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History of Seattle from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) online

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THE NEW YOEK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR. r.FNOX>.VD

TIL 13 EN FOUNDATIONS

" L




CLARENCE E. BAGLEY



HISTORY OF

SEATTLE

From the Earliest Settlement to the
Present Time



BY



CLARENCE B. BAGLEY



ILLUSTRATED



VOLUME



CHICAGO

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY
1916



THE WEW YORK
, PUBLIC LIBRARY

1686712 A

ASTOR, LENOX AND
I TIUDEN FOUNDATIONS
R 1833 L



Copyright, 1916, by
C. B. BAfiLEY



PREFACE



The reader, who may give tlicse pajjes more than a passing glance, will
discover that the writer has presented an account of events and not a history
of the men who were the actors in them.

The reasons for this are twofold. First, lack of fitness for biographical
writing; and second, of far nKjre ini])()rtancc. the belief that the time is not yet
ripe for a truthful and ini])arli;d W(irk of that Idiid. Ilie city is young; of its
founders and of those who helped to erect the present structure, in all its magnili-
cence. many are yet here. When these shall have gone to their final account will
i)c time enough to deal with tin- jiersonal element of its pioneers and builders.

The ]jrei)aration of a History of Seattle has, in effect, been the e.\ploratif)n
<jf a new field and the amount of ])atient research and careful investigation
involved has been a task of colossal proportions.

The ])rinted and written records of tlie first twenty years of Seattle's existence
are scanty almost beyond belief. .\ot until 1863 was a newspaper established
here and, for many years, more s])ace in it was devoted to eastern and foreign
jiolitics than to the record of local passing events, b'ew, if any, pioneers kept
di.iries and none of these, except that of the writer, has been accessible.

Ilis own local recollections cover nearly all tiie years since Seattle's found-
ing and he has not deemed it necessary, excepting u])0n rare occasions, to Cjuote
.lutborities regarding matters within the range of his personal knowledge.

When this work was begun it was contemplated that his connection with it
should be that of editor only ; to give aid and counsel in its jireparation and to read
:md approve it in advance of its publication. Not until late in the year 1915
was the constructive work ])laced in hi.s hands and, the publishers being desirous
t)f its delivcrv to the sub.scribers as soon as ])ossil)le, he and his co-workers have
•iince given to it long hours of imrcmitting toil. The utmost condensation has
been observed consistent with a ])ro])er ])rescntation of the topics under dis-
cussion.

Messrs. Welford llealon. I'loyd C. Kaylor and \ ictor j. I'arrar ha\e done
much work in its preparation and the writer's thanks are also here extended
to Judge Roger 5?. Greene, Dr. TI. Eugene .Mien and Messrs. TIarry W. P. ring-
hurst and A. A. Braymer for notable aid and kindly counsel during the progress
of the work.

Seattle, Washington, May i, 1916. CL.\KF..\rr: P.. P.\f;i.F.v.



ILLUSTRATIONS



Clarence B. Bagley Frontispiece

Seattle Water Front, About 1878, Looking Up Marion Street lO

Seattle, Early in 1865 20

The Cook House in 1866 24

Store of I'lumnier & 1 linds in i860 30

Charles riuninier's Residence 38

The Felker House 38

Yesler's Wharf, About 1885 44

Seattle, Looking Xorthwest from Yesler's Wharf, About 1878 50

Ezra Meeker 52

Seattle Water Front from Beacon Hill, About 1881 54

Yesler Way, About 1870 58

Looking South from 'i'hird and Pike, About 1870 60

Looking North from Main Street and First Avenue South, 1866 66

Occidental Avenue Looking North from Main Street, 1872 72

1 lorton's and Yesler's Wharfs, About 1876 74

Chief Seattle 78

Angeline, Daughter of Chief Seattle 84

First Avenue, About 1876 88

\'ie\v from Denny Hill, 1882 90

Cherry Street in January, 1880 98

The \\'ater Front in 1878 100

The Steamer Beaver 104

The Steamer Eliza Anderson no

Steamer George E. Starr 114

The C. & P. S. R. R. Terminals, About 1883 120

l^ooking Nortli from First Avenue Near Cherry, About 1878 124

South End of Lake Union. About 1885 126

Looking North on First Avenue South, About 1883 130

Part of Washington State University Campus 136

The Territorial University 140

Lincoln High School 162

Queen Anne High School 164

I'roadway High School 168

Franklin High School 170

Ballard High School 172

West Seattle High School 176

First Presbyterian Church 178

First Baptist Church 178

Tabernacle I'>aptist Church 178

Plymouth Congregational Church 178

First Methodist Protestant Church iSo

St. James Cathedral 182

Trinity Parish Church 182

Madrona Presbyterian Church 184



V



vi ILLUSTRATIONS

Olympic United Presbyterian Church 184

I'ilgrim Congregational Church 184

First Unitarian Church 184

Holy Names Acarlemy 184

The Milton Apartments 184

The Davis Apartments 184

The Stanley Apartments 1S4

First Church of Ciirist. Scientist 186

First Baptist Church 188

First Methodist Church 188

The Old Way and the New 252

Crossing of Pipe Lines Nos. i and 2 264

Cedar Lake Dam 264

Pipe Line from Cedar Lake to Seattle Light Power Plant 264

Cedar River Dam and Intake 266

Cedar River Above the Intake 266

Cedar River at Landsburg 268

Swan Lake — A Reserve Source of Seattle's Water Supjjly 270

Another \ iew of Swan Lake 272

The Public Library 288

H. E. Allen 334

Regraded and Rebuilt in Three Years 354

Third Avenue Regrade Near Marion Street 358

Denny Hill Regrade 360

Regrading County Court House Plock 362

Third Avenue Regrade from Jefterson Street 364

Three Years' Changes in < )ne of the Regrade Centers 366

Second Avenue Regrade, Below ( )ld Washington Hotel 368

Lake W'ashington Canal Locks 371

Canal Between the Lakes. Looking ( )ver Lake Washington 374

Locks at Ballard, Looking West 376

Canal Locks, Looking East 378

King Street, Looking West, About 1900 and in 191 5 382

Jackson Street Regrade, Looking West 384

Jackson Street Regrade, Looking North 384

The Denny ( Washington ) Hotel Prior to Regrading 381')

The Denny Hotel After Second Avenue Was Cut Down. . . .- 386

Third Avenue Regrade at Marion Street 388

Denny Hill Regrading 388

Third Avenue Regrade. North of -Seneca Street 390

A Regrade Fill 390

The Denny Hill Regrade Nearing Completion 394

Interest in the .Sluicing Work Was L'nceasing 394

Denny Hill at Second Avenue and \Mrginia in 1907 and 1909 396

The Great .Seattle Fire at Place of Beginning 420

Lake Shore & Eastern Depot on Columbia Street, June 6, 1889 422

Railroad .'\ venue on Columbia Street, in 1915 422

Seattle, Soon After the Great Fire 424

Dexter Horton and Arthur Denny 428

Seattle's First Bank 42^

View Showing Banking Business After the Great Fire 428

New ^lunicipa! Dam Below Cedar Lake 430

Concrete Dam Below Cedar Lake, Looking East 434

Cedar Falls, Site of Municipal Light Plant 438

Outlet of Cedar Lake, Looking East 442

The New Masonry Dam 44'^

( )ld Timber Dam at Cedar Lake 44^



CONTENTS



CIIAI'TKR I

IN THE BEGINNING 1

CIIAITER II

THE PIONEER PERIOD 1 7

CHAPTF.R Til

THE INDIAN WAR I'EKKiIJ 52

CHAPTF.R I\-

THE INDIAN TKIIiES AND CHIEP SEATTLE "J"/

CH APTFR \'
Seattle's MosuiiTd fleet lOo

CMArTER \T

COAL MINES AND I OAI. MINING 122

CHAPTER VTT

WASHINC.ION STATE fNIVERSITV 1.^5

CHAPTER WW
iiiic ATiiix \\. \( ri\ iTii s 161

CIIAPTICR IX

THE CHLRCH 17S

CHAPTER X

THE PRESS lS()

(I1\I''I'ER XI
THE SNOQUALMIE PASS 20S

CHAPTER XII

SAWM ILLS. LUMBER AND Ll'MBER I'R(iDI( TS 221

CHAPTER XIH

U MLUn \liS 243

vii



viii COXTENTS

.1
CHAPTER XIV

WATER AND WATER SUPPLY 264

I

CHAPTER XV I

MUNICIPAL PARKS 273 j

CHAPTER XVI I

THE PUBLIC LIBRARY 281

CHAPTER XVII

BENCH AND BAR 29O

CHAPTER XVIII

HEALTH AND SANITATION, MEDICINE AND SURGERY 321

CHAPTER XIX

KEGRADES, DRAINAGE AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS 354

CHAPTER XX

THE LAKE WASHINGTON CANAL 37I

CHAPTER XXI

FISH AND FISHERIES 398

CHAPTER XXII

THE MERCER EXPEDITIONS 407

CHAPTER XXIII
Seattle's great fire 419

CHAPTER XXIV

street railways, lighting AND POWER 429

CHAPTER XXV

THE ANTI-CHINESE AGITATION AND RIOTS 455

CHAPTER XXM

BANKS AND BANKERS 478

CHAPTER XXVII
woman's work 487

CHAPTER XXVIII

THE SEATTLE FIRE DEPARTMENT 5OI

CHAPTER XXIX

THE ALASKA-YUKON-PACIFIC EXPOSITION 523



I



CONTENTS ix

CHAPTER XXX

ALASKA SIIIIM'INn INTKRFSTS 530

CHAPTER XXX r

Tim M U N 1 1 1 1 • M I 1 1\ I K V M ENT 545

CHAPTER XXXII

EARl.V ^ M' \" 'Kl' 1 M I'ciKT ANT CITY PLATS 5^3

CHAPTER XXXIII

CLUBS, SOCIETIES AND FRATERNITIES 573

CHAPTER XXXI\'

INDUSTRIAL SEATTLE 597

CHAPTER XXXV

BUILDI NGS 636

CHAPTER XXXM

PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETIES 64I

CHAPTER XXXVH

SOME NOTABLE MARINE DISASTERS 649

CHAPTER XXXVIII

M ISCELLANEOUS 659

CHAPTER XXXIX

BIOGRAPHICAL 7^1



HISTORY OF SEATTLE



CHAPTER 1

i\ rill': I'.i'.cixxixc,

It is the iiueiuioii of the wrilLT of this work lo bring into it only facts and
accounts that belong to a history of Seattle. However, the history of the City
of Seattle and of the Sound country are so closely interwoven that it will be
necessary to go far anterior to the arrival of the ])ioneers in Mlliott Hay lo
|(resent a clear understanding of the later years. It is believed the readers of
its pages will be more ])lease(l with this ])lan than to consume much space in
descriliing remote incidents about which they are, perhaps, belter informed
than the writer.

I''or more than a century preceding the settlement at Alki Point maritime
expeditions into the North I'acilic had been made by the Spanish, liritish, Rus-
sian and .\merican navigators, and a brief account of these is proper as a ])relu(le
to the later events which made the rise of the City of Seattle ])ossiblc.

In April, 1596, Michael LoU, an luiglishman. met an old Creek navigator
called Juan de Fuca. at \'enicc. and in the course of their conversation, de Fuca
ojjcned u|) to him certain of his voyages. On one of these, in 1592, while in the
service of the X'iceroy of Mexico, he sailed up the coast of Xorlh America until
he came lo latitude forty-seven degrees where he fotnid a broad inlet between
the forty-seventh and forty-eighth, and entering it sailed for more than twenty
days, ])assing many islands. The viceroy ])romised him a great reward for his
discovery, but the rewanl ne\er came. ;ind de Fuca said that he then lefl the
service of the viceroy, and intimated lo Lok that he would like to enter the
service of the Fnglish if for no other reason than to gel revenge on the Spanish
for their vile treatment of him. Lok tried lo get the old m.in employment,
but never succeederl, and the old man died. It has since been proved that Juan
de biica or Apostolos \ alerianos. as he was known in the Creek language, is a
myth and that I.ok h;id been imjjosed ujion by a clever seaman. However, the
story became widely known and was ])ublished in the leading geogra])hies of
the day. It is a remarkable coincidence that his story should be so nearly in
keeping with the facts.

Tiie Sp.mish had been ])ushing northward from ^fexico and, witnessing the
efforts of all the other civilized nations in the r.icific Xorthwest, began to send
explorers into these waters. On May 2[, 1775, the Spanisfi sent out from
San T'llas. Mexico, the Santiago, in command of Tiruno Ileceta, accom|)anied
by the schooner .*>onora. in command of liodega y Ouadra. This expedition

1



2 HISTORY OF SEATTLE

sailed northward as far as Alaska, and on its return narrowly missed the dis-
covery of the Columbia River. But they failed to sight the entrance to the
Strait of Juan de Fuca.

On Sunday, March 22, 1778, Capt. James Cook, of the British navy, sail-
ing on his third voyage, made his way along the northwest coast of North
America and sighted a prominent cape which he called Cape Flattery. He had
in mind the sujiposed strait or inlet advertised by Juan de Fuca and Lok, but
after considerable search was unable to find it. It appears that a heavy wind
arose during the night and when morning came he had passed the entrance.
Cook remained at Nootka Sound, on what is now Vancouver Island, for over
a month, engaged in scientific work.

To Capt. John Meares belongs the honor of sighting the Strait of Juan de
Fuca. In ]\Iay, 1788, while sailing under the British flag, but in reality under
double colors, having a Portuguese partner, Meares in the Felice arrived at
Nootka, and purchased for two pistols some land from the Indian chief,
Maquinna. He erected a fort here and built a little vessel called the North West
America. In the latter part of June Meares set out to explore the surrounding
country, and on Sunday, June 29, 1788, he sighted the great inlet which he
called after its real discoverer John de Fuca. Of course Meares believed
implicitly in the story of Juan de Fuca. He made for the southern coast and
landed upon the shores of what is now the State of Washington, probabl}' at
Neah Bay, and there was received by a chief called Tatoosh. He saw the
large mountain to the southward and called it Mount Olympus. He then went
southward and entered Willapa Harbor which he called Shoalwater Bay, but
was unable to find a river where the Columbia empties into the Pacific and so
dubbed the site where he had labored in vain Cape Disappointment and Decep-
tion Bay. Returning to Nootka, Meares dispatched one of his officers and
thirteen men in a boat to examine the shores of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Meares then left with a cargo of lumber for the Chinese markets and made
arrangements for his aids to winter in the Sandwich Islands. Later he organ-
ized a joint stock company for trading purposes under a license from the East
India Company and proceeded to build up a colony at Nootka of Chinese- men
and Hawaiian wives. In April, 17S9, two captains of Meares', Douglas and
Funter, arrived at Nootka.

In the meantime, the Spanish, alarmed at the fact that the Russians were
extending their colonies and forts north of California, sent Estevan Jose Mar-
tinez northward to examine the Russian settlements. He secured information
that the Russians intended to send four frigates from Siberia to Nootka, where-
upon he was directed to repair to Nootka and take possession of the place in
the name of the Spanish king and build a fortress there. By so doing he would
out-general the Russians. When he arrived at Nootka, however, he found the
English ships instead of the Russian, and proceeded to take possession of the
place and to seize the ships and men, taking them to Mexico. The Spanish
then occupied the fort erected by Meares and established a garrison, first under
Martinez and later under Francisco Eliza. This was almost an act of war and
for a while it looked as if Spain and England would leap at each other's throats.
The Spanish began to compromise by releasing the ships and men and promising
indemnities to the owners of the vessels for delays, etc. But Meares had now



HISTORY OF SEATTLE 3

arrived in England and he set the matter before the English government on
April 30. 1790. England demanded not only a payment of damages for the
individual losses of ships and stores, but demanded also that the lands be restored
to the sovereignty of the English crown. England was able to secure the prom-
ise of aid from Holland and Prussia, but as Spain's chief ally, France, was now
in the midst of a revolution, Spain was forced to meet the British demands,
and signed a treaty dated October 28, 1790, which provided for an indemnity
ultimately amounting to $210,000 to be paid by Spain, and the transfer of the
lands at Nootka to England. Subjects of both powers were left free to visit the
port. The entire matter was patched up at Nootka in March, 1795.

It was during these years that the Spanish became quite intimately acquainted
with the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and made fairly accurate sur\'eys of the
coasts as far east as Bellingham and as far south as Admiralty Inlet. In 1790,
Francisco Eliza, who was in command at Nootka, sent Manuel Quimper to
explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca. He placed Spanish names on most of the
bays, points, and islands, few of which have survived. In 1792, two scientific
men, Dionisio Galliano and Cayetano Valdcs, were added to the expedition, and
they made further surveys. The principal names added to the nomenclature of
the Sound were San Juan Archipelago, Sucia Islands, Matia Islands, Canal de
Haro, Port Angeles, Guemes Island, and Fidalgo Bay. Most of the others have
long since disappeared, although subsequent explorers have honored the Span-
ish commanders by naming several places for them.

On the two principal maps left as a heritage by the Spaniards, that portion
of the Sound now known as Admiralty Inlet, which connects Pugct .Sound
proper with the Strait of Juan: de Fuca, is called Boca de Caamano. Quimper
says in his journal, that from his station (now called Port Discovery) he saw
other inlets and openings to the east, which he called Boca de Fidalgo and Boca
de Flon. He had, however, no time to explore them. Don Francisco Eliza,
who advanced in 1791 to the eastern end of de Fuca Strait, recognized for the
first time this inlet, and called it Bocas de Caamano, probably in honor of the
Spanish navigator, Caamano. Eliza, however, did not further explore the
interior of this inlet, because he understood from the Indians that, though it
was very long, still, from the end of it, one could not advance further unless
with canoes. Eliza's object was not to explore shut-up inlets, but to find a
passage to other waters.

Following closely upon the voyages of Cook and Meares was the expedi-
tion of George Vancouver who was the first recorded white man to enter Puget
Sound above the entrance to Admiralty Inlet. Vancouver's expedition was
partly scientific, partly commercial, and partly diplomatic, for he was detailed
to meet the Spanish at Nootka .Sound and arrange terms of settlement. He
sailed from England April i, 1791, with the sloop-of-war Discovery and the
armed tender Chatham, and after rounding the Cape of Good Hope visited the
South Seas and the Hawaiian Islands, and then made his way to what was
then known as New Albion, but which is today called Oregon and Washington.
He examined the region about Cape Disappointment, but came to the con-
clusion that there was only an inlet there, and then proceeded northward nam-
ing Point Grcnville and passing Cape Flattery and entering the Strait of Juan
de Fuca. Here he met Capt. Robert Gray of the ship Columbia who told him



4 HISTORY OF SEATTLE

that he had discovered a large river at Cape Disappointment, but \'ancoiiver
would not believe him, and only later did he come to the same conclusion.
\ ancouver named the mountain which appeared to the eastward Mount Baker
after his third lieutenant, Joseph Baker; New Dungeness after its resemblance
to old Dungeness in England ; Port Discovery after his vessel, the Discovery,
and the little island at the entrance to the harbor. Protection Island, because
it served as a protection to the harbor both from contrary winds and armed
attacks from an enemy if the island were fortified. He now came in sight of
a large mountain to the south-eastward which he called Mount Rainier in honor
of Rear Admiral Peter Rainier, his friend. Port Townsend he named after
the Marquis of Townshend. [.\bout 1S50 the "h" was dropped as the word,
so spelled, proved difficult for the Americans.] He sailed into Hood's Canal
which he so called after the Right Honorable Lord Hood, and Marrowstone
Point because it was here that he found deposits of marrowstone.

He then quickly sailed southward into the main port of the Sound and estab-
lished his party in headquarters on what is now Restoration Point on Bain-
bridge Island. This point he first called X'illage Point, probably because it
was here that he found an Indian village, but he changed the name to Restora-
tion Point in honor of the fact that the day was the anniversary of the restoration
of the Stuart monarch, Charles II, to the throne, after the long rule of Oliver
Cromwell. From his headquarters at Restoration Point Vancxjuver sent out
small boat parties to make surveys. His lieutenant, Peter Puget. went up the
Sound, through the narrows and made a fairly good survey of the waterways
and inlets. This portion of the Sound was called by \'ancouver Puget Sound, and
the name is ]3robably as euphonious a one as has ever been given to any por-
tion of the earth's surface. It must be remembered that Vancouver intended
that only that portion of all these northwest waters should be called Puget
Sound, but it is interesting to note the development of this word Puget Sound
as a generic term for all these Northwest waters, ^'ancouver designated these
waters by five names, viz.: Strait of Juan de Fuca, Canal de An'o. Gulf of
Georgia, Admiralty Inlet, and Puget Sound, but at the present time all save two,
Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, have ceased to be terms of popular
])arlance. (jnly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Charts officially
recognize them. Nor is the term .Strait of Juan de Fuca safe from ultimate
extinction. In 1859 no less a jserson than Governor Douglas of British Coluiu-
bia spoke of Vancouver Island as being in Puget Sound, and in a recent decision
of the Superior Court of Clallam County. Judge Ralston held that for the pur-
poses of the fishing laws, the Strait of Juan de Fuca was a part of Puget Sound.

Vancouver, himself, surveyed the land to the southward of Restoration
Point, and found and named the large island Vashon Island, in honor of a
friend, James Vashon. This brings up an interesting relationship of names.
Rainier's sister, Sarah, married Admiral James \'ashon, and Joseph Baker
married X'ashon's niece, so that in a way Mount Baker, and Mount Rainier are
related.

The survey of the waterways to the westward of Restoration Point \'an-
couver intrusted to his clerk, H. M. Orchard, and that is how we get the name
Port Orchard. Not wishing to be forgetful of the honors w-hich the board of
admiralty in England had bestowed upon him in selecting him as leader of the



HISTORY OF SEATTLE 5

ex])i'ililioii, X'ancouvcr named the watercourse which extends from the nar-
rows to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, A(hnirahy Inlet, which name is still ot^cially
used upon all Government charts, but which is not very generally used by the
public at large. On \'ancouver's chart a fairly good representation of the
harbor which is now known as Elliott Bay is set down, but there is no evidence
to show iJKii \'ani.-ouver's surveyors did any more than sketch it in the rough
from small boats perhaps a half a mile from mainland.

His expedition now repaired to the inlet or watercourse to the eastward
of Wiiidby Island and landed somewhere on the maiidand within the present
limits of the City of E\crett. Here he prejjared to celebrate the king's [George
111) ijirihday, it being June 4, 1792. .\s this region is so near to the present
limits of the City of Seattle I take leave to (|uote a few words from X'ancouver's
Journal.

"Sunday, the 3d, all hands were employed in lishing with tolerably good
success, or in taking a little recreation mi shore; and on .Monday, the 4th, they
were served as good a dinner as we were able to provide for them, with double
allowance of grog to drink the king's health, it being the anniversary of his
majesty's birth: on which auspicious day, I had long since designed to take
formal possession of all the countries we had lately been employed in explor-
ing, in the name of, and for his llritannic majesty, his heirs and successors.

"To execute this purpose, accompanied by Mr. liroughton and some of the
oflicers, I went on shore about one o'clock, pursuing the usual formalities which
are generally observed on such occasions, and under the discharge of a royal
salute from the vessels, took possession accordingly of the coast, from that
part of New .Vlbion, in the latitude of 39° 20' north, and longitude 21,6' 1(1'
east, to the entrance of this inlet of the sea, said to be the supposed Straits of
Juan de Fuca: as likewise all the coasts, islands, etc., within the said straits,
as well on the northern as on the southern shores ; together with those situated
in the interior sea we had discovered, extending from the said straits, in vari-
ous directions, between the northwest, north, east and southern quarters; which
interior sea I ha\e honored with the name of The Gulf of Georgia, and the
continent binding the said gulf, and extending southward to the forty-fifth
degree of north latitude, with that of New Georgia; in honor of his present



Online LibraryClarence BagleyHistory of Seattle from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 63)