was painted in 1865*
Hathilde Caroliney Grand Duchess of Hesse. Was
born Princess of Bavaria. 1813 - 1863. Pupil of Dominik
Onaglio. In the New Gallery at Munich are two of her
pictures â€” " View of the Magdalen Chapel in the Garden
at Nymphenburg," 1832, and "Outlook on the Islands,
Procida and Ischia," 1836.
MattOQy Ida. Two grand prizes and a purse, also a
travelling purse from the Government of Sweden; honor-
able mention at the Paris Salon, 1896; honorable mention,
Paris Exposition, 1900; prize for sculpture at the Union
des femmes peintres et sculpteurs, 1903. Decorated with
the "palmes acaddmique" of President Loubet, 1903.
Member of the Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs,
Paris. Bom at Gefle, Sweden. Pupil of the Technical
School, Stockholm, and of H. Chapu, A. Mercie, and D.
Puech at Paris.
Among the works of this artist are " Mama ! " a statue
in marble; "Lok6," a statue; "Dans les Vagues," a mar-
ble bust; "Funeral Monument," in bronze, in Gefle,
Sweden ; and a great number of portrait busts and various
subjects in bas-relief.
At the Salon des Artistes Frangais, 1902, she exhibited
four portraits, and in 1903, " Confidence."
Maury, Cornelia F. Member of St. Louis Artists*
Guild and Society of Western Artists. Bom in New Or-
leans, Louisiana. Pupil of St. Louis School of Fine Arts
and of Julian Academy, under Collin and Merson. At
232 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
the Salon of 1900 her picture, " Mother and Child," was
hung on the line.
Miss Maury has made an especial study of child life.
Among her pictures are " Little Sister," " Choir Boy,"
"Late Breakfast," and " First Steps." The latter pict-
ure and the " Baby in a Go-Cart " have been published in
the Copley Prints.
" Cornelia F. Maury is most successful in portrayals of
childhood. Her small figures are simple, unaffected, with
no suggestion of pose. They convey that delightful feel-
ing of unconsciousness in the subject that is always so
charming either in nature or in artistic expression. The
pastel depicting the flaxen-haired child in blue dress draw-
ing a tiny cart is exceedingly artistic, and the same may
be said of a pastel showing a small child in a Dutch high-
chair near a window. A third picture â€” also a pastel â€”
represents a choir-boy in a red robe, red cap, and white
surplice, sitting in a high-backed, carved chair, holding a
book in his hand. Miss Maury really has produced noth-
ing finer than this last. It is a most excellent work." â€”
The Mirror^ St. Louis, April 10, 1902.
Mayreder-Obermayery Rose. Bom in Vienna, 1858.
Pupil of Damaut and Charmont. The works of this suc-
cessful painter of flowers and still-life have been exhibited
in Berlin, Vienna, Dresden, and Chicago. She has a
broad, sure touch quite unusual in water-colors. She has
also executed some notable decorative works, one of
which, " November," has attracted much attention.
HcCrossany Mary. Silver and bronze medals, Liver-
pool; silver medal and honorable mention, Paris. Has
In Cemetery in Gefle, Sweden
MONUMENT FOR A TOMB
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 233
exhibited at Royal Academy, London, at Royal Institute
of Oil Colors, and many other English and Scotch exhibi-
tions. Member of Liverpool Academy of Arts and of the
Liverpool Sketching Club. Bom in Liverpool. Studied
at Liverpool School of Art under John Finnie; Paris,
under M. Del&luse; St. Ives, Cornwall, under Julius
The principal works of this artist are marine subjects
and landscapes, and are mostly in private collections.
In the Studio^ November, 1900, we read: "Miss
McCrossan's exhibition of pictures and sketches displayed
a pleasant variety of really clever work, mostly in oils,
with a few water-colors and pastels. In each medium her
color is strong, rich, and luminous, and her drawing vigor-
ous and certain.
" While this artist's landscape subjects are intelligently
selected and attractively rendered, there is unusual merit
in her marine pictures, composed mainly from the fisher-
craft of the Isle of Man and the neighborhood of St. Ives,
and recording effects of brilliant sunshine lighting up
white herring boats lying idly on intensely reflective blue
sea, or aground on the harbor mud at low tide. There is
a fascination in the choice color treatment of these char-
McLaughlin^ Mary Louise M. Honorable mention,
Paris Salon, 1878; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1^89;
gold medal, Atlanta, 1895; bronze medal, Buffalo, 1900.
Member of the Society of Arts, London ; honorary mem-
ber of National Mineral Painters* League, Cincinnati.
Bom in Cincinnati, Ohio. Pupil of Cincinnati Art Acad-
234 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
emy and of H. F. Famy and Frank Duveneck in private
Miss McLaughlin has painted in oil and water-colors
and exhibited in various places, as indicated by the honors
she has received. Having practised under- and over-glaze
work on pottery, as well as porcelain etching and decora-
tive etching on metals, she is now devoting herself to
making the porcelain known as Losanti Ware.
Of a recent exhibition, 1903, a critic wrote: "Perhaps
the most beautiful and distinguished group in the exhibi-
tion is that of Miss McLaughlin, one of the earliest
artistic workers in clay of the United States. She sends
a collection of lovely porcelain vases, of a soft white tone
and charming in contour. Some of these have open-work
borders, others are decorated in relief, and the designs
are tinted with delicate jade greens, dark blues, or salmon
pinks. This ware goes by the name of Losanti, from the
early name of Cincinnati, L'Osantiville."
This artist has written several books on china painting
and pottery decoration.
HcManus Hansfieldy Blanche. Diplomas from the New
Orleans Centennial and the Woman's Department, Chi-
cago, 1903. Member of the New Vagabonds, London,
and the Touring Club of France. Bom in East Feliciana
Parish, Louisiana, this artist has made her studies in
London and Paris. Her principal work has been done in
book illustrations. The following list gives some of her
most important publications:
" Alice in Wonderland " and " Through the Looking-Glass." De
Luxe edition in color. New York, 1899.
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 235
" The Calendar of Omar Khayyam.** In color. New York, 1900.
"The Altar Service." Thirty-six wood-cut blocks printed on
Japan vellum. London, 1902.
"The Coronation Prayer-Book." (Wood-cut borders.) Oxford
University Press, 1902.
" Cathedrals of Northern France." In collaboration with Francis
Miltoun. Boston and London, 1903.
" Cathedrals of Southern France." In collaboration with Francis
Miltoun. Sold for publication in London and Boston, 1904.
** A Dante Calendar." London, 1903.
"A Rubaiyat Calendar." Boston, 1903.
"The King's Classics." (Designs and Decorations.) London,
" The Book of Days." A Calendar. Sold in London for 1904.
After speaking of several works by Miss McManus, a
notice from London says: "A more difficult or at least a
more intricate series were the designs cut on wood for
* The Altar Service Book/ just issued in London by that
newly founded venture, the De La More Press ; which
has drawn unto itself such scholars as Dr. Fumival, Pro-
fessor Skeat, and Israel Gollancz. These designs by Miss
McManus were printed direct from the wood blocks in
very limited editions, on genuine vellum, on Japanese
vellum, and a small issue on a real sixteenth-century hand-
made paper. The various editions were immediately
taken up in London on publication; hence it is unlikely
that copies will be generally seen in America.
" We learn, however, that the original wood blocks will
be shown at the St. Louis Exposition, in the section to
be devoted to the work of American artists resident
abroad. We suggest that all lovers of latter-day book-
making * make a note of it,* recalling meanwhile that it
236 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
was this successful American designer who produced also
the decorative wood-cut borders and initials which were
used in * The Coronation Prayer-Book of King Edward
VII./ issued from the celebrated Oxford University
Press. There were forty initials or headings, embody-
ing the coronation regalia, including the crown, sceptre,
rose, thistle, shamrock, etc. The magnificent cover for
the book was also designed by this artist.
"Among the American artists who have made a dis-
tinctive place in art circles, not only in America but on
* the other side,' is Mrs. M. F. Mansfield, formerly
Blanche McManus of Woodville, Mississippi.
" In London she is widely known as a skilful, able, and
versatile artist, and her remarkable success there is an
illustration of * the American invasion.* Little has been
written in America, especially in the South, of what this
talented Southern woman has accomplished. She has
never sought personal advertisement; on the contrary,
she has shrunk from any kind of publicity â€” even that
which would have accrued from a proper valuation of her
** She is one of those artists whose talent is equalled
only by her modesty, who, enamoured of her art and aim-
ing at a patient, painstaking realization of her ideal, has
been content to work on in silence. In the estimation of
art connoisseurs, Blanche McManus is an artist of unques-
tionable talent and varied composition, who has already
done much striking work. Her execution in the various
branches has attracted international attention.
"She paints well in water-colors and in oil, and her
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 237
etching is considered excellent. Her drawing is stamped
good, and every year she has showed rapid improvement
in design. She is a highly cultivated woman, with a
close and accurate observation. A sincere appreciation
of nature was revealed in her earliest efforts, and for some
years she devoted much time to its study."
Moring's Quarterly says in regard to the special work
which Mrs. Mansfield has done: ''It is so seldom that
an artist is able to take in hand what may be termed the
entire decoration of a book â€” including in that phrase
cover, illustration, colophon, head- and tail-pieces, initial
letters, and borders â€” that it is a pleasure to find in the
subject of our paper a lady who may be said to be capable
of taking all these points into consideration in the em-
bellishment of a volume."
Medici, Marie de'. Wife of Henry IV. Bom at Flor-
ence, 1573; died at Cologne, 1642. A portrait of herself,
engraved on wood, bears the legend, " Maria Medici F.
MDLXXXII." Another portrait of a girl, attributed to
her, is signed, "L. O. 161 7." It maybe considered a
matter of grave doubt whether the nine-year-old girl drew
and engraved with her own hand the first-named charm-
ing picture, which has been credited to her with such
MengSy Anna Maria. Member of the Academy of San
Fernando. She was a daughter of Anton Rafael Mengs,
and was bom in Dresden in 1751, where she received in-
struction from her father. In 1777 she married the en-
graver Salvador Carmona in Rome, and went with him to
Spain, where she died in 1790. Portraits and miniatures
238 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
of excellent quality were executed by her, and on them
her reputation rests.
Merian, Maria Sibylla. Bom at Ffankforton-the-Main
in 1647. This artist merits our attention, although her
art was devoted to an unusual purpose. Her father was
a learned geographer and engraver whose published works
are voluminous. Her maternal grandfather was the emi-
nent engraver, Theodore de Bry or Brie.
From her childhood Anna Sibylla Merian displayed an
aptitude for drawing and a special interest in insect life.
The latter greatly disturbed her mother, but she could
not turn the child's attention from entomology, and was
forced to allow that study to become her chief pursuit.
The flower painter, Abraham Mignon, was her master
in drawing and painting; but at an early age, before her
studies were well advanced, she married an architect,
John Andrew Graf, of Nuremberg, with whom she lived
unhappily. She passed nearly twenty years in great se-
clusion, and, as she tells us in the preface to one of her
books, she devoted these years to the examination and
study of various insects, watching their transformations
and making drawings from them. Many of these were in
colors on parchment and were readily sold to connoisseurs.
Her first published work was called "The Wonderful
Transformations of Caterpillars." It appeared in 1679,
was fully illustrated by copper plate engravings, executed
by herself from her own designs. About 1684 she sepa-
rated from her husband, and with her daughters returned
to Frankfort. Many interesting stories are told of her
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 239
She made a journey to Friesland and was a convert to
the doctrines of Labadie, but she was still devoted to her
study and research. She was associated with the notable
men of her time, and became the friend of the father of
Rachel Ruysch. Although Madame Merian, who had
taken her maiden name, was seventeen years older than
the gifted flower painter, she became to her an example
of industry and devotion to study.
Madame Merian had long desired to examine the insects
of Surinam, and in 1699, by the aid of the Dutch Govern-
ment, she made the journey â€” of which a French poet
" Sibylla k Surinam va chercher la nature,
Avec Tesprit d*un Sage, et le cceur d*un Heros *
â€” which indicates the view then held of a journey which
would now attract no attention.
While in Guiana some natives brought her a box filled
with " lantern flies," as they were then called. The noise
they made at night was so disturbing that she liberated
them, and the flies, regaining liberty, flashed out their
most brilliant light, for which Madame Merian was unpre-
pared, and in her surprise dropped the box. From this
circumstance a most exaggerated idea obtained concern-
ing the illuminating power of the flies.
The climate of Surinam was so unhealthy for Madame
Merian that she could remain there but two years, and in
that time she gathered the materials for her great work
called " Metamorphoses Insectorum Surinamensium," etc.
The illustrations were her own, and she pictured many
most interesting objects â€” animals and vegetables as well
240 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
as insects â€” ^which were quite unknown in Europe. Sev-
eral editions of this book were published both in German
and French. Her plates are still approved and testify to
the scope and thoroughness of her research, as well as to
her powers as an artist.
Her chief work, however, was a " History of the In-
sects of Europe, Drawn from Nature, and Explained by
Maria Sibylla Merian." The illustrations of this work
were beautiful and of great interest, as the insects, from
their first state to their last, were represented with the
plants and flowers which they loved, each object being
correctly and tastefully pictured. Most of the original
paintings for these works are in the British Museum. In
the Vienna Gallery is a " Basket of Flowers " by this
artist, and in the Basle Museum a picture of " Locust and
The daughters of this learned artist naturalist, Joanna
Maria Helena and Dorothea, shared the pursuits and
labors of their mother, and it was her intention to publish
their drawings as an appendix to her works. She did not
live to do this, and later the daughters published a sepa-
rate volume of their own.
This extraordinary woman, whose studies and writings
added so much to the knowledge of her time, was neither
beautiful nor graceful. Her portraits present a woman
with hard and heavy features, her hair in short curls
surmounted by a stiff and curious head-dress, made of
folds of some black stuff.
Merrltty Mrs. Anna Lea. Honorable mention, Paris
Exposition, 1889; two medals and a diploma, Chicago
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 241
Exposition, 1893. In 1890 her picture of " Love Locked
Out " was purchased by the Chantry fund, London, for
two hundred and fifty pounds. This honor has been ac-
corded to few women, and of these I think Mrs. Merritt
was first. Member of the Royal Society of Painter-
Etcihers. Bom in Philadelphia. Pupil of Heinrich Hoflf-
.,man ih Dresden, and of Henry Merritt â€” whom she mar-
ried â€” ^iri London.
Mrs. Merritt has a home in Hampshire, England, but
is frequently in Philadelphia, where she exhibits her pict-
ures, which have also been seen at the Royal Academy
This artist is represented by her pictures in the Na-
tional Gallery of British Art, in the Pennsylvania Acad-
emy of Fine Arts, and by her portrait of Mr. James Rus-
sell Lowell in Memorial Hall, Harvard University.
[No reply to circular^
MichlSy Maria. See Cattaneo.
MiUMtcher, Louise von. Prize at Berlin in 1886. Bom
at Bohmischbrod, 1845. Pupil of Ponninger and Eisen-
menger. A painter of portraits and of sacred and genre
subjects. Three of her portraits are well known â€” those
of Baron Thienen, Greneral von Neuwirth, and Baron
Eber-Eschenbach. The altar-piece in the chapel of the
Vienna Institute, a " Holy Family," is by this artist. She
has also painted stilUife and animal subjects.
Modlgllanly Signorina Corinna. Silver medal at Turin
Exposition, 1898; silver medal at the Exposition of
Feminine Art, 1899, 1900; diploma at Leghorn, 1901;
242 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
gold medal. Member of the International Artistic Asso-
ciation. Bom in Rome. Pupil of Professore Commenda-
tore Pietro Vanni.
This artist has exhibited her works in the Expositions
of Rome, Turin, Milan, Leghorn, Munich, Petersburg
and Paris since 1897, and will contribute to the St. Louis ^
Exposition. Her pictures have been sold in Parii^Lon- 1^
don, and Ireland, as well as in Rome and othef Italia^
cities, where many of them are in the coUectioA of dis-
Moldura, Lilla. A Neapolitan painter. Her father
was an Italian and her mother a Spaniard. She was in-
structed in the elements of art by various excellent teach-
ers, and then studied oil painting under Maldarelli and
water-color under Mancini. She has often exhibited pict-
ures in Naples, to the satisfaction of both artists and
critics, and has also won success in London. She has
been almost equally happy in views of the picturesque
Campagna, and in interiors, both in oil and water-colors.
The interior of the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception,
in the Church of the Gerolamini, is strong in execution
and good in drawing and color.
MOUer, Agnes Slott. Bom in 1 862. Resides in Copen-
hagen. The especial work of this artist, by which her
reputation is world-wide, is the illustration of old legends
for children's books.
Montalba, Clara. Associate of the Society of Painters
in Water-Colors, London, and of the Belgian Society of
Water-Colorists. Bom in Cheltenham, 1842. Pupil of
Isabey in Paris. Her professional life has been spent in
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 243
London and Venice. She has sent her pictures to the
Academy and the Grosvenor Gallery exhibitions since
1879. "Blessing a Tomb, Westminster," was at the
Philadelphia Exposition, 1876; "Comer of St. Mark's"
and "Fishing Boats, Venice," were at Paris, 1878.
In 1874 she exhibited at the Society of British Artists,
" II Giardino Publico " â€” ^the Public Garden â€” of which a
writer in the Art Jbumal said: "*I1 Giardino Publico'
stands foremost among the few redeeming features of the
exhibition. In delicate perception of natural beauty the
picture suggests the example of Corot. Like the great
Frenchman, Miss Montalba strives to interpret the sadder
moods of nature, when the wind moves the water a little
mournfully and the outlines of the objects become uncer-
tain in the filmy air."
[No reply to circular?^
MorettOi Emma. Venetian painter, exhibited at Naples,
in 1877, " Abbey of St. Gregory at Venice " ; at Turin, in
1880, a fine view of the "Canal of the Giudecca," and
" Canal of S. Giorgio " ; at the National Exposition in
Milan, 1881, "Sunset" and a marine view; at Rome, in
1883, "Excursion on the Lagoon." Still others of the
same general character are: "A Gondola," "At St.
Mark's," " Grand Canal," " Morning at Sea," etc.
Moron, Therese Concordia. Bom in Dresden, 1725;
died in Rome, 1806. Pupil of her father, Ismael Mengs.
Her attention was divided between enamel painting and
pastel, much of the latter being miniature work. In the
Dresden Gallery are two of her pastel portraits and two
244 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
copies in miniature of Correggio, viz., a half-length por-
trait of herself and a portrait of her sister, Julie Mengs;
a copy of St. Jerome, or "The Day " â€” original in Parma
â€”and "The Night."
A curious story has recently been published to the
effect that in 1767 this artist sent word to Duke Xavier
of Saxony that during the Seven Years' War she painted
a copy in miniature of Correggio's " Holy Mother with
the Christ Child, Mary Magdalen, Hieronymus, and Two
Angels," which she sent by Cardinal Albani to the
Duke's fatherâ€” Frederick Augustus II. of Saxony and
Augustus III. of Poland â€” at Warsaw. It was claimed
that two hundred and fifty ducats were due her. Appar-
ently the demand was not met ; but, on the other hand,
the lady seems to have received for some years a pension
of three hundred thalers from the Electorate of Saxony
without making any return. Probably her claim was sat-
isfied by this pension.
Moser, Mary. One of the original members of the Lon-
don Academy. The daughter of a German artist, who re-
sided in London. She was as well known for her wit as
for her art. A friend of Fuseli, she was said to be as much
in love with him as he was in love with Angelica Kauffman.
Dr. Johnson sometimes met Miss Moser at the house of
NoUekens, where they made merry over a cup of tea.
Queen Charlotte commissioned this painter to decorate
a chamber, for which work she paid more than nine hun-
dred pounds, and was so well pleased that she compli-
mented the artist by commanding the apartment to be
called " Miss Moser's Room."
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 245
Motti Mrs. Alice. Bom at Walton on Thames. Pupil
of the Slade School and Royal Academy in London, and
of M. Charles Chaplin in Paris in his studio. A minia-
turist whose works are much esteemed. Her work is life-
like, artistic, and strong in drawing, color, and composi-
tion. After finishing her study under masters she took
up miniature painting by herself, stud3ang the works of
Recently she writes me: "I have departed from the
ordinary portrait miniature, and am now painting what I
call picture miniatures. For instance, I am now at work
on the portrait of Miss D. C, who b in old-fashioned
dress, low bodice, and long leg-of-mutton sleeves. She
is represented as running in the open, with sky and tree
background. She has a butterfly net over her shoulder,
which floats out on the wind ; she is looking up and smil-
ing; her hair and her sash are blown out. It is to be
called, * rd be a Butterfly.* The dress is the yellow of
the common butterfly. It is a large miniature. I hope
to send it, with others, to the St. Louis Exposition."
Her miniatures are numerous and in private hands. A
very interesting one belongs to the Bishop of Ripon and
is a portrait of Mrs. Carpenter, his mother.
MttDtZy Laura A.
[No reply to circular^
Murray, Elizabeth. Member of the Institute of Paint-
ers in Water-Colors, London, and of the American Society
of Water-Color Painters, New York. Her pictures are
of p:enre subjects, many of them being of Oriental fig-
246 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
ures. Among these are " Music in Morocco," " A Moor-
ish Saint," "The Greek Betrothed," etc. Other subjects
are "The Gipsy Queeii," "Dalmatian Peasant," "The
Old Story in Spain," etc.
Naihaiii Signora Liliah Ascoli. Rome.
\Nb reply to circular^
HegrOi Teresa. Bom in Turin, where she resides. She
has made a study of antique pottery and has been suc-
cessful in its imitation. Her vases and amphorae have
been frequently exhibited and are praised by connoisseurs