work ten hours a day during a year. This he readily
promised to do. His studio being opposite that of Maria,
she watched narrowly for the days when he did not work
and marked them down on her window-sash. At the
close of the year Van Aelst claimed her as his bride, as-
suming that he had fulfilled her condition ; but she pointed
to the record of his delinquencies, and he could but ac-
cept her crafty dismissal of his suit.
Osengai Giuseppina. This artist resides in Parma, and
has there exhibited landscapes that are praised for their
color and for the manner in which they are painted, as
well as for the attractive subjects she habitually chooses.
262 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
"A View near Parma," the "Faces of Montmorency,"
and the " Bridge of Attaro " are three of her works which
are especially admired.
Ostertagi Blanche. Member of Society of Western
Artists; Arts Club, Chicago; Municipal Art League.
Bom in St. Louis. From 1 892-1 896 pupil of Laurens
and Raphael Collin in Paris, where her works were hung
on the line at the New Gallery, Champ de Mars.
A decorative artist who has executed mural decoration
in a private house in Chicago, and has illustrated " Max
Miiller's Memories " and other publications. For use in
schools she made a color print, " Reading of the Declara-
tion of Independence before the Army."
Her calendars and posters are in demand by collectors
at home and in foreign countries. Miss Ostertag has
designed elaborate chimney pieces to be executed in mo-
saic and glass. Her droll conceits in " Mary and Her
Lamb," the "Ten Little Injuns," and other juvenile tales
were complimented by Boutet de Monvel, who was so
much interested in her work that he gave her valuable
criticism and advice without solicitation.
O'Tama-Chiovara. Gold medal at an exhibition of laces
in Rome and prizes at all the exhibitions held in Palermo
by the Art Club. Bom in Tokio, where she canie to the
notice of Vicenzo Ragusa, a Sicilian sculptor in the em-
ploy of the Japanese Government at Tokio. He taught
her design, color, and modelling, and finally induced her
to go with his sister to Palermo. Here her merit was
soon recognized in a varied collection of water-colors rep-
resenting flowers and fmits, which were reproduced with
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 263
surpassing truth. When the School of Applied Art was
instituted at Palermo in 1887, she was put in charge of the
drawing, water-color, and modelling in the Women's
She knows the flowers of various countries â€” those of
Japan and Sicily wonderfully well, and her fancy is inex-
haustible; her exquisite embroideries reflect this quality.
She has many private pupils, and is as much beloved for
her character as she is admired for her talents. When
she renounced Buddhism for Christianity, the Princess of
Scalca was her godmother.
Paczka-Wagner, Cornelia. Honorable mention, Berlin,
1890. Bom in Gottingen, 1864. She has been, in the
main, her own instructor, living for some years in Rome
for the purpose of study. In 1895 she settled in Berlin,
where she has made a specialty of women's and children's
portraits in olgraphy (?) and lithography. Beautiful
drawings by her were exhibited at the International
Water-Color Exhibition in Dresden, 1892.
An interesting account of a visit to the studio of the
Hungarian painter Paczka and his German wife tells of
a strong series of paintings in progress there, under the
general title, "A Woman's Soul." In freedom and bold-
ness of conception they were said to remind one of Klinger,
but in warmth and depth of feeling to surpass him.
Frau Paczka had just finished a very large picture, repre-
senting the first couple after the expulsion from Paradise.
The scene is on the waste, stony slope of a mountain ;
the sun shines with full force in the background, while
upon the unshadowed rocks of the foreground are the
264 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
prostrate Adam and his wife â€” more accusing than com-
In 1899 Frau Paczka exhibited in Berlin, **Vanitas,"
which excels in richness of fancy and boldness of repre-
sentation, while wanting somewhat in detail; the ensem-
ble presents a remarkably fine, symbolic composition,
which sets forth in rich color the dance of mankind be-
fore the golden calf, and the bitter disillusions in the
struggle for fame, wealth, and happiness.
Parlaghji Vilma, or the Princess Lwoff . Great gold
medal from the Emperor of Austria, 1890; great gold
medal, 1894; small gold medal at Berlin, 1890, adjudged
to her portrait of Windhorst. Bom at Hadju-Dorogh
in 1863, and studied in Budapest, Munich, Venice, Flor-
ence, and Turin. Her portraits having found great favor
at the Court of Berlin, she removed her studio from
Munich to that capital.
One of her instructors was Lenbach, and she is said by
some critics to have appropriated his peculiarities as a
colorist and his shortcomings in drawing, without attain-
ing his geniality and power of divination. In 1891 her
portrait of Count von Moltke, begun shortly before his
death and finished afterward, was sent to the International
Exposition at Berlin, but was rejected. The Emperor,
however, bought it for his private collection, and at his
request it was given a place of honor at the Exposition,
the incident causing much comment. She exhibited a
portrait of the Emperor William at Berlin in 1893, which
Rosenberg called careless in drawing and modelling and
inconceivable in its unrefreshing, dirty-gray color.
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 265
In January, 1895, she gave an exhibition of one hun-
dred and four of her works, mostly portraits, including,
those of the Emperor, Capri\d, von Moltke, and Kossuth,
which had previously been exhibited in Berlin, Munich,
and Paris. The proceeds of this exhibition went to the
building fund of the Emperor William Memorial Church.
Of a portrait exhibited in 1896, at Munich, a critic said
that while it was not wholly bad, it was no better than
what hundreds of others could do as well, and hundreds
of others could do much better.
Paschi Ulricke Friederika. Member of the Academy
of Fine Arts of Sweden. Bom in Stockholm. 1735-
1796. A portrait of Gustavus-Adolphus II. by this artist
is in the Castle at Stockholm. She was a sister of Lo-
Pascolii Luigia. This Venetian painter has exhibited
in various Italian cities since 1870, when she sent a
" Magdalen " to Parma. ** First Love " appeared at Naples
in 1877, and "The Maskers" â€” pastel â€” ^at Venice in 1881.
A "Girl with a Cat," a "Roman Girl," and a "Seller of
Eggs" â€” ^the latter in Venetian costume â€” are works of
true value. Her copies of Titian's " St. Mark " and of
Gian Bellini's " Supper at Emmaus " have attracted atten-
tion and are much esteemed.
PassCi Magdalena van de. Bom at Utrecht about 1600 ;
she died at the age of forty. This engraver was a daugh-
ter of Crispus van de Passe, the elder. She practised her
art in Germany, England, Denmark, and the Netherlands,
and was important as an artist. Her engraving was ex-
ceedingly careful and skilful. Among her plates are
266 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
"Three Sibyls," 1617; an "Annunciation," "Cephalus
and Procris," " Latona," and landscapes after the works of
Bril, Savery, Willars, etc.
Pattison, Helen Searle. Born in Burlington, Vermont.
Daughter of Henry Searle, a talented architect who moved
to Rochester, New York, where his daughter spent much
of her girlhood. She held the position of art teacher in
a school in Batavia, New York, while still a girl her-
About i860 she became the pupil of Herr Johan Wil-
helm Preyer, the well-known painter of still-life, fruit, and
flowers. Preyer was a dwarf and an excellent man, but
as a rule took no pupils. He was much interested in Miss
Searle, and made an exception in her case. She soon
acquired the technique of her master and painted much as
he did, but with less minute detail, finer color, and far
In 1876 Miss Searle married the artist, James William
Pattison, now on the staff of the Art Institute, Chicago.
After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Pattison resided at
ficouen, near Paris. Returning to America in 1882, they
spent some time in Chicago and New York City, remov-
ing to Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1884. Here Mr. Pattison
was at the head of the School of Fine Arts.
Mrs. Pattison lived but a few months in Jacksonville,
dying in November, 1884.
Mrs. Pattison's artistic reputation was well established
and her works were exhibited at the Paris Salon and in
all the German cities of importance. They were fre-
quently seen in England and at the National Academy of
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 267
Design in New York. Her subjects were still-life, fruit,
and flowers, and her works are widely distributed.
Pazzi| Caterina de, whose conventual name was Maria
Maddalena. Was bom in Florence in 1566. It would
be interesting to know the relation that this gentle lady
bore to those Pazzi who had earned a fame so imlike hers
fourscore years before she saw the light.
Caterina de Pazzi, when a mere girl, entered a conyent
which stood on the site of the church known by her name
in the Via Pinti. The cell of Santa Maddalena â€” now a
chapel â€” may still be visited. She was canonized by Pope
Alexander VIII. in 1670, sixty-two years after her death.
The Florentines have many lovely legends associated
with her memory. One of these relates that she painted
pictures of sacred subjects when asleep. Be this as it
may, we know that her pictures were esteemed in the
days when the best artists lived and worked beside her.
Examples of her art may still be seen in churches in
Rome and Parma, as well as in the church of her native
city which bears her name.
PealCi Anna C. Made her mark as a miniature painter
and for some years was the only professional woman artist
in Philadelphia. Her portrait of General Jackson made
in 1 819 was well considered. She also made portraits of
President Monroe, Henry Clay, R. M. Johnson, John
Randolph of Roanoke, and other prominent men. Miss
Peale married in 1829 the Rev. William Staughton, a
Baptist clergyman, the president of the theological col-
lege at Georgetown, Kentucky. He lived but three
months after their marriage, and she returned to Phila-
268 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
delphia and again pursued her artistic labors. She mar-
ried a second husband, General William Duncan, and
from this time gave up professional painting.
Pealei Sara M. 1 860-1 885 . Daughter of James Peale,
under whose teaching she made her first studies. She
was also a pupil of her uncle, the founder of Peak's
Museum, Philadelphia. Miss Peale painted portraits and
spent some years in Baltimore and Washington. Among
her portraits are those of Lafayette, Thomas Benton,
Henry A. Wise, Caleb Gushing, and other distinguished
men. From 1847 she resided in St. Louis thirty years
and then went to Philadelphia. Her later works were
still-life subjects, especially fruits.
Pelichy, Geertruida. Honorary member of the Acad-
emy of Vienna. Born in Utrecht, 1744; died in Briigge,
1825. Pupil of P. de Cock and Suvfe. In 1753 she
went to Brugge with her father, and later to Paris and
Vienna. She painted portraits of the Emperor Joseph
II. and Maria Theresa, some good landscapes, and animal
studies. Two of her pictures are in the Museum at
PellegrinOi Itala. Bom at Milan, 1865. Pupil of
Battaglia. Her pictures are of genre and marine subjects'.
At the great exhibition at Turin, 1884, she exhibited a
marine view which was bought by Prince Amadeio.
Another marine view exhibited at Milan was acquired by
the Societi Promotrice. In 1888 she sent to the exhibi-
tion at Naples, where she resides, a view of Portici, which
was added to the Royal Gallery. The excellence of her
work is in the strength and certainty of touch and the
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 269
sincerity and originality of composition. She has painted
a "Marine View of Naples," "In the Gulf," "Fair
Weather," and " Evening at Sea " ; also a genre picture,
" Frusta 1^" which was sold while in an exhibition in
Penickei Clara. Bom at Berlm in 1 81 8, where she died
in 1899. She studied first with Remy and later with Carl
Begas and Edward Magnus. Her work was largely con-
fined to portrait and historical painting. In the Gallery
at Schwerin is her " Elector Frederick of Saxony Refus-
ing to Accept the Interim." Another good example of
her historical work is the " Reconciliation of Charlemagne
with Thassilo of Bavaria." A well-known and strongly
modelled portrait of Minister Von Stoach and several
Luther portraits, "Luther's Family Devotion" and
" Luther Finds the First Latin Bible," show her facility
in this branch of art. She also painted a " Christ on the
Perellii Lida. A landscape painter living in Milan,
who has become well known by pictures that have been
seen at the exhibitions in several Italian cities, especially
through some Roman studies that appeared at Florence
and Turin in 1884. "A View of Lecco, Lake Como,"
" Casolare," and "A Lombard Plain " are among her best
Permaiii Louise E. Bom at Birkenshaw, Renfrew-
shire. Studied in Glasgow. This artist paints roses, and
roses only, in oils. In this art she has been very success-
ful. She has exhibited at the Royal Academy and the
New Gallery, London; at the Royal Scottish Academy,
270 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Glasgow; at art exhibits in Munich, Dresden, Berlin,
Prague, Hanover, etc., and wherever her works have been
seen they have been sold. In May, 1903, a collection of
twenty-five rose pictures were exhibited by a prominent
dealer, and but few were left in his hands.
A critic in the Studio of April, 1903, writing of the
exhibition at the Ladies' Artists' Club, Glasgow, says:
" Miss Louise Perman's rose pictures were as refined and
charming as ever. This last-named lady certainly has a
remarkable power of rendering the beauties of the queen
of flowers, whether she chooses to paint the sumptuous
yellow of the ' Marshal Niel,' the blush of the * Kathe-
rine Mermet,' or the crimson glory of the ' Queen of
Autumn.' She seems not only to give the richness of
color and fulness of contour of the flowers, but to capture
for the delight of the beholder the very spiritual essence
of them." To the London Academy, 1903, she sent a
picture called " York and Lancaster."
Perrier, Marie. Mention honorable at Salon des
Artistes Frangais, 1899; Prix Marie Bashkirtseff, 1899;
honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1900; numerous
medals from foreign and provincial exhibitions; medals in
gold and silver at Rouen, Nhnes, Rennes, etc.; bronze
medals at Amiens and Angers. Member of the Soci^td
des Artistes Frangais; perpetual member of the Baron
Taylor Association, section of the Arts of Painting, etc.
Bom at Paris. Pupil of Benjamin Constant, Jules Le-
febvre, and J. P. Laurens.
Mile. Perrier's picture of " Jeanne d' Arc " is in a pro-
vincial museum; several pictures by her belonging to the
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 271
city of Paris are scenes connected with the schools of
the city â€” " Breakfast at the Communal School " ; " After
School at Montmartre " were at the Salon des Artistes
Frangais, 1903 ; others are " Manual Labor at the Mater-
nal School," " Flowers," and " Recreation of the Children
at the Maternal School." Of the last Gabriel Moury
says, "It is one of the really good pictures in the
This artist decorated a villa near Nlmes with four large
panels representing the " Seasons," twelve small panels,
the " Hours," and pictures of the labors of the fields, such
as the gathering of grapes and picking of olives.
She has painted numerous portraits of children and a
series of pictures illustrating the " Life of the Children of
Paris." They are " Children at School and after School,"
"Children on the Promenade and Their Games," and
"Children at Home."
Perry, Clara Greenleaf . Member of the Copley So-
ciety. Bom at Long Branch, New Jersey. Pupil of Bos-
ton Art Museum School, under Mr. Benson and Mr. Tar-
bell; in Paris pupil of M.Raphael Collin and Robert
Miss Perry has exhibited her portrait of Mrs. U. in
the Salon of the Soci^t6 Nationale des Beaux-Arts
and in Philadelphia. She paints landscapes and por-
Perry, Lilla Cabot. Pupil in Boston of Dennis Bunker
and Alfred Collins ; in Paris of Alfred Stevens, Robert
Fleury, Bouguereau, and Courtois; in Munich of Fritz
272 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Mrs. Perry is essentially a portrait painter, but has
painted landscapes, especially in Japan, where she spent
some years. The scenery of Japan and its wonderfully
beautiful Fuziyama would almost compel an artist to
Mrs. Perry says that her pictures of French and Japan-
ese types are, in fact, portraits as truly as are those she is
asked to paint.
Her picture of a " Japanese Lacema^er " belongs to
Mr. Quincy A. Shaw. It has been much admired in the
exhibitions in which it has been seen.
In the Water-Color Exhibition of the Boston Art Club,
1903, Mrs. Perry's portrait of Miss S. attracted much at-
tention. The delicate flesh tones, the excellent modelling
of the features, and what may be called the whole atmos-
phere of the picture combine in producing an effective
and pleasing example of portraiture.
Perugini, Caterina E. An Italian painter living in
London, where she frequently exhibits her excellent pict-
ures. Among them are " A Siesta," " Dolce far Niente,"
" Multiplication," and portraits of Guy Cohn, son of Sir
Guy Campbell, Bart., and of Peggy and Kitty Hammond,
two charming children.
At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited "Faith" and
" Silken Tresses."
Peruginii Mrs. Kate Dickens. Younger daughter of
Charles Dickens and wife of Charles Edward Perugini.
This artist has exhibited at the Royal Academy and at
other exhibitions since 1877. Her pictures are of genre
subjects, such as the " Dolls' Dressmaker," " Little Red-
WOMEl^ IN THE FINE ARTS 273
Cap," "Old Curiosity Shop," etc. At the Academy,
1903, she exhibited " Some Spring Flowers."
[No repfy to circular^
Peters, Anna. Medals at Vienna, 1 873 ; London, 1 874 ;
Munich, 1876; Amsterdam and Antwerp, 1877. Bom at
Mannheim, 1843. Pupil of her father, Pieter Francis
Peters, in Stuttgart. Miss Peters travelled over Europe
and was commissioned to decorate apartments in the
royal castles at Stuttgart and Friedrichshafen.
Her picture of " Roses and Grapes " is in the National
Gallery, London; and one of "Autumn Flowers" in the
Museum at Stuttgart.
PiUiniy Margherita. An Italian painter living in Paris.
Her most successful exhibitions have been those at
Rome, in 1883, when her "Silk-cocoon Carder of Quim-
per"and "Charity" appeared; and at Turin, in 1884,
when "The Three Ages," "The Poor Blind Man," and a
portrait of the Prince of Naples were shown, all exquisite in
sentiment and excellent in execution. The " Silk-cocoon
Carder of Quimper " has been thus noticed by De Rengis :
"If I am not mistaken, Signora Margherita Pillini has
also taken this road, full of modernity, but not free from
great danger. Her ' Silk-cocoon Carder' is touched with
great disdain for every suggestion of the old school.
Rare worth â€” if worth it is â€” ^that a young woman should
be carried by natural inclination into such care for detail."
Pinto-Sezzi| Ida. Silver medal at the Beatrice Exposi-
tion, Florence, 1890. Since 1882 pictures by this artist
have been seen in various Italian exhibitions. In the
274 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Beatrice of that year she exhibited " Cocciara," and in
1887 " A Friar Cook." Her " Fortune-Teller " attracted
general attention at Venice in 1887.
This artist has also given some time to the decoration
of terra-cotta in oil colors. An amphora decorated with
landscape and figures was exhibited at the Promotrice in
Florence in 1889 ( .?) and much admired.
Poettingy Countess Adrienne. Bom in Chrudim, Bo-
hemia, 1856. The effect of her thorough training under
Blass, Straschirika, and Frittjof Smith is seen in her por-
traits of the Deputy-Burgomaster Franz Khume, which is
in the Rathhaus, Vienna, as well as in those of the Prin-
cess Freda von Oldenburg and the writer, Bertha von
Suttner. Her excellence is also apparent in her genre
subjects, " In the Land of Dreams " being an excellent
example of these.
Popert, Charlotte. Silver medal at the Beatrice, Flor-
ence, 1890. Born in Hamburg, 1848. .Pupil in Weimar
of the elder Preller and Carl Gherts ; of P. Joris in Rome,
and Bonnat in Paris. After extensive travels in the Ori-
ent, England, the Netherlands, and Spain, she established
herself in Rome and painted chiefly in water-colors. Her
" Praying Women of Bethlehem " is an excellent example
of her art.
In 1883 she exhibited at Rome, "In the Temple at
Bethlehem"; at Turin in 1884, "In the Seventeenth
Century " and "The Nun " ; at Venice in 1887, an exqui-
site portrait in water-colors.
Poppe-Liideritz, Elizabeth. Honorable mention, Ber-
lin, 1 891. For the second time only the Senate of the
Doge's Palace, Venice
ENGRAVED BY CAROLINE A. POWELL
Digitized by VjOOQIC
â€¢WOl^EN IN THE FINE ARTS. 275
Berlin Academy conferred this distinction upon a woman.
The artist exhibited two portraits, " painted with Holbein-
like delicacy and truthfulness " â€” if we may agree with
This artist was bom in Berlin in 1858, and was a pupil
of Gussow. Her best pictures are portraits, but her
" Sappho " and " Euphrosine " are excellent works.
Popp, Babette. Bom in Regensburg, 1800; died about
1840. Made her studies in Munich. In the Cathedral
of Regensburg is her "Adoration of the Kings."
Powell, Caroline A. Bronze medal at Chicago, 1893;
silver medal at Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Society of
American Wood-Engravers. and of the Boston Society of
Arts and Crafts. Bom in Dublin, Ireland. Pupil of W.
J. Linton and Timothy Cole.
Miss Powell was an illustrator of the Century Maga-
zine from 1880 to 1895. The engraving after "The Res-
urrection" by John La Farge, in the Church of St.
Thomas, New York, is the work of this artist. She also
illustrated " Engravings on Wood," by William M. Lafifan,
in which book her work is commended.
Miss Powell is now employed by Messrs. Houghton,
Mifflin & Co., and writes me: "So far as I know, I am,
at present, the only woman in America engaged in the
practise of engraving as a fine art."
Prestel, Maria Catharina; family name HoU. Bom in
Nuremburg, 1747. Her husband, Johan Prestel, was her
teacher, and she was of great assistance in the work
which he produced at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 1783. In
1786, however, she separated from him and went to Lon-
276 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS.'
don, where she devoted herself to aquatints. She exe-
cuted more than seventy plates, some of them of great
Prestely Ursula Magdalena. Bom in Nuremburg.
1777-1845, Daughter of the preceding artist. She
worked in Frankfort and London, travelled in France
and Switzerland, and died in Brussels. Her moonlight
scenes, some of her portraits, and her picture of the
" Falls of the Rhine near Lauf en," are admirable.
Preuschen, Hermine von Schmidt; married name, Tel-
man. Bom at Darmstadt, 1857. n Pupil of Ferdinand
Keller in Karlsmhe. Travelled in Spain, France, Italy,
the Netherlands, and Denmark. She remained some
time in Munich, Berlin, and Rome, establishing her stu-
dio in these cities and painting a variety of subjects.
Her flower pictures are her best works. Her " Mors Im-
perator " created a sensation by reason of its striking
qualities rather than by intrinsic artistic merit. In the
gallery at Metz is her picture of " Irene von Spilimberg
on the Funeral Gondola.*"
In 1883 she exhibited in Rome, "Answered," a study
of thistles ; " In Autumn," a variety of f mits ; and " Ques-
tions," a charming study of carnations. At Berlin, in
1890, "Meadow Saffron and Cineraria" was praised for
its glowing color and artistic arrangement. A Viennese
critic, the same year, lamented that an artist of so much
talent should paint lifeless objects only. In Berlin, in