368 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
fully employed. She worked in wax, and her full-length
portrait of Lord Chatham was placed in Westminster Ab-
bey, protected by a glass case. This attracted much at-
tention, and the London journals praised the artist. She
made portraits of the King and Queen, who, attracted by
her brilliant conversation, admitted her to an intimacy at
Buckingham House, which could not then have been ac-
corded to an untitled English woman.
Mrs. Wright made many portraits of distinguished peo-
ple ; but few, if any, of these can now be seen, although
it is said that some of them have been carefully preserved
by the families who possess them.
To Americans Mrs. Wright is interesting by reason of
her patriotism, which amounted to a passion. She is
credited with having been an important source of informa-
tion to the American leaders in the time of the Revolu-
tion. In this she was frank and courageous, making no
secret of her views. She even ventured to reprove
George III. for his attitude toward the Colonists, and by
this boldness lost the royal favor.
She corresponded with Franklin, in Paris, and new ap-
pointments, or other important movements in the British
army, were speedily known to him.
Washington, when he knew that Mrs. Wright wished
to make a bust of him, replied in most flattering terms
that he should think himself happy to have his portrait
made by her. Mrs. Wright very much desired to make
likenesses of those who signed the Treaty of Peace, and
of those who had taken a prominent part in making it.
She wrote: "To shame the English king, I would go to
I O 2
a o "^
Digitized by VjOOQIC
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 369
any trouble and expense, and add my mite to the honor
due to Adams, Jefferson, and others."
Though so essentially American as a woman, the best of
her professional life was passed in England, where she
was liberally patronized and fully appreciated. Dunlap
calls her an extraordinary woman, and several writers
have mentioned her power of judging the character of her
visitors, in which she rarely made a mistake, and chose
her friends with unusual intelligence.
Her eldest daughter married in America, and was well
known as a modeller in wax in New York. Her younger
daughter married the artist Hoppner, a rival in portraiture
of Stuart and Lawrence, while her son Joseph was a portrait
painter. His likeness of Washington was much admired.
Wulfraaty Margaretta. Bom at Amheim. 1678-1741.
Was a pupil of Caspar Netscher of Heidelberg, whose lit-
tle pictures are of fabulous value. Although he was so
excellent a painter he was proud of Margaretta, whose
pictures were much admired in her day. Her " Musical
Conversation" is in the Museum of Schwerin. Her
" Cleopatra " and " Semiramis " are in the Gallery at Am-
Tandelly Enid. Special Designer's Medal, Chicago,
1893; silver medal, Tennessee Exposition; Honorable
Mention, Buffalo, 1901. Member of National Sculpture
Society; Municipal Art Society; National Arts Club, all
of New York. Bom in Louisville, Kentucky. Graduate
of Cincinnati Art Academy. Pupil of Philip Martiny in
New York, and in Paris of Frederick McMonnies and
370 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
The principal works of this artist axe the Mayor Lewis
monument at New Haven, Connecticut; the Chancellor
Garland Memorial, Vanderbilt University, Nashville;
Carrie Brown Memorial Foimtain, Providence; Daniel
Boone and the Ruff Foimtain, Louisville.
Richard Ladegast, in January, 1902, wrote .a sketch of
Miss Yandeirs life and works for the Outlook, in which
he says that Miss Yandell was the first woman to become
a member of the National Sculpture Society. I quote
from his article as follows: "The most imposing product
of Miss Yandeirs genius was the heroic figure of Athena,
twenty-five feet in height, which stood in front of the re-
production of the Parthenon at the Nashville Exposition.
This is the largest figure ever designed by a woman.
" The most artistic was probably the little silver tankard
which she did for the Tiffany Company, a bit of modelling
which involves the figures of a fisher-boy and a mermaid.
The figure of Athena is large and correct; those of the
fisher-boy and mermaid poetic and impassioned. . . . The
boy kisses the maid when the lid is lifted. He is always
looking over the edge, as if yearning for the fate that each
new drinker who lifts the lid forces upon him."
Of the Carrie Brown Memorial Fountain he says:
"The design of the fountain represents the struggle of
life symbolized by a group of figures which is intended to
portray, according to Miss Yandell, not the struggle for
bare existence, but ' the attempt of the immortal soul
within us to free itself from the handicaps and entangle-
ments of its earthly environments. It is the development
of character, the triumph of intellectuality and spirituality
Made for St. Louis Exposition
STATUE OF DANIEL KOONE
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WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 371
I have striven to express/ Life is symbolized by the
figure of a woman, the soul by an angel, and the earthly
tendencies — duty, passion, and avarice — by male figures.
Life is represented as struggling to free herself from the
gross earthly forms that tling to her. The figure of Life
shows a calm, placid strength, well calculated to conquer
in a struggle; and the modelling of her clinging robes and
the active muscle of the male figures is firm and life-like.
The mantle of truth flows from the shoulders of the an-
gel, forming a drapery for the whole group, and serving
as a support for the basin, the edges of which are orna-
mented with dolphins spouting water.
"The silhouette formed by the mass of the fountain is
most interesting and successful from all points of view.
The lines of the composition are large and dignified, espe-
cially noticeable in the modelling of the individual figures,
which is well studied and technically excellent."
At Buffalo, where this fountain was exhibited, it re-
ceived honorable mention.
Miss Yandell has been commissioned to execute a sym-
bolical figure of victory and a statue of Daniel Boone for
the St. Louis Exposition.
Ykensi Laurence Catherine. Elected to the Guild of
Antwerp in 1659. Bom in Antwerp. Pupil of her
father, Jan Ykens. Flowers, fruits, and insects were her
favorite sub j ects, and were painted with rare delicacy. Two
of these pictures are in the Museo del Prado, at Madrid.
They are a "Festoon of Flowers and Fruits with a
Medallion in the Centre, on which is a Landscape";
and a " Garland of Flowers with a Similar Medallion."
372 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
ZiesenslSy Margaretta. There were few women artists
in the Scandinavian countries in the early years of the
eighteenth century. Among them was Margaretta Zie-
sensis, a Danish lady, who painted a large number of por-
traits and some historical subjects.
She was best known, however, for her miniature copies
of the works of famous artists. These pictures were
much the same in effect as the "picture-miniatures " now
in vogue. Her copy of Correggio's Zingarella was much
admired, and was several times repeated.
Containing names previously omitted and additions.
The asterisk (*) denotes preceding mention of the artist.
* Bildersi Marie van Bosse. This celebrated landscape
painter became an artist through her determination to be
an artist rather than because of any impelling natural
force driving her to this career.
After patient and continuous toil, she felt that she was
developing an artistic impulse. The advice of Van de
Sande-Bakhuyzen greatly encouraged her, and the candid
and friendly criticism of Bosboom inspired her with the
courage to exhibit her work in public.
In the summer of 1875, in Vorden, she met Johannes
Bilders, under whose direction she studied landscape
painting. This master took great pains to develop the
originality of his pupil rather than to encourage her adapt-
ing the manner of other artists. During her stay in Vor-
den she made a distinct gain in the attainment of an in*
dividual style of painting.
After her return to her home at The Hague, Bilders
established a studio there and showed a still keener in-
terest in his pupil. This artistic friendship resulted in
the marriage of the two artists, and in 1880 they estab-
lished themselves in Oosterbeck.
374 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Here began the intimate study of the heath which so
largely influenced the best pictures by Frau Bilders. In
the garden of the picturesque house in which the two
artists lived was an old bam, which became her studio,
where, early and late, in all sorts of weather, she devot-
edly observed the eflFects later pictured on her canvases.
At this time she executed one of her best works, now in
the collection of the Prince Regent of Brunswick. It is
thus described by a Dutch writer in Rooses' "Dutch
Painters of the Nineteenth Century " :
" It represents a deep pool, overshadowed by old gnarled
willows in their autumnal foliage, their silvery trunks
bending over, as if to see themselves in the clear, still
water. On the edge of the pool are flowers and varie-
gated grasses, the latter looking as if they wished to
crowd out the former — as if they were in the right and
the flowers in the wrong; as if such bright-hued creatures
had no business to eclipse their more sombre tones; as if
they^ocA tAey bIohq were suited to this silent, forsaken
Johannes Bilders was fully twenty-five years older than
his wife, and the failure of both his physical and mental
powers in his last days required her absolute devotion to
him. In spite of this, the garden studio was not wholly
forsaken, and nearly every day she accomplished some-
thing there. After her husband's death she had a long
illness. On her recovery she returned to The Hague
and took the studio which had been that of the artist
The life of the town was wearisome to her, but she
found a compensation in her re-union with her old friends,
and with occasional visits to the heath she passed most of
her remaining years in the city. '
Her favorite subjects were landscapes with birch and
beech trees, and the varying phases of the heath and of
solitary and unfrequented scenes. Her works are all in
private collections. Among them are " The Forester's
Cottage," "Autumn in Doorwerth," "The Old Bh-ch,"
and the " Old Oaks of Wodan at Sunset."
Boznanska^ Olga. Bom in Cracow, where she was a
pupil of Matejko. Later, in Munich, she studied with
Kricheldorf and Durr. Her mother was a French woman,
and critics trace both Polish and French characteristics
in her work.
She paints portraits and genre subjects. She is skilful
in seizing salient characteristics, and her chief aim is to
preserve the individuality of her sitters and models. She
skilfully manages the side-lights, and by this means pro-
duces strong effects. After the first exhibition of her
pictures in Berlin, her " God-given talent " was several
times mentioned by the art critics.
At Munich she made a good impression by her pictures
exhibited in 1893 and 1895; at the Exposition in Paris,
1889, her portrait and a study in pastel were much ad-
mired and were generously praised in the art journals.
* Cox, Louise. The picture by Mrs. Cox, reproduced
in this book, illustrates two lines in a poem by Austin
Dobson, called " A Song of Angiola in Heaven."
" Then set I lips to hers, and felt,—
Ah, God,— the hard pain fade and melt."
376 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
De Morgan, Emily. Family name Pickering. When
sixteen years old, this artist entered the Slade School,
and eighteen months later received the Slade Scholar-
ship, by which she was entitled to benefit for three years.
At the end of the first year, however, she resigned this
privilege because she did not wish to accept the condi-
tions of the gift.
As a child she had loved the pictures of the precursors
of Raphael, in the National Gallery, and her first exhib-
ited picture, " Ariadne in Naxos," hung in the Grosvenor
Gallery in 1877, proved how closely she had studied these
old masters. At this time she knew nothing of the Eng-
lish Pre-Raphaelites; later, however, she became one of
the most worthy followers of Bume-Jones.
About the time that she left the Slade School one of .
her uncles took up his residence in Florence, where she
has spent several winters in work and study.
One of her most important pictures is inscribed with
* Dark is the valley of shadows,
Empty the power of kings ;
' Blind is the favor of fortune,
Hungry the caverns of death.
Dim is the light from beyond,
Unanswered the riddle of life."
This pessimistic view of the world is illustrated by the
figure of a king, who, in the midst of ruins, places his foot
upon the prostrate form of a chained victim; Happiness,
with bandaged eyes, scatters treasures into the bottom-
less pit, a desperate youth being about to plunge into its
depths; a kneeling woman, praying for light, sees bril-
liant figures soaring upward, their beauty charming roses
from the thorn bushes.
Other pictures by this artist remind one of the works of
Botticelli. Of her " Ithuriel " W. S. Sparrow wrote: " It
may be thought that this Ithuriel is too mild — too much
like Shakespeare's Oberon — to be in keeping with the
terrific tragedy depicted in the first four books of the
• Paradise Lost.* Eve, too, lovely as she is, seems to
bear no likelihood of resemblance to Milton's superb
mother of mankind. But the picture has a sweet, serene
grace which should make us glad to accept from Mrs.
De Morgan another Eve and another Ithuriel, true chil-
dren of her own fancy."
The myth of "Boreas and Orithyia," though faulty
perhaps in technique, is good in conception and arrange-
Mrs. De Morgan has produced some impressive works
in sculpture. Among these are "Medusa," a bronze
bust; and a "Mater Dolorosa," in terra-cotta.
Deschlyi Irene. Bom in Bucharest, the daughter of a
Roumanian advocate. She gave such promise as an artist
that a government stipend was bestowed on her, which
enabled her to study in Paris, where she was a pupil of
Laurens and E. Carri^re.
Her work is tinged with the melancholy and intensity
of her nature — perhaps of her race; yet there is some-
thing in her grim conceptions, or rather in her treatment
of them, that demands attention and compels admiration.
Even in her " Sweet Dream," which represents the half-
378 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
nude figure of a young girl holding a rose in her hand,
there is more sadness than joy, as though she said, " It is
only a dream, after all." " Chanson," exhibited at the
Paris Exposition, 1900, displays something of the same
Eristow-Kasak, Princess Marie. Among the many
Russian portraits in the Paris Exposition, 1900, two, the
work of this pupil of Michel de Zichys, stood out in splen-
did contrast with the crass realism or the weak idealism
of the greater number. One was a half-length portrait
of the laughing Mme. Paquin; full of life and movement
were the pose of the figure, the fall of the draperies, and
the tilt of the expressive fan. The other was the spirited
portrait of Baron von Friedericks, a happy combination
of cavalier and soldier in its manly strength.
When but sixteen years old, the Princess Marie roused
the admiration of the Russian court by her portrait of the
Grand Duke Sergius. This led to her painting portraits
of various members of the royal family while she was still
a pupil of De Zichys.
After her marriage she established herself in Paris,
where she endeavors to preserve an incognito as an artist
in order to work in the most quiet and devoted manner.
Goebeler, Elise. This artist studied drawing under
Steffeck and color under Diirr, in Munich. Connoisseurs
in art welcome the name of Elise Goebeler in exhibitions,
and recall the remarkable violet-blue lights and the hazy
atmosphere in her works, out of which emerges some
charming, graceful figure; perhaps a young girl on whose
white shoulders the light falls, while a shadow half con-
ceals the rest of the form. These dreamy, Madonna-like
beauties are the result of the most severe and protracted
study. Without the remarkable excellence of their tech-
nique and the unusual quality of their color they would
be the veriest sentimentalities; but wherever they are
seen they command admiration.
Her "Cinderella," exhibited in Berlin in 1880, was
bought by the Emperor; another picture of the same
subject, but quite different in effect, was exhibited in
Munich in 1883. In the same year, in Berlin, "A Young
Girl with Pussy-Willows" and "A Neapolitan Water
Carrier" were seen. In 1887, in Berlin, her ''Vanitas,
Vanitatum Vanitas " and the " Net-Mender " were exhib-
ited, and ten years later " Cheerfulness " was highly com-
mended. At Munich, in 1899, her picture, called " Ele-
gie," attracted much attention and received unusual
* Herbelin, Jeane Mathilde. This miniaturist has re-
cently died at the age of eighty-four. In addition to the
medals and honors she had received previous to 1855, it
was that year decided that her works should be admitted
to the Salon without examination. She was a daughter
of General Habert, and a niece of Belloc, under whom
she studied her art while still very young. Her early
ambition was to paint large pictures, but Delacroix per-
suaded her to devote herself to miniature painting, in
which art she has been called " the best in the world."
She adopted the full tones and broad style to which
she was accustomed in her larger works, and revolution-
ized the method of miniature paintmg in which stippling
38o WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
had prevailed. When eighteen years old, she went to
Italy, where she made copies from the masters and did
much original work as well.
Among her best portraits are those of the Baroness
Habert, Guizot, Rossini, Isabey, Robert-Fleury, M. and
Mme. de Torigny, Count de Zeppel, and her own por-
trait. Besides portraits, she painted a picture called "A
Child Holding a Rose," "Souvenk," and "A Young
Girl Playing with a Fan."
Johnson, Adelaide. Bom at Plymouth, Illinois. This
sculptor first studied in the St. Louis School of Design,
and in 1877, at the St. Louis Exposition, received two
prizes for the excellence of her wood carving. During
several years she devoted herself to interior decoration,
designing not only the form and color to be used in deco-
rating edifices, but also the furniture and all necessary
details to complete them and make them ready for use.
Being desirous of becoming a sculptor. Miss Johnson
went, in 1883, to England, Germany, and Italy. In Rome
she was a pupil of Monteverde and of Altini, who was
then president of the Academy of St. Luke.
After two years she returned to America and began
her professional career in Chicago, where she remained
but a year before establishing herself in Washington.
Her best-known works are portrait busts, which are
numerous. Many of these have been seen in the Corco-
ran Art Gallery and in other public exhibitions.
Of her bust of Susan B. Anthony, the sculptor, Lorado
Taft, said : " Your bust of Miss Anthony is better than
mine. I tried to make her real, but you have made her
not only real, but ideal." Among her portraits are those
of General Logan, Dr. H. W. Thomas, Isabella Beecher
Hooker, William Tebb, Esq., of London, etc.
Eoegeli Linda. Born at The Hague. A pupil of
Stauffer-Bem in Berlin and of Herterich in Munich. Her
attachment to impressionism leads this artist to many ex-
periments in color — or, as one critic wrote, " to play with
She apparently prefers to paint single figures of women
and young girls, but her works include a variety of sub-
jects. She also practise^ etching, pen-and-ink drawing, as
well as crayon and water-color sketching. The light
touch in some of her genre pictures is admirable, and in
contrast, the portrait of her father — the court preacher —
displays a masculine firmness in its handling, and is a
very striking picture.
In 1895 she exhibited at the Munich Secession the por-
trait of a woman, delicate but spirited, and a group which
was said to set aside every convention in the happiest
Eroener, Magda. The pictures of flowers which this
artist paints prove her to be a devoted lover of nature.
She exhibited at Diisseldorf, in 1893, a captivating study
of red poppies and another of flowering vetch, which were
bought by the German Emperor. The following year
she exhibited two landscapes, one of which was so much
better than the other that it was suggested that she might
have been assisted by her husband, the animal painter,
One of her most delightful pictures, " A Quiet Comer,"
382 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
represents a retired nook in a garden, overgrown with
foliage and flowers, so well painted that one feels that
they must be fragrant.
Lepsiusi Sabina. Daughter of Gustav Graf and wife
of the portrait painter, Lepsius. She was a pupil of Gus-
sow, then of the Julian Academy in Paris, and later stud-
ied in Rome. Her pictures have an unusual refinement;
like some other Germ^ women artists, she aims at giv-
ing a subtle impression of character and personality in
her treatment of externals, and her work has been said to
affect one like music.
The portrait of her little daughter, painted in a manner
which suggests Van Dyck, is one of the works which en-
title her to consideration.
Leysteii Judith. A native of Haarlem on Zandam, the
date of her birth being unknown. She died in 1660. In
1636 she married the well-known artist, Jan Molemaer.
She did her work at a most interesting period in Dutch
painting. Her earliest picture is dated 1629; she was
chosen to the Guild of St. Luke at Haarlem in 1633.
Recent investigations make it probable that certain
pictures which have for generations been attributed to
Frans Hals were the work of Judith Leyster. In 1893 a
most interesting lawsuit, which occurred in London and
was reported in the Times, concerned a picture known as
"The Fiddlers," which had been sold as a work of Frans
Hals for ;f4,Soo. The purchasers foimd that this
claim was not well founded, and sought to recover their
A searching investigation triaced the ownership of the
work back to a connoisseur of the time of William III.
In 1678 it was sold for a small sum, and was then called
"A Dutch Courtesan Drinking with a Young Man."
The monogram on the picture was called that of Frans
Hals, but as reproduced and explained by C. Hofstede de
Groot in the ^^ Jahrbtuh fiir Kmiglich-preussischen Kunst-
Sammlungen'' for 1893, it seems evident that the signa-
ture is J. L. and not F. H.
Similar initials are on the " Flute Player," in the gal-
lery at Stockholm; the "Seamstress," in The Hague
Gallery, and on a picture in the Six collection at Amster-
It is undeniable that these pictures all show the influ-
ence of Hals, whose pupil Judith Leyster may have been,
and whose manner she caught as Mile. Mayer caught that
of Greuze and Prud'hon. At all events, the present evi-
dence seems to support the claim that the world is in-
debted to Judith Leyster for these admirable pictures.
Mach| Hildegarde von. This painter studied in Dres-
den and Munich, and under the influence of Anton Pepi-
nos she developed her best characteristics, her fine sense
of form and of color. She admirably illustrates the mod-
em tendency in art toward individual expression — a ten-
dency which permits the following of original methods,
and affords an outlet for energy and strength of tempera-
Fraulein Mach has made a name in both portrait and
genre painting. Her " Waldesgrauen " represents two
naked children in an attitude of alarm as the forest grows
dark around them ; it gives a vivid impression of the mys-
384 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
terious charm and the possible dangers which the deep