natural things, and each picture, as a rule, contains but a
single figure. She believes that a dilapidated Skagen hovel
may meet every demand of beauty. " Maageplukkeme "
— "Gull plucking "—exhibited in 1883, has been called
one of the most sympathetic and unaffected pieces of
genre painting ever produced by a Danish artist.
An "Old Woman of Skagen," "A Mother and Child,"
and " Coffee is Ready " were among the most attractive
of her pictures of homely, familiar Danish life. The last
represents an old fisher, who has fallen asleep on the
bench by the stove, and a young woman is waking him
with the above announcement.
" A Funeral Scene " is in the Copenhagen Gallery. The
coffin is hung with green wreaths ; the walls of the room
are red; the people stand around with a serious air. The
whole story is told in a simple, homely way.
In the "History of Modem Painters" we read: "All
her pictures are softly tender and full of fresh light. But
the execution is downright and virile. It is only in little
touches, in fine and delicate traits of observation which
would probably have escaped a man, that these paintings
are recognized as the work of a feminine artist."
Antigna, Mme. H61^ne Marie. Bom at Melun. Pupil
1 8 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
of her husband, Jean Pierre Antigna, and of Delacroix.
Her best works are small genre subjects, which are ex-
cellent and much admired by other artists.
In 1877 she exhibited at the Paris Salon "On n'entre
pas!" and the "New Cider"; m 1876, an "Interior at
Saint Brieuc" and "A Stable"; in 1875, "Tant va la
cruche ^ Teau," etc.
Appia, Mme. Thdrtee. Member of the Society of the
Permanente Exposition of the Athdnte, Geneva. Bom
at Lausanne. Pupil of Mercid and Rodin at Paris.
Mme. Appia, before her marriage, exhibited at the Paris
Salon several years continuously. Since then she has
exhibited at Turin and Geneva.
She has executed many portrait busts ; among them are
those of M. Guillaume Monod, Paris, Commander Paul
Meiller, and a medallion portrait of Pfere Hyacinthe, etc.
Argyll, Her Royal Highness, the Princess Louise,
Duchess of. This artist has exhibited her work since
1868. Although her sketches in water-color are clever
and attractive, it is as a sculptor that her best work has
been done. Pupil of Sir J. E. Boehne, R.A., her unusual
natural talent was carefully developed under his advice,
and her unflagging industry and devotion to her work
have enabled her to rival sculptors who live by their art.
Her busts and lesser subjects are refined and delicate,
while possessing a certain individuality which this lady is
known to exercise in her direction of the assistant she is
forced to employ. Her chief attainment, the large seated
figure of Queen Victoria in Kensington Gardens, is a
work of which she may well be proud.
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 19
Of this statue Mr. M. H. Spielmann writes: "The
setting up of the figure, the arrangement of the drapery,
the modelling, the design of the pedestal — all the parts, in
fact — are such that the statue must be added to the short
list of those which are genuine embellishments to the city
The Duchess of Argyll has been commissioned to de-
sign a statue of heroic size, to be executed in bronze and
placed in Westminster Abbey, to commemorate the colo-
nial troops who gave up their lives in South Africa in the
Arnold, Annie R. Merrylees. Bom at Birkenhead. A
Scotch miniature painter. Studied in Edinburgh, first in
the School of Art, under Mr. Hodder, and later in the life
class of Robert Macgregor; afterward in Paris under
Mrs. Arnold writes me that she thinks it important for
miniature painters to do work in a more realistic medium
occasionally, and something of a bolder character than can
be done in their specialty. She never studied miniature
painting, but took it up at the request of a patroness who,
before the present fashion for this art had come about,
complained that she could find no one who painted minia-
tures. This lady gave the artist a number of the Girls^
Own Joumaly containing directions for miniature paint-
ing, after which Mrs. Arnold began to work in this
specialty. She has painted a miniature of Lady Evelyn
Cavendish, owned by the Marquis of Lansdowne; others
of the Earl and Countess of Mar and Kellie, the first of
which belongs to the Royal Scottish Academy ; one of
20 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Lady Helen Vincent, one of the daughter of Lionel
Phillips, Esquire, and several for prominent families in
Baltimore and Washington. Her work is seen in the
exhibitions of the Royal Academy, London.
In 1903 she exhibited miniatures of Miss M. L. Fenton,
the late Mrs. Cameron Corbett, and the Hon. Thomas
Erskine, younger son of the Earl of Mar and Kellie.
Ashe, Margaret L.
\No reply to circular^
Assche, Amdlie van. Portrait painter and court painter
to Queen Louise Marie of Belgium. She was born in
1804, and was the daughter of Henri Jean van Assche.
Her first teachers were Mile. F. Lagarenine and D'Antis-
sier; she later went to Paris, where she spent some time
as a pupil of Millet. She made her ddbut at Ghent in
1820, and in Brussels in 1821, with water-colors and pas-
tels, and some of her miniatures figured in the various
exhibitions at Brussels between 1830 and 1848, and in
Ghent between 1835 and 1838. Her portraits, which are
•thought to be very good likenesses, are also admirable in
color, drawing, and modelling; and her portrait of Leopold
I., which she painted in 1839, won for her the appointment
Assche, Isabel Catherine van. She was bom at Brus-
sels, 1794. Landscape painter. She took a first prize at
Ghent in 1829, and became a pupil of her uncle, Henrf
van Assche, who was often called the painter of water-
falls. As early as 1 812 and 181 3 two of her water-colors
were displayed in Ghent and Brussels respectively, and
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 21
she was represented in the exhibitions at Ghent in 1826,
1829, and 1835 ; at Brussels in 1827 and 1842; at Antwerp
in 1834, 1837, and 1840; and at Liittich in 1836. Her
subjects were all taken from the neighborhood of Brus-
sels, and one of them belongs to the royal collection in the
Pavilion at Haarlem. In 1828 she married Charles Lten
Athes-Perrelety Louise. First prize and honorable men-
tion, class Gillet and Hubert, 1888; class Bovy, first prize,
1889; Academy class, special mention, 1890; School of
Arts, special mention, hors concours, 1891; also, same
year, first prize for sculpture, offered by the Society of
Arts; first prize offered by the Secretary of the Theatre,
1902. Member of the Union des Femmes and Cercle
Artistique. Bom at Neuchatel. Studies made at Geneva
under Mme, Carteret and Mme. Gillet and Professors
Hubert and B. Penn, in drawing and painting; M. Bovy,
in sculpture; and of various masters in decorative work
and engraving. Has executed statues, busts, medallion
portraits ; has painted costumes, according to an invention
of her own, for the Theatre of Geneva, and has also made
tapestries in New York. All her works have been com-
mended in the journals of Greneva and New York.
Austen, Winifred. Member of Society of Women
Artists, London. Bom at Ramsgate. Pupil of Mrs.
Jopling-Rowe and Mr. C. E. Swan. Miss Austen exhibits
in the Royal Academy exhibitions; her works are well
hung — one on the line.
Her favorite subjects are wild animals, and she is suc-
cessful in the illustration of books. Her pictures are in
Digitized by VjOOQ IC
22 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
private collections. At the Royal Academy in 1903 she
exhibited "The Day of Reckoning," a wolf pursued by
hunters through a forest in snow. A second shows a
snow scene, with a wolf baying, while two others are ap-
parently listening to him. "While the wolf, in nightly
prowl, bays the moon with hideous howl," is the legend
with the picture.
Auzon, Pauline. Bom in Paris, where she died. 1775-
1835. She was a pupil of Regnault and excelled in por-
traits of women. She exhibited in the Paris Salon from
1793, when but eighteen years old. Her pictures of the
"Arrival of Marie Louise in Compile" and "Marie
Louise Taking Leave of her Family " are in the Versailles
Babiano y Hendez Nufiez, Carmen. At the Santiago
Exposition, 1875, this artist exhibited two oil paintings
and two landscapes in crayon; at Corufta, 1878, a portrait
in oil of the Marquis de Mendez Nufiez; at Pontevedra,
1880, several pen and water-color studies, three life-size
portraits in crayon, and a work in oil, "A Girl Feeding
Baily, Caroline A. B. Gold medal, Paris Exposition,
1900; third-class medal. Salon, 1901.
\No reply to circular^
Baker, Elizabeth Gowdy. Medal at Cooper Union.
Member of Boston Art Students* Association and Art
Workers* Club for Women, New York. Bom at Xenia,
Ohio. Pupil of the Cooper Union, Art Students' League,
New York School of Art, Philadelphia Academy of Fine
ELIZABETH GOWDY BAKER
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 23
Arts, Cowles Art School, Boston; under Frederick Freer,
William Chase, and Siddons Mowbray.
This artist has painted numerous portraits and has been
especially successful with pictures of children. She has
a method of her own of which she has recently written me.
She claims that it is excellent for life-size portraits in
water-colors. The paper she uses is heavier than any
made in this country, and must be imported; the water-
colors are very strong. Mrs. Baker claims that in this
method she gets "the strength of oils with the dainti-
ness of water-colors, and that it is beautiful for women
and children, and sufficiently strong for portraits of
She rarely exhibits, and her portraits are in private
Bakhuyzen, Juffrouw Gerardina Jacoba van de Sande.
Silver medal at The Hague, 1857; honorary medal at
Amsterdam, 1861; another at The Hague, 1863; and a
medal of 'distinction at Amsterdam Colonial Exhibition,
1 885 . Daughter of the well-known animal painter. From
childhood she painted flowers, and for a time this made
no especial impression on her family or friends, as it was
not an uncommon occupation for girls. At length her
father saw that this daughter, Gerardina — for he had
numerous daughters, and they all desired to be artists —
had talent, and when, in 1850, the Minerva Academy at
Groningen gave out " Roses and Dahlias " as a subject,
and offered a prize of a little more than ten dollars for the
best example, he encouraged Gerardina to enter the con-
test. She received the contemptible reward, and found,
24 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
to her astonishment, that the Minerva Academy consid-
ered the picture as belonging to them.
However, this affair brought the name of the artist to
the knowledge of the public, and she determined to de*
vote herself to the painting of flowers and fruit, in which
she has won unusual fame. There is no sameness in her
pictures, and her subjects do not appear to be " arranged "
— everything seems to have fallen into its place by chance
and to be entirely natural.
Gerardina Jacoba and her brother Julius van de Sande
Bakhuyzen, the landscape painter, share one studio. She
paints with rapidity, as one must in order to picture the
freshness of fast-fading flowers.
Johan Gram writes of her: "If she paints a basket of
peaches or plums, they look as if just picked by the gar-
dener and placed upon the table, without any thought of
studied effect; some leaves covering the fruit, others fall-
ing out of the basket in the most natural way. If she
paints the branch of a rose-tree, it seems to spring from
the ground with its flowers in all their luxurious wanton-
ness, and one can almost imagine one's self inhaling their
delightful perfume. This talented artist knows so well
how to depict with her brush the transparency and soft-
ness of the tender, ethereal rose, that one may seek in
vain among a crowd of artists for her equal. . . . The
paintings are all bright and sunny, and we are filled with
enthusiasm when gazing at her powerful works."
This artist was bom in 1826 and died in 1895. She
lived and died in her family residence. In 1850, at Gro-
ningen, she took for her motto, " Be true to nature and you
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 25
wUl produce that which is good." To this she remained
faithful all her days.
Baldwin, Edith Ella. Bom at Worcester, Massachu-
setts. Studied in Paris at Julian Academy, under Bougue-
reauand Robert-Fleury; at the Colarossi studios under
Courtois, also under Julius Rolshoven and Mosler.
Paints portraits and miniatures. At the Salon of the
Champ de Mars she exhibited a portrait in pastel, in 1901 ;
at exhibitions of the Society of American Artists in 1898
and 1899 she exhibited miniatures; also pictures in oils
at Worcester, 1903.
Bally Caroline Peddle. Honorable mention at Paris
Exhibition, 1900. Member of the Guild of Arts and
Crafts and of Art Students' League. Bom at Terre
Haute, Indiana. Pupil at the Art Students' League,
under Augustus St. Gaudens and Kenyon Cox.
This sculptor exhibited at Paris a Bronze Clock. She
designed for the Tiffany Glass Company the figure of the
Young Virgin and that of the Christ of the Sacred Heart.
A memorial fountain at Flushing, Long Island, a
medallion portrait of Miss Cox of Terre Haute, a monu-
ment to a child in the same city, a Victory in a quadriga,
seen on the United States Building, Paris, 1900, and also
at the Buffalo Exhibition, 1901, are among her important
Ba&ueloSy Antonia. At the Paris Exposition of 1878
several portraits by this artist attracted attention, one of
them being a portrait of herself. At the Exposition of
1880 she exhibited "A Guitar Player."
Barrantes Manuel de Aragon, Maria del Cdrmen. Mem-
26 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
ber of the Academy of San Fernando, Madrid, 1816.
This institution possesses a drawing by her of the "Vir-
gin with the Christ-Child " and a portrait in oil of a person
of the epoch of Charles III.
BashiditBeSf Marie. Bom in Russia of a noble family.
1860-84. This remarkable young woman is interesting
in various phases of her life, but here it is as an artist
that she is to be considered. Her journal, she tells us, is
absolutely truthful, and it is but courteous to take the
story of her artistic career from that. She had lessons in
drawing, as many children do, but she gives no indication
of a special love for art until she visits Florence when
fourteen years old, and her love of pictures and statues is
awakened. She spent hours in galleries, never sitting
down, without fatigue, in spite of her delicacy. She says :
" That is because the things one loves do not tire one. So
long as there are pictures and, better still, statues to be
seen, I am made of iron." After questioning whether
she dare say it, she confides to her readers : " I don't like
the Madonna della Sedia of Raphael. The countenance
of the Virgin is pale, the color is not natural, the expres-
sion is that of a waiting-maid rather than of a Madonna.
Ah, but there is a Magdalen of Titian that enchanted
me. Only — there must always be an only — her wrists are
too thick and her hands are too plump — ^beautiful hands
they would be on a woman of fifty. There are things of
Rubens and Vandyck that are ravishing. The * Men-
songe ' of Salvator Rosa is very natural. I do not speak
as a connoisseur; what most resembles nature pleases me
most. Is it not the aim of painting to copy nature ? I-
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 27
like very much the full, fresh countenance of the wife of
Paul Veronese, painted by him. I like the style of his
faces. I adore Titian and Vandyck; but that poor
Raphael! Provided only no one knows what I write;
people would take me for a fool ; I do not criticise Raphael ;
I do not understand him ; in time I shall no doubt learn
to appreciate his beauties. The portrait of Pope Leo
X. — I think it is — is admirable, however." A surprising
critique for a girl of her age !
When seventeen she made her first picture of any im-
portance. "While they were playing cards last night I
made a rough sketch of the players — and this morning I
transferred the sketch to canvas. I am delighted to have
made a picture of persons sitting down in different atti-
tudes; I copied the position of the hands and arms, the
expressions of the countenance, etc. I had never before
done anything but heads, which I was satisfied to scatter
over the canvas like flowers."
Her enthusiasm for her art constantly increased. She
was not willing to acknowledge her semi-invalidism and
was filled with the desire to do something in art that would
live after her. She was opposed by her family, who
wished her to be in fashionable society. At length she
had her way, and when not quite eighteen began to study
regularly at the Julian Academy. She worked eight and
nine hours a day. Julian encouraged her, she rejoiced
in being with " real artists who have exhibited in the Salon
and whose pictures are bought," and declared herself
" happy, happy ! " Before long M. Julian told her that she
might become a great artist, and the first time that Robert-
28 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
Fleury saw her work and learned how little she had studied,
and that she had never before drawn from a living model,
he said : " Well, then, you have extraordinary talent for
painting; you are specially gifted, and I advise you to
Her masters always assured her of her talent, but she
was much of the time depressed. She admired the \york
of Mile. Breslau and acknowledged herself jealous of the
Swiss artist. But after a year of study she took the
second prize in the Academy, and admitted that she ought
to be content.
Robert-Fleury took much interest in her work, and she
began to hope to equal Breslau; but she was as often
despondent as she was happy, which no doubt was due
to her health, for she was already stricken with the mal-
ady from which she died. Julian wondered why, with her
talent, it was so difficult for her to paint; to herself she
In the autumn of 1879 she took a studio, and, besides
her painting, she essayecj modelling. In 1880 her portrait
of her sister was exhibited at the Salon, and her mother
and other friends were gratified by its acceptance.
At one time Mile. Bashkirtsefif had suffered with her
eyes, and, getting better of that, she had an attack of
deafness. For these reasons she went, in the summer of
1880, to Mont-Dore for treatment, and was much bene-
fited in regard to her deafness, though not cured, and now
the condition of her lungs was recognized, and what she
had realized for some time was told to her family. She
suffered greatly from the restrictions of her condition.
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 29
She could not read very much, as her eyes were not strong
enough to read and paint; she avoided people because of
her deafness ; her cough was very tiresome and her breath-
At the Salon of 1881 her picture was well hung and
was praised by artists. In the autumn of that year she
was very ill, but happily, about the beginning of 1882, she
was much better and again enthusiastic about her paint-
ing. She had been in Spain and excited admiration in
Madrid by the excellence of her copy of " Vulcan," by
Velasquez. January 15th she wrote: "I am wrapped up
in my art. I think I caught the sacred fire in Spain at
the same time that I caught the pleurisy. From being a
student I now begin to be an artist. This sudden influx
of power puts me beside myself with joy. I sketch future
pictures; I dream of painting an Ophelia. Potain has
promised to take me to Saint-Anne to study faces of the
mad women there, and then I am full of the idea of paint-
ing an old man, an Arab, sitting down singing to the ac-
companiment of a kind of guitar; and I am thinking also
of a large affair for the coming Salon — a view of the
Carnival ; but for this it would be necessary that I should
go to Nice — to Naples first for the Carnival, and then to
Nice, where I have my villa, to paint it in open air."
She now met Bastien-Lepage, who, while Jie was some-
what severe in his criticism of her work, told her seriously
that she was " marvellously gifted." This gave her great
pleasure, and, indeed, just at this time the whole tone of
the journal and her art enthusiasm are most comforting
after the preceding despairing months. From this time
30 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
until her death her journal is largely occupied with her
health, which constantly failed, but her interest in art and
her intense desire to do something worthy of a great artist
— something that Julian, Robert-Fleury, and, above all,
Bastien-Lepage, could praise, seemed to give her strength,
and, in spite of the steady advance of the fell tuberculosis
from which she was dying, she worked devotedly.
She had a fine studio in a new home of the family, and
was seized with an ardent desire to try sculpture — she
did a little in this art — ^but that which proved to be her
last and best work was her contribution to the Salon of
1884. This brought her to the notice of the public, and
she had great pleasure, although mingled with the convic-
tion of her coming death and the doubts of her ability to
do more. Of this time she writes: "Am I satisfied? It
is easy to answer that question ; I am neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied. My success is just enough to keep me from
being unhappy. That is all."
Again: "I have just returned from the Salon. We
remained a long time seated on a bench before the pic-
ture. It attracted a good deal of attention, and I smiled
to myself at the thought that no one would ever imagine
the elegantly dressed young girl seated before it, showing
the tips of her little boots, to be the artist. Ah, all this
is a great deal better than last year ! Have I achieved a
success, in the true, serious meaning of the word ? I al-
most think so."
The picture was called the " Meeting," and shows seven
gamins talking together before a wooden fence at the
comer of a street. Frangois Coppte wrote of it : " It is a
WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS 31
chef d^ceuvre^ I maintain. The faces and the attitudes of
the children are strikingly real. The glimpse of meagre
landscape expresses the sadness of the poorer neighbor-
Previous to this time, her picture of two boys, called
"Jean and Jacques," had been reproduced in the Russian
Illustration^ and she now received many requests for per-
mission to, photograph and reproduce her " Meeting," and
connoisseurs made requests to be admitted to her studio.
All this gratified her while it also surprised. She was at
work on a picture called " Spring," for which she went to
Sfevres, to paint in the open.
Naturally she hoped for a Salon medal, and her friends
encouraged her wish — but alas! she was cruelly disap-
pointed. Many thought her unfairly treated, but it was
remembered that the year before she had publicly spoken
of the committee as " idiots " !
People now wished to buy her pictures and in many
ways she realized that she was successful. How pathetic
her written words : " I have spent six years, working ten
hours a day, to gain what ? The knowledge of all I have
yet to learn in my art, and a fatal disease ! "
It is probable that the " Meeting " received no medal
because it was suspected that Mile. Bashkirtseff had been
aided in her work. No one could tell who had originated
this idea, but as some medals had been given to women
who did not paint their pictures alone, the committee
were timid, although there seems to have been no ques-
tion as to superiority.
A friendship had grown up between the families Bash-
32 WOMEN IN THE FINE ARTS
kirtseff and Bastien-Lepage. Both the great artist and
the dying girl were very ill, but for some time she and
her mother visited him every two or three days. He
seemed almost to live on these visits and complained if
they were omitted. At last, ill as Bastien-Lepage was,
he was the better able of the two to make a visit. On
October i6th she writes of his being brought to her and
made comfortable in one easy-chair while she was in
another. "Ah, if I could only paint!" he said. "And