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reason why this view failed — a view that now seems sadly extrav-
agant — is that another sentiment was widespread which was ex-
pressed to Mr. Groner by President Davis himself at their first
meeting, at which Hon. Lawrence Keitt, ex-Federal congress-
man, and later Confederate congressman from South Carolina,
was present. Having stated in response to a question, that he
believed Northern sentiment to favor any compromise that the
Southern States would accept and remain in the Union, but that
the North was practically unanimous upon the point that if the
States seceded and formed a separate government, any measures
would be justifiable to bring them back into the Union, Mr. Davis
replied to him, "This cannot be so. The people of the North
should not take such action, in view of the unmistakable con-
stitutional right of each State to secede and separate whenever
it deems the cause justifies such action." Because of this general
but mistaken confidence, the possible use of the South's cotton in
the purchase of an adequate supply of munitions of war was neg-
lected and a very large number of regiments were not sent to
the front for lack of arms. Upon the removal of the Confed-
erate government to Richmond, Captain Groner was assigned to
duty in the war department as assistant adjutant-general and dis-
charged important duties in connection with the organization of
the troops. In the fall of 1862 he entered upon active service in
command of a North Carolina regiment of cavalry, and was sta-
tioned on the Blackwater river, Virginia, where he had several
skirmishes with the Eleventh Pennsylvania cavalry. During the
first campaign in Maryland he commanded the Sixty-first Vir-
ginia infantry, at Warrenton, Va., and upon the return of the
army to Culpeper Court House, he held Warrenton, in command
of his regiment, a regiment of Virginia cavalry, a Mississippi in-
fantry battalion, and two batteries, until the advance of McClellan
compelled his withdrawal, when in obedience to orders he moved
to the Rappahannock, opposite Falmouth, where he observed the
arrival of the Federal army. Informing General Lee of the situ-
ation he was ordered, if he could not hold the ford, to rejoin the
army on the line of the North Anna. But the Rappahannock was
very high, the Federal army was consequently greatly delayed,
Lee concentrated at Fredericksburg, held that line many months,
and fought there two of the most successful battles of the war.
Here Colonel Groner's regiment became part of Mahone's brigade,
and upon the promotion of the latter to major-general, he on
many occasions commanded the brigade. After surrendering at
Appomattox, he rode into Richmond, and was the recipient of
kind attentions from General Ord and General Patrick, provost
marshal-general. At Norfolk, however, the general in command
treated the Confederate officers with such indignity that Colonel
Groner reported his conduct to General Grant, who promptly re-
lieved the offender from command. At this time began his friend-
ship for Grant, which continued with unabated warmth until the



914 CONFEDERATE MILITARY- HISTORY.

death of the Federal commander. At Norfolk Colonel Groner
has had a very successful business career, becoming interested in
various enterprises. Since 1890, when the Consolidated compress
company was organized, he has served as its president. During
the organization and session of the World's Columbian exposition
at Chicago, he served as one of the two Virginia commissioners.
His strength of character and extensive experience for forty years
with public men and measures, have given him a wide influence,
and made him a notable factor, since the war, in the history of
Virginia. He is happily married to a daughter of the late Justice
John A. Campbell, of the United States supreme court, and they
have three sons.

Max Guggenheimer, of Lynchburg, one of the original mem-
bers of the Lynchburg Home Guard, and since the war famous
as a business man and for the valuable services he has rendered
his adopted city, was born in Bavaria, May 19, 1842. Members
of his family had settled in Virginia, in 1838, and in the year 1856,
for the purpose of visiting these relatives and studying the English
language, he came to Lynchburg, of which he has been a citizen
since that date. He was a charter member of the Home Guard,
organized in 1859, and at the age of nineteen years entered the
service of Virginia in Company G of the Eleventh regiment. He
served with this command during 1861 and the spring of 1862,
participating in the battles of Blackburn's Ford, Manassas, Dranes-
ville, Williamsburg and the Seven Days before Richmond. At
the end of this arduous service he was suffering from a perma-
nent physical disability which rendered him entirely unfit for
duty on the field, and, not being a naturalized citizen, he was
granted an honorable discharge. Returning to Lynchburg, he
resumed his association with the business of his brother-in-law,
Nathaniel Guggenheimer, and upon the death of the latter, in
1866, assumed control of the business, which, in a few years, as-
sumed vast proportions. Gradually extending his interests into
the wholesale trade, he had erected in 1881 the building his firm
now occupies, and in 1885 closed out the largest retail dry goods
house in the State that he might give his time entirely to the
wholesale business. Prior to 1877 his firm jobbed shoes and boots
exclusively. He then formed the firm of Watt & Watkins and
after withdrawing from that firm in 1887 formed the firm of Crad-
dock, Terry & Co., today the largest shoe jobbers of the South.
In both of these firms he was a special partner. He is also inter-
ested in a large number of other enterprises, was a director of
the Lynchburg national bank for twenty-five years, and is the
president of the Lynchburg cotton mills. He has found time
amid these engrossing activities to render substantial service in
the improvement of the city, aiding materially in the building of
the opera house, and in 1879 accepting election to the city council
that he might aid more effectively in redeeming the city from
an unfortunate financial condition, and in securing paved streets
and a better school system. As head of the finance committee,
he succeeded in floating the city improvement bonds at five per
cent at par, the lowest rate at that time secured in the South since
the war, and also aided in inaugurating a great improvement in
the streets and schools. Six months ere he accepted the office
of chairman of the finance committee, the city floated her six per




ISAAC C. HAAS



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 915

cent bonds at 96. The city paid also eight per cent on $75,000
loans to the banks, which was immediately reduced to six _ per
cent. He has been president of the Jewish congregation, is a
leading member of the Masonic order and popular with all on
account of his devotion to his family, loyalty to his friends and
generous public services. He was married in 1877 to Bertha V.
Rosenbaura, of Richmond, and they have one daughter, Cecile
Isabelle. A younger brother of Mr. Guggenheimer served in a
Lynchburg battery, and a cousin, Maurice Guggenheimer, was
with the Second Virginia artillery throughout the war.

Isaac Crawford Haas, of recent years prominently connected
with the government printing office at Washington, D. C, was
born at Woodstock, Va., April 25, 1843. The founders of his
family in America were natives of the island of Corsica, bearing
the name of De Haas, but the prefix was dropped several gen-
erations since. His great-great-grandfather, General DeHaas,
won the confidence and friendship of Gen. George Washington
during the war of the Revolution, and his memory is preserved
by a portrait hanging in the Washington home at Mount Vernon.
In the early settlement of the west, his grandfather, John Haas,
emigrated from Virgmia to Indiana, and, while discharging his
duty as sheriff of Scott county, he was killed in an attempt to
arrest a desperado. Isaac Haas, father of the subject of this
sketch, was postmaster of Woodstock, Va., many years preceding
the civil war, also during the period of 1861-65. I. C. Haas'
mother (nee Elizabeth Hoflfman) was the only daughter of Abra-
ham Hoflfman, a well-known merchant in the Shenandoah valley
in the early part of the nineteenth century. He also owned a
plantation in Alabama. His mother's uncle, Col. Joseph Hoffman,
commanded a regiment under Gen "Hickory" Jackson and bore
a conspicuous part in the battle of New Orleans. Mr. I. C. Haas'
first public service was as a page in the National house of repre-
sentatives, receiving his appointment through Hon. John Letcher.
Subsequently he served as a page in the United States Senate,
where he bec.ame familiar with the ablest men of the ante-bellum
days, giants of statesmanship, in the most momentous period of
political history, and heard the stormy debates immediately pre-
ceding the civil war. With true allegiance to his State, Virginia,
he enlisted, in Apnl, 1861. as a private in the Tenth Virginia in-
fantry and served with that command for one year, participating
in the battles of McDowell, Winchester, and other engagements
of Stonewall Jackson's famous Shenandoah valley campaign. In
1862 he re-enlisted for the war as a member of Chew s battery,
Stuart's Horse Artillery, and was at his post of duty with this
celebrated command in nearly all its principal engagements, during
the latter part of the war being practically in continuous battle.
Chew's battery was favorably known in the army of Northern
Virginia. In the winter of 1864 he was captured at Woodstock
by a squad of Union "Je.-sie scouts," who were able to approach
him on account of being disguised in Southern gray. The
"Jessie Scouts" were in advance of a regiment of General Sheri-
dan's cavalry. Before this, however, Mr. Haas had experienced
prison life at Camp Chase, Ohio, and he now resolved to risk
his life rather than remain a prisoner of war. As the Federal
command with seventeen prisoners approached General Sheri-



916 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

dan's headquarters at Newtown, Va., in the dark, he leaped from
his horse, dashed through a house, and, with random shots flying
about, gained the woods and made his escape. Another daring
escape he made near Culpeper Court House, Va., soon afterward.
While acting as No. i, with a gun that was pouring canister into
Custer's advancing cavalry, a shell exploded near him, a fragment
knocking the rammer out of his hand and the concussion render-
ing him unconscious for some time. When he regained con-
sciousness, General Custer's brigade was about him and the can-
non was captured. But he mounted a fleet horse, stuck spurs, and
escaped the bullets singing about him as he bade them adieu;
This loss of a gun, the only one that Chew's battery ever yielded,
was redeemed soon afterward at New Creek, W. Va., by the cap-
ture of three brass howitzers. Fort Kelley, at that point, an im-
portant military post on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, was well
supplied with troops and arms, and was attacked by General
Rosser's command of two cavalry brigades. Lieut. Tuck Carter,
with seven select mounted men of Chew's battery, including Mr.
Haas, was put in the advance to make prompt use of any cap-
tured guns. As they reached the fort at dawn they saw the how-
itzers being loaded by the enemy, and they charged, fighting with
pistols and sabers, and seized the guns, accomplishing what Gen-
eral Rosser pronounced one of the most daring feats he had wit-
nessed during the war. When the great conflict was finally over,
this intrepid soldier found employment at Richmond as a printer.
A year later he had a position with the famous Democrat, pub-
lished at La Crosse, Wis., by "Brick" Pomeroy, and two years
later, when Pomeroy established a daily paper at New York, Mr.
Haas became day foreman of the New York Democrat. In 1873
he established, with a partner, the "Baltimorean," the first illus-
trated journal published at Baltimore, which became the leading
weekly in Maryland, and possessed a powerful influence for State
and National reforms. He, as co-editor and proprietor, conducted
this paper for eighteen years. Subsequently he entered the gov-
ernment printing office, where, by rapid promotion, he became
manager of the navy department printing division, and, later, the
interior department printing division. In December, 1^9, he was
raised to the sublime degree of a master Mason in Astor lodge,
No. 603, A. F. & A. M., New York city. He is chaplain of the
G. P. O. council, No. 211, National Union, Washington, D. C.
He is one of the pioneer members of Alpha council. No. 192,
Royal Arcanum, Baltimore, Md., and a mertiber of the St. And-
rews' Brotherhood. He is devoted to his home, and indulges but
one recreation — hunting. Being an expert )ving shot, he probably
killed more game when a young man than any other hunter in
Shenandoah county, Va. In November, 1870, I. C. Haas married
Miss Rose Daniels, an accomplished daughter of William B. Dan-
iels, of Duffield's, W. Va. Four children were born to this union:
Lizzie Hoffman, Carlton Daniels, Rose Lucretia and Edwin Booth
Haas. The eldest son. Dr. Carlton D. Haas, is a surgeon in the
U. S. army. The younger, Edwin B., is preparing himself for
the legal profession. The family are members of St. Stephen's
Protestant Episcopal church at Washington, D. C. Mr. Haas'
varied career, briefly noted, and upright character have rendered
him a wide and lasting acquaintance with many notable people.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 917

He regards duty as the most sublime word in the English lan-
guage, and his record practically illustrates its definition.

Frederick Hinzy Habliston, for over half a century a prominent
business man of Richmond, was born in York county, Pa., in
1822. His father. Rev. Henry Habliston, a minister who was held
in high esteem in his day and generation, was a native of Balti-
more, and returned to make his home again at that city when his
son was about fourteen years of age. Thence, in 1842, the subject
of this notice removed to Richmond, where he continued to reside,
except during his participation in the war of the Confederacy.
He entered the service of the Confederate States in 1864 as a
private in the Lee Rangers, an organization enrolled in the Ninth
Virginia cavalry regiment, and served with that command until
the close of the war, finding occasion in this last year of the con-
flict to render efficient service on many hotly contested fields.
He participated in the engagements at Reams' Station, Nance's
Shop, Hatcher's Run, a cattle raid in the rear of Grant's army,
getting 2,486 head of cattle from the enemy near the field of the
latter engagement, and the skirmish at Belfield. At the close of
the war he was paroled at Richmond, where he resumed his resi-
dence and civil pursuits. In 1842 he had embarked in the fur-
niture trade at Richmond, and this he continued, meeting with
much well-deserved success during the many years which have
elapsed since the close of the war. He is one of the oldest busi-
ness men of the city and is held in high esteem for his long and
honorable career and his worth as a citizen. With loyalty to his
former comrades he maintains a membership in Pickett camp of
the Confederate Veterans.

William Hagy, a worthy citizen of Abingdon, Va., born at that
place in July, 1836, entered the service of Virginia August i, 1861,
as a private in the Glade Spring Rifles, which organization be-
came Company F of the Thirty-seventh regiment Virginia infantry.
Colonel Faulkson, and after his promotion. Colonel Carson, com-
manding, and was a part of the brigade of Stonewall Jackson's
division. He was among those brave soldiers who participated
in the early campaign of 1861 in West Virginia, and endured terri-
ble hardships in the face of an enemy in overwhelming numbers.
He was in the battles of Laurel Hill and Cheat. Mountain, and
in the spring of 1862 fought at Kernstown, Winchester, and
many skirmishes up and down the Shenandoah valley. Then
going with his regiment to eastern Virginia with Stonewall Jack-
son, he took part in the battles of his corps, including the Seven
Days' campaign. Cedar Run, and Second Manassas, Chancellors-
ville, and Seven Days' fighting before Richmond. In the latter
part of the war he served in the trenches before Richmond, took
part in the bloody repulse of the Federals at the Crater, and
fought with Hill's corps below Petersburg. On the retreat from
Petersburg he was also engaged in almost constant fighting, and
at Appomattox took part in the last encounter with the army of
Grant. After his parole he returned to Abingdon, where he has
since made his home, engaged in the manufacture of harness and
saddles. September 20, 1866, he was married to Miss Gray. They
have had three children, of which only one survives. Mr. and
Mrs. Hagy are members of the Presbyterian church.

Colonel Peter Hairston, of Martinsville, Henry county, Va., a
Ta 58



918 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

gallant officer of the army of Northern Virginia, was born in
Henry county, June 20, 1835, where he resided until the secession
of the State, when he entered the active service as captain of a
volunteer company organized in Henry county, which was as-
signed to the Twenty-fourth Virginia infantry regiment. Col.
Jubal Early commanding. He had previously held rank in the
Virginia militia, and he was commissioned major of the new regi-
ment, and soon afterward promoted lieutenant-colonel. Colonel
Early being assigned to brigade command after the regiment had
joined Beauregard's army at Manassas, Lieutenant-Colonel Hairs-
ton took command of the regiment and served in that capacity
in the fight at Blackburn's Ford and the Manassas battle of July
2ist. General Beauregard reported that Hairston "handled his
command with satisfactory coolness and skill." He remained with
his command at Manassas until February, 1862, when they were
transferred to Yorktown to meet the advance of McClellan against
Richmond. In the bloody fight at Williamsburg his regiment
was distinguished. The brigade was under the immediate com-
mand of D. H. Hill and Early, and made an attack near Fort
Magruder while Longstreet was engaged in another part of the
field. The Twenty-fourth hurried through a woods and charged
across open ground against a Federal battery, supported by in-
fantry under General Hancock, under a murderous fire. They
drove back the enemy to their fortifications, and held their ground
with heavy loss, until called ofi by General Hill. Col. William
R. Terry and Lieutenant-Colonel Hairston were severely wounded
in this fight, in which they earned the commendation of their
brigade and division commanders. Colonel Hairston was wounded
in both the head and groin, but he was again ready for service
during the Seven Days' battles. Under the brigade command of
General Kemper he commanded the regiment in another im-
petuous charge upon the enemy at Frayser's Farm, and he was
again commended in general orders for fidelity and bravery. At
the second battle of Manassas he fought with his regiment in
Corse's brigade, Kemper's division, and shared the gallant action
of his command in the successful charge near the Chinn house.
Here he was again painfully wounded and incapacitated for serv-
ice during the. Maryland campaign. Returning to his regiment,
then in Kemper's brigade, Pickett's division, just before the
battle of Fredericksburg, he joined in the campaign of Long-
street's corps in southeastern Virginia and North Carolina. He
was subsequently with his command at Petersburg, and fought
under Early in 1864 at the battle of Winchester. Subsequently
he resigned from the service and returned to his home, where,
since the close of the war he has been engaged in farming. He
is active and influential in public afifairs, served four years, 1875-
1879, in the Virginia senate, and has also filled the position of
deputy United States internal revenue collector. He is a member
of the board of visitors of the Virginia military institute, and, in
189s, was a member of the board of visitors of the National mil-
itary academy at West Point. He was married in 1858 to Miss
Jones, of Appomattox.

William J. Hall, of Alexandria, was born in Anne Arundel
county, Md., April 15, 1840. He came to Virginia in 1852, and
entered the drug business at Alexandria. In the autumn of i860



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 919

he became a member of the Old Dominion Rifles, afterward
Company H of the Seventeenth Virginia infantry, at its organiza-
tion. With this command he went into the field and participated
in every battle in which the regiment was engaged until aften
the bloody contest of Sharpsburg, on September 17, 1862. On
May 30, 1862, at the battle of Seven Pines, he received a wound
in the head, but speedily recovered from this injury and rejoined
the regiment. At Sharpsburg his career as a soldier was ended
by four severe wounds, all received within the space of a very
few minutes. One bullet entered his right shoulder, another
pierced his right arm near the elbow, a third was buried in his,
hip, and the fourth went entirely through the body, piercing the
left lung in its course. It seemed that these wounds would nec-
essarily prove fatal, but his comrades conveyed him to Shepherds-
town, Va., where, with the aid of skillful nursing his wonderful
vitality triumphed over death, and he recovered, though his wounds
left him a helpless cripple so far as the active life of a soldier
was concerned. The body wound had caused paralysis of the
left arm so that it was almost useless, the right arm had beetf
shattered so that that injury alone would have incapacitated him
for service. Nevertheless, he remained subject to the call of the
Confederacy and accepted a detail to the postoffice department at
Richmond, where he remained until the evacuation of the city.
At the close of the war he returned to Alexandria, where he
formed a partnership with an old comrade, Edgar Warfield, in the
retail drug trade, in which he is still engaged. Mr. Hall is a
member of R. E. Lee camp. No. 2, Confederate Veterans, of
Alexandria. A modest, unassuming gentleman, his ambitions
have never been in the direction of public or official position.
The fearless soldier in the days of war has become a model citizen
in the time of peace. The fortunes of war were decided against
the cause for which he fought, and he accepts the result, with the
knowledge that he gave all but life to have it otherwise. We
could appropriately paraphrase the inscription upon the Alexandria
Confederate monument, and of him say: "He lives in the con-
sciousness of duty' faithfully performed."

Captain Frederick M. Halstead, a prominent and wealthy planter
of Norfolk county, who made an honorable record as a soldier
of the Confederate States army, was born in the house which he
now occupies upon the ancestral farm two miles east of Norfolk,
June 30, 1846. His olantation, known as Indian Grove, on ac-
count of its location on Indian river, has been in the possession
of his family for six generations, and is now one of the most
valuable farm properties in southeastern Virginia. His father,
Joshua M. Halstead, was born here, and hither brought his bride,
Frances Old, who for many years was his trusted and faithful
wife. Here, also, their son Frederick was reared and prepared
for the continuance of his youthful studies at the Virginia military
institute. That famous academy he entered in the year i860, at
the age of fourteen years, and, during his first year's work, learned
from the instruction of Prof. Thomas J. Jackson, soon to be
famous as "Stonewall," the elements of military tactics. On ac-
count of his youth he did not enter the regular service of the
Confederacy until 1863, but meanwhile, during Jackson's Valley
campaign of 1862, he fought with the entire corps of cadets, in



920 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

the battle of McDowell. In July, 1863, he enlisted in Company B
of the Sixty-eighth North Carolina regiment of infantry. On
January i, 1864, he was elected first lieutenant, and, on August
7th following, was elected captain, the rank in which he served
during the remainder of the war. With his command he partici-
pated in the engagements at Greasy Cove, Tenn., Wise's Forks,
Butler's Bridge, Williamston, Hamilton, Plymouth, Kinston, N.
C, and the final battle at Bentonville, where he was wounded in
the right foot, an injury which disabled him for two months. He



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 100 of 153)