire writes : " Mme. Faux-Froidure was inspired when
she painted her charming triptych of * Rose Life.' In the
compartment on the left the roses are twined in a crown
resembling those worn in processions ; in the centre, in all
its dazzling beauty, the red rose, the rose of love, is en-
throned; while the panel on the right is consecrated to
the faded rose â€” the souvenir rose, shrivelled, and lying
beside the little casket which it still perfumes with its
Fischer, Clara Elizabeth. Bom in Berlin, 1856. Stud-
ied under Biermann six years, and later under Julius
Jacob. Her pictures are portraits and genre subjects.
Among the latter are " What Will Become of the Child ? "
1886; "Orphaned," "In the Punishment Comer," and
" Morning Devotion."
Fischety Helene von. Bom in Bremen, 1843. She
first studied under a woman portrait painter in Berlin;
later she was a pupil of Frische in Diisseldorf, of Robie
in Bmssels, and of Hertel and Skarbina in Berlin.
126 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
She makes a specialty of flowers, fruit, and still-life ; her
fruit and flower pieces are beautiful, and her pictures of
the victims of the chase are excellent.
Flesch-Bnumengeiiy Luma von. Bom in Briinn in
1856. In Vienna she worked under Schoner, the inter-
preter of Venetian and Oriental life, and later in Munich
she acquired technical facility under Frithjof Smith.
Travels in Italy, France, and Northern Africa furnished
many of her themes â€” mostly interiors with figures, in
which the entering light is skilfuHy managed. "The
Embroiderers," showing three characteristic figures, who
watch the first attempt of their seriously earnest pupil,
is full of humor. In sharp contrast to this is a " Madonna
under the Cross," exhibited at Berlin in 1895, in which
the mother's anguish is most sympathetically rendered.
"Devotion," " Shelterless," and the "Kitchen Garden"
are among the paintings which have won her an excellent
reputation as a genre painter.
Fleuryt Mme. Fanny.
[No reply to circular^
Focca, Signora Italia Zanardelli. Silver medal at
Munich, 1893; diploma of gold medal at Women's Exhi-
bition, London, 1900. Member of Societi Amatorie
Pittori di Belle Arti, of the Unione degli Artisti, and of
the Societi Cooperativa, all in Rome.
Bom in Padua, 1872. Pupil of Ottin in Paris, and of
the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome.
The principal works of this sculptor are a " Bacchante,"
now in St. Petersburg; " Najade," sold in London; "The
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 127
Virgin Mother," purchased by Cavaliere Alinari of Flor-
ence; portrait of the Minister Merlo, which was ordered
by the Ministry of Public Instruction. Many other less
important works are in various Italian and foreign cities.
Signora Focca is a professor of drawing in the Normal
Schools of Rome.
Foley, Margaret E. A native of New Hampshire.
Died in 1877. Without a master, in the quiet of a coun-
try village, Miss Foley modelled busts in chalk and carved
small figures in wood. At length she made some repu-
tation in Boston, where she cut portraits and ideal heads
in cameo. She went to Rome and remained there. She
became an intimate friend of Mr. and Mrs. Howitt, and
died at their summer home in the Austrian Tyrol.
Among her works are busts of Theodore Parker, Charles
Sumner, and others; medallions of William and Mary
Howitt, Longfellow, and Bryant ; and several ideal statues
In a critical estimate of Miss Foley we read: "Her
head of the somewhat imptacticable but always earnest
senator from Massachusetts â€” Sumnerâ€” is unsurpassable
and beyond praise. It is simple, absolute truth, embodied
in marble." â€” Tttckermatis Book of the Artists.
''Miss Foley's exquisite medallions and sculptures
ought to be reproduced in photograph. Certainly she
was a most devoted artist, and America has not had so
many sculptors among women that she can afford to for-
get any one of them." â€” Boston Advertiser, January, 1878.
Fontaine, Jenny. Silver medal, Julian Academy, 1889;
silver medal at Amiens Exposition, 1890 and 1894; hon-
Digitized by VjOOQIC
128 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
orable mention, Paris Salon, 1892; gold medal at Rouen
Exposition, 1893; third-class medal, Salon, 1896; bronze
medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Officer of the Academy,
1896; Officer of Public Instruction, 1902. Member of
the Soci^t^ des Artistes Frangais, Paris; Soci^t6 de
rUnion Artistique, du Pas-de-Calais, at Arras; corre-
sponding member of the Academy of Arras. Pupil of
Jules Lefebvre and Benjamin-Constant.
Mile. Fontaine paints portraits only â€” of these she has
exhibited regularly at the Salons for sixteen years.
Among her sitters have been many persons of distinction,
both men and women.
At the Salon of 1902 she exhibited her own portrait;
in 1903, portraits of MM. Ren6 et Georges D. The
Journal des Arts, giving an account of the exhibition at
Rheims, summer, 1903, says: "The portraits here are not
so numerous as one might expect, but they are too fine
to be overlooked. Mile. Jenny Fontaine has, for a long
time, held a distinguished place as 2, portraitiste in our
Salons, and two of her works are here: a portrait of a
young girl and one of General Jeanningros."
Fontana, Lavinia. Bom in Bologna, 1 552. Her father
was a distinguished portrait painter in Rome in the time
of Pope Julius III., but the work of his daughter was
preferred before his own. She was elected to the Acad-
emy of Rome, while her charms were extolled in poetry
Pope Gregory XIII. made her his painter-in-ordinary.
Patrician ladies, cardinals, and Roman nobles contended
for the privilege of having their portraits from her hand.
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 129
Men of rank and scholars paid court to her, but, with a
waywardness not altogether uncommon, she married a
man who was even thought to be lacking in sense.
One of her two daughters was blind of one eye, and her
only son was so simple that the loungers in the ante-
chamber of the Pope were accustomed to amuse them-
selves with his want of wit. She is said to have died of a
broken heart after the death of this son, and her portrait
of him is considered her masterpiece.
Her own jwrtrait was one of her most distinguished
works, and though it is in possession of her husband's
family, the Zappi, of Imola, it may be judged by an en-
graving after it in Rossini's " History of Italian Painting."
Many portraits by Lavinia Fontana are in the private
collections of Italian families for whom they were painted.
In the Gallery of Bologna there is a night-scene, the
" Nativity of the Virgin," by her, and in the Escorial is a
Madonna lifting a veil to regard the sleeping Jesus, while
SS. Joseph and John stand near by.
In the churches of San Giacomo Maggiore and of the
Madonna del Baracano, both in Bolog^, are Fontana's
pictures of the "Madonna with Saints." In Pieve di
Cento are two of her works â€” o. " Madonna " and an "As-
cension." It is said that several pictures by this artist
are in England, but I have failed to find to what collec-
tions they belong.
Lavinia Fontana was a distinguished woman in a nota-
ble age, and if, in translating the tributes that were paid
her by the authors of her day, we should faithfully render
their superlatives, these writings would seem absurd in
I30 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
their exaggerations, and our comparatively cold adjectives
would be taxed beyond their power of expression.
Fontana, Veronica. Bom in 1576. A pupil of Elisa-
betta Sirani, who devoted herself to etching and wood-en-
graving. She is known from her exceedingly fine, deli-
cate portraits on wood and etchings of scenes from the
life of the Madonna.
Foordi Miss J. A painter of plants and flowers, which
are much praised. An article in the Studio^ July, 1901,
says : " Miss Foord, by patient and observant study from
nature, has given us a very pleasing, new form of useful
work, that has traits in common with the illustrations to
be found in the excellent botanical books of the beginning
of the nineteenth century." After praising the works of
this artist, attention is called to her valuable book, " Dec-
orative Flower Studies," illustrated with forty plates
printed in colors.
[No reply to circular^
Foote, Mary Hallock. Bom in Milton, New York.
At New York School of Design for Women this artist
studied anatomy ai)d composition under William Rimmer,
and drawing on wood and black and white under William
J. Linton. Mrs. Foote is a member of the Alumni of the
School of Design.
Her illustrations have been exhibited by the publishers
for whom they were made. In the beginning her work
was suited to the taste and custom of the time. She
illustrated the so-called " Gift Books " and poems in the
elaborate fashion of the period. Later she was occupied
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 131
principally in illustrations for the Century Company and
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Mrs. Foote writes that Miss
Regina Armstrong â€” now Mrs. Niehausâ€” in a series of
articles on " Women Illustrators of America," whom she
divided into classes, placed her with the " Story-Tellers."
Forbes, Mrs. Stanhope. Mr. Norman Gastin, in an
article upon the work of the Royal Academician, Stan-
hope Forbes, in the Studioy July, 1901, pays the follow-
ing tribute to the wife of the artist, whose maiden name
was Elizabeth Armstrong:
" Mrs. Stanhope Forbes's work does not ask you for any
of that chivalrous gentleness which is in itself so deroga-
tory to the powers of women. As an artist she stands
shoulder to shoulder with the very best ; she has taste and
fancy, without which she could not be an artist. But
what strikes one about her most is summed up in the
word * ability.' She is essentially able. The work which
that wonderful left hand of hers finds to do, it does with
a certainty that makes most other work look tentative
beside hers. The gestures and poses she chooses in her
models show how little she fears drawing, while the gist-
ness of her criticism has a most solvent effect in dissolv-
ing the doubts that hover round the making of pictures."
\No reply to circular^
Fortiy Enrica. Rome.
\No reply to circular?^
Fortin de Cool, Delfina. Third-class medal, Madrid,
1864, for the following works reproduced on porcelain:
132 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
tiie " Conception " of Murillo, the " Magdalen " of Anto-
linez, and the portrait of Alonso Cano by Velazquez; also
a portrait on ivory of a young girl.
This artist, who was French by birth, was a pupil of
her father. For paintings executed in the imperial works
at Sevres, she was awarded prizes at Blois, Besanjon,
Rouen, Perigueux, and Paris.
FoulqueSi Elisa. Born in Pjatigorsk, in the Caucasus.
She came under Italian influence when but four years
old, and was taken to Naples. At the Institute of the
Fine Arts she was a pupil of Antoriello, Mancinelli, Per-
risi, and Solari. She received a diploma when leaving the
Institute. Her picture, "Mendica," was exhibited in
Naples, 1886; "Un ultimo Squardo"and "Sogno," 1888.
In London, in 1888, "Tipo Napoletano," "Studio dal
vero," and"Ricordi" were exhibited. Since 1884 this
artist has taught drawing in the Municipal School for
Girls in Naples, and has executed many portraits in oil,
as well as numerous pastels and water-colors. Among
her later works are " Lsi Figlia del Corsaro," " Chiome
nere," " Una Carezza al Nonno," and " Di Soppiatto."
Frackleton, Susan Stuart. Medal at Antwerp Exposi-
tion, 1894; at Paris Exposition, 1900. Founder and first
president of National League of Mineral Painters ; mem-
ber of Park and Outdoor Association. Bom at Milwau-
kee, 1848. Pupil of private studios in Milwaukee and
Mrs. Frackleton's gas-kilns for firing decorated china
and glass are well known ; also her book, " Tried by Fire,"
a treatise on china painting. As a ceramic artist she has
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 133
exhibited in various countries, and has had numerous
prizes for her work. She declined the request of the
Mexican Government to be at the head of a National
School of Ceramic Decoration, etc. She is also a lecturer
on topics connected with the so-called arts and crafts.
Freeman, Florence. Bom in Boston. 1 836-1 883. Pu-
pil of Richard S. Greenough in Boston and of Hiram Pow-
ers in Florence, Italy. After a year in Florence she went
to Rome, where she made her home. Among her works
are a bust of " Sandalphon," which belonged to Mr. Long-
fellow, bas-reliefs of Dante, and a statue of the '' Sleeping
She sent to the Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, a
chimney-piece on which were sculptured " Children and
the Yule-Log and Fireside Spirits." This was purchased
by Mrs. Hemenway, of Boston.
"Her works are full of poetic fancy; her bas-reliefs of
the seven days of the week and of the hours are most
lovely and original in conception. Her sketches of Dante
in bas-reliefs are equally fine. Her designs for chimney-
pieces are gems, and in less prosaic days than these, when
people were not satisfied with the work of mechanics, but
demanded artistic designs in the commonest household
articles, they would have made her famous." â€” The Revo-
lution^ May, 1871.
French, Jane Kathleen. Member of the Water-Color
Society of Ireland. Bom in Dublin. Studied in Brussels
under M. Bourson, and in Wiesbaden under Herr Kogler.
Miss French is a miniaturist and exhibited at the Royal
Academy, London, in 1901, a case of her works which
134 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
she was later specially invited to send to an exhibition in
Liverpool, and several other exhibits.
The last two years she has exhibited in Ireland only,
as her commissions employ her time so fully that she can-
not prepare for foreign expositions.
Freybergy Baroness Marie Electrine. Elected to the
Academy of St. Luke, 1822. Bom in Strassburg. 1797-
1847. Daughter and pupil of the landscape painter,
Stuntz. After travelling m France and Italy, making
special studies in Rome, she settled in Munich. She
painted historical and religious subjects, and a few por-
traits. " Zacharias Naming the Little St. John " is in
the New Picture Gallery, Munich; in the same gallery is
also a portrait called the "Boy Playing a Flute "; in the
Leuchtenberg Gallery, Petersburg, is her " Three Women
at the Sepulchre." She painted a picture called the
" Glorification of Religion through Art " and a ** Madonna
in Prayer." She also executed a number of lithographs
Friedlander, Camilla. Bom in Vienna, 1856. She was
instructed by her father, Friedrich Friedlander. Among
her numerous paintings of house furniture, antiquities,
and dead animals should be especially mentioned her
picture in the Rudolfinum at Prague, which represents all
sorts of drinking-vessels, 1888. Some critics affirm that
she has shown more patience and industry than wealth of
artistic ideas, but her still-life pictures demanded those
qualities and brought her success and artistic recognition.
Friedrich, Caroline Friederike. Bom in Dresden.
1749-1815. Honorary member of Dresden Academy.
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 135
In the Dresden Gallery is a picture by this artist, " Pastry
on a Plate with a Glass of Wine," signed 1799.
Friedrichson, Ernestine. Bom in Dantzig, 1824. Pu-
pil of Marie Wiegmann in Diisseldorf, and later of Jordan
and Wilhelm Sohn. While still a student she visited
Holland, Belgium, England, and Italy. Her favorite sub-
jects were scenes from the every-day life of Poles and
Her best pictures were sold to private collectors.
Among these are " Polish Raftsmen Resting in the For-
est," 1867; "Polish Raftsmen before a Crucifix," 1869;
"A Jew Rag-picker," 1870; "The Jewish Quarter in
Amsterdam on Friday Evening," 1881; "A Goose Girl,"
Fries, Anna. Silver medal at Berne, 1857; two silver
medals from the Academy of Urbino; silver medal at the
National Exposition by Women in Florence. Honorary
member of the Academy Michael Angelo, Florence, and
of the Academy of Urbino. Bom in Zurich, 1827. She
encountered much opposition to her desire to study art,
but her talent was so manifest that at length she was per-
mitted to study drawing in Zurich, and her rapid progress
was finally recognized and she was taken to Paris, where
the great works of the masters were an inspiration to her.
She has great individuality in her pictures, which have
been immoderately praised. She visited Italy, and in
1857 went to Holland, where she painted portraits of
Queen Sophia and the Prince of Orange. She returned
to Zurich and was urged to remain in Switzerland, but
she was ambitious of further study, and went again to
136 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Florence. She there painted a portrait of the Grand
Duchess Marie of Russia. She turned her attention to
decorative painting, and her success in this may be seen
in the fa9ades of the Schmitz villa, the Schemboche estab-
lishment, and her own home. When we consider the
usual monotony of this art, the charming effects which
Mme. Fries has produced make her distinguished in this
Frishmuthy Harriet Whitney.
[No reply to circularJ]
FrltzCi Margarethe Auguste. Bom in Magdeburg,
1845. This genre painter worked first in Bremen, and
went in 1873 to Munich, where she studied with Griitzner
and Liezen-Meyer. The most significant of her pictures
is " The Little Handorgan-Player with His Monkey." She
has also executed many strong portraits, and her painting
is thought to show the influence of A. von Kotzebue and
Alexander Wagner. In 1880 she spent some time in
Stuttgart, and later settled in Berlin.
Froriep, Bertha. Bom in Berlin, 1833. Pupil of Mar-
tersteig and Pauwels in Weimar, This artist's pictures
were usually of genf e subjects. Her small game pictures
with single figures are delightful. She also painted an
unusually fine portrait of Friedrich Riickert. At an
exhibition by the women artists of Berlin, 1892, a pen
study by Fraulein Froriep attracted attention and was ad-
mired for its spirit and its clear execution.
Frumeriei Mme. de. Honorable mention at the Salon
des Artistes Frangais in 1 893 and 1 895. Bom in Sweden,
WOMEN list THE FINE ARTS 137
she studied in the School of Fine Arts in Stockholm.
There she gained a prize which entitled her to study
abroad during four years.
She has exhibited her works in Paris, and to the Salon
of Les Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs, in February,
1903, she contributed a bust of Strindberg which was a
delightful example of life-like portraiture.
Fuller, Lucia Fairchild. Bronze medal, Paris Exposi-
tion, 1900; silver medal, Buffalo Exposition, 1901. Mem-
ber of the Society of American Artists and of the Ameri-
can Society of Miniature Painters. Bom in Boston.
Studied at the Cowles Art School, Boston, under Denis
M. Bunker, and at the Art Students' League, New York^
under H. Siddons Mowbray and William M. Chase.
Mrs. Fuller is a most successful miniature painter.
Among her principal works are " Mother and Child," in
the collection of Mrs. David P. Kimball, Boston ; " Girl
with a Hand-Glass," owned by Hearn; and "Girl Drying
Her Feet," for which the medal was given in Paris.
Mrs. Fuller's miniatures are portraits principally, and
are in private hands. Some of her sitters in New York
are Mrs. J. Pierpont Morgan and her children, Mrs. H.
P. Whitney and children, J. J. Higginson, Esq., Dr. Ed-
win A. Tucker, and many others.
Gaggiottl-RichardSi Emma. Historical and portrait
painter, of the middle of the nineteenth century, is known
by her portrait of Alexander von Humboldt (in posses-
sion of the Emperor William II.) and by her portrait of
herself before her easel. Her historical paintings include
" The Crusader " and a " Madonna."
138 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Galliy Emira. Reproduces with great felicity the cus-
toms of the lagoons, the boys and fishermen of which she
represents with marvellous fidelity. She depicts not only
characteristics of features and dress, but of movement.
" Giovane veneziana " and " Ragazzo del Popolo " were
exhibited at Turin in 1880, and were much admured. " II
Falconiere " was exhibited at both Turin and Milan. " Un
Piccolo Accattone " has also been accorded warm praise.
Gardner, Elizabeth Jane. Honorable mention, Paris
Salon, 1879; gold medal, 1889; hors concours. Bom
in Exeter, New Hampshire, 1851, her professional life
has been spent in Paris, where she was a pupil of Hugues
Merle, Lefebvre, and M. William A. Bouguereau, whom
[^No reply to circular^
Garrido 7 Agudo, Maria de la Soledad. Bom m Sala-
manca. Pupil of Juan Peyr6. She exhibited two works
at the National Exposition, 1876 â€” ^a portrait and a youth
studying a picture. In 1878 she sent to the same expo-
sition "The Sacrifice of the Saguntine Women." At the
Philadelphia Exposition, 1876, she exhibited her "Mes-
senger of Love." Her " Santa Lucia " is in the church
of San Roque de Gardia.
Gasso y Vidal, Leopolda. Honorable mention, 1876.
Prizes, 1876, for two works sent to the Provincial Expo-
sition of Leon. Member of the Association of Authors
and Artists, 1876. Bom in the Province of Toledo.
Pupil of Manuel Martinez Ferrer and Isidoro Lozano.
At Madrid, in 1881, she exhibited "A Pensioner," "A
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 139
Beggar," a portrait of Seftorita M. J., and a landscape; in
1878, "A Coxcomb," "Street Venders of Avila," and a
landscape; and in 1881, at an exhibition held by D.
Ricardo Hernandez, were seen a landscape and a portrait
of D. Lucas Aguirre y Juarez.
GeefSy Mme. Fanny Isabelle Marie. Bom at Brussels.
1 814-1883. Wife of the sculptor, Guillaume Geefs. A
painter of portraits and genre subjects which excel the
historical pictures she also painted. Her "Assumption
of the Virgin " is in a church at Waterloo; "Christ Ap-
pearing to His Disciples," in a church at Hauthem.
"The Virgin Consoling the Afflicted" was awarded a
medal in Paris, and is in the Hospital of St. John at Brus-
sels. The " Virgin and Child " was purchased by the Bel-
gian Government. Her portraits are good, and among
her genre subjects the " Young Mother," the " Sailor's
Daughter," and " Ophelia " are attractive and artistic in