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enemy before the main line of battle, by which many of its men
were wounded, none were killed. After the close of the war.
Captain Hodges engaged in farming until. 1876, then removed to
Portsmouth, where he served eight years as city engineer, having
practiced that profession for several years before the. war. Subse-
quently he was superintendent of the Norfolk County & Portsmouth
ferry two years, served from 1885 to 1889 in the Virginia State
senate, representing Portsmouth city and Norfolk county; was
chief engineer and superintendent of construction of the Atlanta
& Danville railroad from 1887 to 1890, for two years remained
with that railroad as superintendent of maintenance of way, and,
since 1892, has followed his profession at Portsmouth. He was
married, November 4, 1858, to Margaret Taylor, of Norfolk county.
Captain Hodges was born in Norfolk county, August 13, 1834, the
son of James G. and Tamar (Hall) Hodges, whose ancestors have
been residents of the county since 1665. His great-grandfather.
Mason Hodges, served as a major in the Revolutionary war, in
which his great-grandfather, William Hall, also served with the
rank of captain, and his grandfather, Thomas Hodges, was a lieu-
tenant in the war of 1812.

Horatio Cornick Hoggard, a prominent real estate broker of
Norfolk, Va., was born February 11, 1846, in Princess Anne county,
Va., at Poplar Hall, the ancestral home of his family. This plan-
tation, which has been in the possession of the Hoggards for
seven generations, was first granted to Thurmer Hoggard, about
two hundred and fifty years ago, by Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam,
to whom it had been patented with other lands by the crown of
England. A brick house, built two hundred years ago, still stands,
in a good state of preservation, upon the farm and is occupied
now by the father, Thurmer Hoggard, who bears the name which
has descended with but one exception in unbroken succession from
the original settler. An older brother of Horatio, who bears the
name, and served in the same command with him in the war 'of
1861-65, now resides on the plantation. The grandfather served in
the war of 1812, and the great-grandfather in the Revolutionary
war. At the beginning of the war of the Confederacy young Hog-
gard was a student at the Norfolk academy, but, despite his youth,
was impatient to enlist for the defense of the rights of his State
and the South. Two months before he had reached the age of
sixteen years he entered the service at Norfolk and was engaged
on picket duty in that vicinity until the evacuation, the order for
which he carried from headquarters to General Mahone. When
the troops retired from Norfolk he marched with them to Peters-
burg and then took part in the battles of the Peninsular campaign
against McClellan. At the battle of Seven Pines eighty-five Fed-
eral prisoners were placed in the charge of himself and a comrade.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 935

William I. Herrick, to escort to Libby prison, a duty which they
performed without difficulty. Subsequently he participated in the
battles about Fredericksburg, serving in the command of Gen.
J. E. B. Stuart, did picket duty on the Rappahannock and fought
at Brandy Station, Culpeper and Orange Court House. At Cul-
peper he received a bullet in the right shoulder, which he still
carries. Subsequently he was in battle at Fredericksburg, Chan-
cellorsville, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, and
all the way toward Richmond. At the brisk engagement at
Yellow Tavern, on May ii, 1864, when General Stuart was mortally
wounded, Mr. Hoggard fell into the hands of the Federals, and
was held as a prisoner of war at Hampton and subsequently at
Point Lookout for ten weary months. His brother, Thurmer H.
Hoggard, in the same company, was severely wounded at the
same time, but recovered; was shot through his stomach, and
the enemy considering his recovery impossible, left him on
the battlefield in a ditch of water, where he remained for about
forty-eight hours, until the field was retaken by our soldiers. In
February, 1865, he managed to make his escape from the prison
camp and soon afterward reached Richmond, and returned to
duty. When the city was evacuated he secured a leave of absence
in order to visit his parents, and was on his way to his home at
Poplar Hall when the army of Northern Virginia was surren-
dered. He then gave his parole at Norfolk to the Federal author-
ities and returned to the farm, where he gave his attention for the
following fifteen years exclusively to agricultural pursuits. He
still devotes some time to that occupation and maintains a home
on the farm, but during the past twelve years has given his chief
attention to the real estate and renting business, conducting hand-
some offices in Norfolk, and occupies a high rank in that vocation.
In this business his brother, Thomas J., is associated with him.
Mr. Hoggard maintains a membership in Pickett-Buchanan camp.
United Confederate Veterans, and is a warm friend of the survi-
vors of the Virginia forces. He was happily married, on Decem-
ber 19, 1871, to Mary Nash Herbert, daughter of Edward H.
Herbert, formerly of Princess Anne county, and one of the
wealthiest planters of that region. Eight children of this mar-
riage are living. The mother of Mr. Hoggard, who died on Good
Friday, in 1892, was also a native of Princess Anne county, and
a daughter of Lemuel Cornick, a prominent citizen. His father,
Thurmer Hoggard, at this date is in fair health, having passed
his seventy-ninth birthday on the 14th of June, 1898.

A. G. Holland, of Washington, D. C, was one of the residents
of that city who entered heartily into the cause of Virginia in 1861
and served faithfully until the end of the struggle. He was born
in Washington in 1842. On April 23, 1861, he crossed to Virginia
soil and joined the Beauregard rifles, at Alexandria, as a private,
and began at once his service for Virginia and the Confederate
States. His company became a part of the First Virginia cavalry,
of which he was a member until September, 1861, when he was
mustered out, and in the following month re-enlisted in the
artillery, becoming a member of the Purcell battery, of Pegram's
battalion, with which he served as a non-commissioned officer
until April, 1864, when he was transferred to the Baltimore light
artillery and participated in the campaigns of Early and McCaus-



936 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

land of that year. His record embraces participation in the early
action at the Great Falls of the Potomac, the first battle of
Manassas, picket fights at Mason's and Munson's hills before
Washington, an engagement with gunboats at Aquia creek, skir-
mish at Fredericksburg in 1862, the battles of Mechanicsville
(.wiiere he was wounded in the leg and disabled for the rest of
the Peninsular campaign). Cedar Mountain, Warrenton Springs,
Second Manassas. Harper's Ferry (where he was again wounded),
Sharpsburg, Snicker's Gap, Fredericksburg, Va., Chancellorsville,
Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Hanover Junction, Yellow Tavern
(where he was a third time wounded), the campaign against Hun-
ter in the valley, m 1864, Monocacy, Newtown, Gunpowder
Bridge, Beltsville, Md., Fort Stevens (before Washington), Rock-
ville, Md., the raid upon and burning of Chambersburg, Pa., dem-
onstration against Cumberland, Md., capture of ironclad train and
blockhouse at St. John's Run, and the disastrous surprise by Aver-
ell's cavalry at Moorefield, W. Va., in August, 1864. Here he was
captured and thence taken to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he was im-
prisoned until March, 1865. Upon being exchanged he attempted
to join Johnston's army, but this being impossible he surrendered
at Appomattox. On returning to Washington, he was arrested
and confined at Alexandria for three weeks, though he had a parole
in his pocket. Since the restoration of peace he has continued to
reside at Washington.

Colonel F. W. M. Holliday was before the war one of the most
prominent lawyers of Winchester, Va. When Virginia gallantly
took her stand against the coercion of sovereign States he
promptly laid aside the robes of peace and girded on the sword for
the defense of the rights and honor of Virginia. He entered the
Thirty-third Virginia as captain of one of the companies. At
the First Manassas began his military career, which was peculiarly
heroic. In the Valley campaign of 1862 he was among the most
valiant of the officers of that little army which, led by the peerless
Stonewall Jackson, shed such luster over the Southern cause. Dur-
ing that time he was promoted to the rank of major, in which ca-
pacity he served during the Seven Days of battle at Richmond.
General Winder, in his report of Gaines' Mill and Malvern Hill,
speaks as follows: "Colonel Nefl and Maj. F. W. M. Holliday,
Thirty-third regiment, and Lieutenants Howard and Garnett of ray
staff, particularly attracted my admiration by their coolness and un-
tiring efforts to keep the men in their position. Their escape from
injury is truly providential." At Cedar mountain, in the front of
the battle, he was severely wounded in the arm and amputation was
necessary. At the Second Manassas the gallant Colonel NeflE lost
his life. Major Holliday was then appointed colonel of the regi-
ment and, as soon as his wound was sufficiently healed, he was
again at the post of duty. With the same courage that had always
distinguished him, he led his men through the great battles in Vir-
ginia and Pennsylvania and, in the spring of 1864, was still ready
to risk life in defense of the Southern cause. Through the cam-
paign of that year he passed unscathed and was in the service until
the death of the young Confederacy at Appomattox. After the war
he resumed the practice of law and took a prominent part in the
political affairs of his State until he reached the proud position of
governor of Virginia.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 937

Jesse P. Hope, M. D., born at Hampton, Va., in 1828, died at
the same city, June 29, 1883; previous to the Confederate era re-
ceived a literary education at the university of Virginia and studied
medicine at the Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia, with grad-
uation as doctor of medicine in 1857. He established himself at
Hampton in the practice of medicine, but abandoned his profes-
sional work at the call of his State early in 1861, enlisting as a
lieutenant in the Washington artillery. He held this rank until
after the battle of Bethel, when he was transferred to the medical
department as field and hospital surgeon. He continued on duty
in this capacity until the close of the war, during the greater part
of his service being in charge of a hospital at Richmond. His pro-
fessional skill and patriotic devotion were recognized by all with
whom he came in contact. After the close of hostilities he re-
turned to Hampton and there continued in professional work until
his death. Dr. Hope was a cousin of the poet, James Barron Hope,
and son of Dr. William Hope, who practiced medicine many years
at Hampton and held the office of sheriff when that was the prin-
cipal official honor of the county. The latter was the grandson of
George Hope, Sr., the founder of the family in Virginia, who was
sent from England upon the mission of inquiring into the feasi-
bility of establishing a colonial navy, subsequently served in the
Continental army, and, locating at Hampton, became the founder
of the first Masonic lodge at that city. Surgeon Hope was married
in January, 1857, to Mary Letitia, daughter of Colonel Taylor, of
James City county, and seven children were born to them. The
four sons are: George W., captain of Company D, Virginia volun-
teers, with Fitzhugh Lee's brigade in the Spanish war; Dr. Joseph
W. Hope, of York county, born September, 1865, graduated from
medical college of Virginia, November, 1888; Dr. Thomas P. Hope
and James Barron Hope, Jr. Dr. Thomas P. Hope, a prominent
young physician at Hampton, was born at that city December 15,
1867. He was educated at the Hampton academy, became a drug
clerk at seventeen years, and continued in that occupation, with
the exception of two and a half years in the railway postal service,
until 1890, when he embarked in business as a pharmacist. Dispos-
ing of the business a year later, he entered the medical college of
Virginia and was graduated in April, 1893, standing second in his
class. For about three years he practiced in York county and then
removed to Hampton. He is a member of the clinical society of
the staff of Dixie hospital, is highly regarded by his professional
brethren and popular with the community. He is also a member
of the Seaboard medical society of Virginia and North Carolina.
James Barron Hope, Jr., another of the sons of Surgeon Hope,
was born at Hampton, May 3, 1872. He left Hampton academy at
the age of sixteen to enter business life, and, seven years later, be-
came a student of law at Washington and Lee university. Com-
pleting his course, he was admitted to practice in 1896, at Hamp-
ton. A year later he was elected mayor of the city, being the
youngest man upon whom that honor was ever bestowed. He is
a member of the camp of Sons of Confederate Veterans and a mem-
ber of Company D, Fourth regiment Virginia infantry.

Major Jedediah Hotchkiss was a descendant of a family which
settled in New Haven, Conn., in 1642, where its members were
prominent in church and civil affairs, and served in the Indian,



938 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

French and Revolutionary wars. Of Scotch-Irish, English and
Welsh descent, they intermarried with the Baldwin, Beecher,
Bridgman, Stiles, Sperry and the "Black" Douglas families. In
1789 David Hotchkiss founded Windsor, N. Y., where his great-
grandson, Jedediah Hotchkiss, was born November 28, 1828, the _
son of Stiles and Lydia (Beecher) Hotchkiss. A graduate of the
Windsor academy, he completed his classical studies with his pas-
tor; in 1846 taught his first school at Lykens Valley, Pa., and in
1847 made a pedestrian tour through Virginia. He was so pleased
that he returned to engage as a tutor at Mossy Creek, Augusta
county, where he built the well-known Mossy Creek academy. He
was teaching the Loch Willow school when war began in 1861. He
then ofiered his services to General Garnett as topographical en-
gineer, and was assigned to duty under Colonel Heck on July 2d,
on Rich mountain. He at once made a survey for a map, but the
position was soon evacuated, Hotchkiss serving as adjutant on the
retreat. When General Lee reorganized the army in August, 1861,
at Valley mountain, Hotchkiss joined him, and when his map of
Tygart's valley was completed. General Lee's campaign opened.
From exposure and overwork he contracted typhoid fever, that
scourge of the West Virginia camps, and was sent home, to
Churchville, to suffer for many weeks. General Lee went to South
Carolina, but Hotchkiss prepared the maps of this campaign upon
his recovery. In March, 1862, previous to the battle of Kerns-
town, he joined the staff of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, and was
assigned to duty, with the rank of captain, as topographical engi-
neer of the Valley district, department of Virginia. Most compre-
hensive were General Jackson's first instructions: "Prepare a map
showing all points of offense and defense in the Shenandoah valley
from the Potomac to Lexington." This work being under way.
Captain Hotchkiss was sent to choose a line of defense. He selected
Stony Creek, where Jackson fell back. Then encamping near
Swift Run gap, he sent his engineer to burn some bridges, in
doing which he narrowly escaped capture. In constant motion,
the captain ascended the peak of Massanutton, communicating
with Jackson by signals of his own devising, thus using for the first
time in the valley a method common in later campaigns. His re-
turn was greeted by, "Good; very good," from his leader. The un-
wearied engineer placed artillery, led skirmishes, made maps, and
one night rode sixty miles to block Dry and North River gaps. He
rode forty-six miles to Front Royal to report Banks' operations,
led Ashby's attack at Middletown, and was on duty in the pursuit
to Winchester. On May 2Sth he rode with Jackson at the head of
his troops through Winchester, and rallied the citizens to extin-
guish the fires the foe had kindled. After pushing on to Harper's
Ferry, Loudoun Heights and Winchester, by hard rides, he brought
the Stonewall brigade back from picket duty at Charlestown to
Kernstown, and helped save the captured stores in wagons,
while Jackson opposed the pursuing forces. From Massanutton
he again signaled the movements of Shields and McDowell. Captain
Hotchkiss led General Taylor's brigade in a flank movement at Port
Republic around the Federal left through the woods, also in the at-
tack that decided the battle, and when the fight was over selected a
camp beyond Fremont's battery fire. Serving in the battle of Cross
Keys he prepared a map of the field. While Jackson went to Rich-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 939

mond he was sent to Staunton "to make a map," then joining the
army at Gordonsville, and mapping the Piedmont region for the
Pope campaign. He was at Cedar mountain, tlie Rappahan-
nock operations, and Chantilly or Ox Hill. He blew up the Mon-
ocacy bridge by a novel plan, was with Jackson in the Mary-
land campaign, guided Gen. J. E. B. Stuart by blind roads
from Sharpsburg to Shepherdstown, and was strongly rec-
ommended by Jackson to the secretary of war for promotion.
Incessant note-taking and map-drawing filled the days until he
aided in placing troops in line of battle at Fredericksburg, serving
on the staff at that time. The winter was spent at Moss Neck,
making reports and maps to accompany them. In the spring of
1863 he made, in secrecy for General Jackson, a map "from the
Rappahannock to Philadelphia," which was used in the Gettys-
burg campaign. General Jackson slept under his rubber blanket at
the "Bivouac Angle," and when he had approved his engineer's
route for the flank movement against Hooker, at Chancellorsville,
he conferred with Lee and rode to his last battle. Taking Jackson to
the rear after he was wounded. Captain Hotchkiss rode that night to
report to General Lee and point out on the map the position of
Jackson's corps. The next day he conducted the ambulance of his
wounded commander to a safe place. On the field, for General Lee,
Captain Hotchkiss prepared the complete maps of the Chancellors-
ville campaign, which are the basis of all maps of the battle to this
time. Serving on General Ewell's staff. Captain Hotchkiss went to
Gettysburg, was in the attack the first day, and was then ordered
to Seminary ridge to watch and report. General Lee was requir-
ing his maps, too, as "he always had confidence in them." He pre-
pared elaborate maps of the Mine Run campaign and Meade's op-
erations, and also did stafi duty. In the spring of 1864 General
Lee sent Captain Hotchkiss to select a line of defense, and he rode
hundreds of miles, preparing a report which was largely adopted
and specially complimented by General Lee. One of his most suc-
cessful feats was to map, in one day, under heavy skirmish fire, the
line held by General Lee, some ten miles long, from the Chicka-
hominy to the Totopotomoy, delivering the map that evening.
When General Early took command of the Second corps. Captain
Hotchkiss remained on his staflf, and so served in the Lynchburg
campaign against Hunter, in the Monocacy and Washington cam-
paign ; and in the Valley campaign against Sheridan, Captain Hotch-
kiss and General Gordon reconnoitered from Three-top mountain,
and the map then made was used in the famous battle of Cedar
Creek. The following wjnter (1864-65) he prepared beautifully il-
lustrated reports of the operations of the Second corps, having
made over one hundred maps for army officers, from General Lee
down. When Sheridan attacked Early at Waynesboro, Major
Hotchkiss was on staff duty (having previously sent his maps to
Richmond), and was chased over the Blue Ridge, barely escaping
capture. He joined General Rosser at Lynchburg and when General
Lee surrendered at once came home and was paroled on May i,
1865, at Staunton, where he soon removed his family. An in-
former caused his arrest that fall, but he accompanied his cher-
ished maps to Washington, and General Grant ordered their re-
turn, and paid for copying all he desired to use in his own reports.



940 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

These same maps were also used in the war records of the United
States. For two years Major Hotchkiss taught a select school for
boys, mostly sons of his war comrades. He then opened an office
as a civil, mining and consulting engineer, the profession of his re-
maining years. He used his vast knowledge of the mineral, for-
estal and other resources of the Virginias in securing the invest-
ment of millions by foreign and northern capitalists within their
borders. At General Lee's request he was made topographer of
"The Physical Survey of the South," but this work ceased within
a year, upon General Lee's death. In 1872 and again in 1874 he
visited England and Scotland to induce emigration to Virginia,
and lectured, by invitation, before the Royal Society of Arts, Lon-
don, on "The Virginias," and a large edition of the paper was print-
ed and distributed. In 1875 he prepared "A Summary of Virginia"
for the State, a work teeming with facts and illustrated by fine
maps. He also lectured with Dr. Barnas Sears, to popularize the
public school system through the entire South. In 1879 he was the
special census agent on the mineral resources of Virginia; in 1894
he served as United States expert topographer on the battlefield of
Antietam; and from 1880 to 1886 he published "The Virginias," a
monthly paper, still an authority on the resources of the two States.
He was a commissioner to the New Orleans and Louisville expo-
sitions, a judge of mines and mining at the Columbian exposition
in 1893, and a member of the American philosophical society, the
Mining Engineers, the Geographical society, the Geological so-
ciety, the American association for the advancement of science, and
numerous other bodies. He was the first to lecture on Stonewall
Jackson, and this address, "The Valley Campaign of 1862," was
unique and unapproachable in style and matter, illustrated by maps
drawn on the blackboard in colored crayons, which grew as the
lecture progressed, and was completed with the final words. It
was delivered all over the land, from Boston to Chicago and New
Orleans. Major Hotchkiss was an ardent Confederate, the founder
of Stonewall Jackson camp in Staunton, Va., and major-general of
engineers on the stafif of Gen. J. B. Gordon of the United Confed-
erate Veterans. He was a generous donor to the Young Men's-
Christian association, a member of the Society for the Prevention
of Cruelty to Animals, and a born teacher, his mind being stored
with the classic and modern tongues, the natural sciences, history,
poetry and art, ever generously bestowed on others. He was a
zealous Presbyterian, a Sabbath-school teacher, superintendent and
elder; a well-rounded Christian character, of beautiful purity and
cheerfulness. Major Hotchkiss died at his residence, "The Oaks,"
at Staunton, Va., January 17, 1899.

Captain Benjamin F. Howard, of Richmond, distinguished in the
annals of the old First Virginia regiment, and prominently asso-
ciated with the public service of the city of Richmond since the
war, was born at Washington, D. C, in 1835. At that city he re-
ceived his education and remained there until June, i860, when he
became a citizen of Richmond and found employment as a stone
cutter. On April 21, 1861, he entered the Confederate service as
second sergeant of Company I of the First Virginia infantry. On
April 26, 1862, at the reorganization of his command at Yorktown,
he was promoted lieutenant, and with this rank he participated in



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 941

the battle of Seven Pines, where, in the first day's fight, he was
dangerously wounded, a musket ball piercing the lung. He re-
turned to his command in February, 1863, but was paralyzed in the
right arm for eighteen months. He was promoted captain of his
company at Manassas, Capt. J. A. Tabb having been killed August
30th. At Gettysburg he took charge of the regiment after Major
Langley was wounded, and at the Howlett House, on May 18, 1864,
he was wounded by a shell passing over his head about six or eight
inches, shocking him until he was unconscious for four or five days.



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 103 of 153)