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themselves with the firearms available, Martin receiving from an
aide of the president a sixteen-shooter arm, since presented by him
to the museum at Richmond. Soon afterward the president recon-
sidered his plans and, to avoid the effusion of blood, continued his
journey without the "Old Guard," which would have defended
their chief to the death. Colonel Martin, with Generals Gilmer
and Lawton, followed the president to Washington, Ga., where the
cabinet was finally disbanded, after which he rode to Augusta, in-
tending to make his way to Mexico, but, being prevented by the
Federal troops, he surrendered and was paroled under the terms
of Johnston's capitulation. He then returned to Norfolk and re-
sumed the practice of his profession. Subsequently he resided in
New York city four years, while there being a member of the
Seventh New York regiment. He successfully practiced his pro-
fession there, winning a suit that involved a new application of the
law and which was a matter of comment by the press and bar.
But failing health compelled him to return to his native State and
to outdoor life in the country. In. 1881 he was elected to the State
senate by the city of Norfolk and the county of Princess Anne,
and three years later he resigned to accept the position of railroad
commissioner for Virginia to which he was elected by the legis-
lature. After two years' tenure of this office he removed to Norfolk
and resumed his legal practice, in which he has achieved promi-
nence and success. At this city he has held the office of police
commissioner, and has twice been elected to the Virginia house
of delegates from Norfolk county. He is a member of the Catholic
church, one of the charter members of Owen's lodge, F. & A. M.,
and is distinguished alike as a public speaker, lecturer and historical
writer of rare ability. In 1857 he was married to Georgia A.
Wickens, and they have one son, a lawyer by profession, who
bears his father's name, and is married to a daughter of Capt.
William E. Peery, a brave Confederate who lost an arm at Gettys-
burg, and two daughters living: Theresa and Marina. Another
daughter, deceased, was May, wife of Samuel C. Peery, of Taze-
well county, who left a son, Samuel Cecil Peery. She was dis-
tinguished in painting, music and poetry.

Hugh McD. Martin, M. D., of Fredericksburg, a native of Scot-
land, who enlisted in 1861, with all the ardor of a native Southerner,
in the ranks of the Confederacy, was born March 15, 1828. After
receiving an education at Glasgow and Edinburgh, he sailed to
Louisiana, in i8S3, for the benefit of his health and to visit an
uncle who had become the owner of a plantation in that State.
He was persuaded to remain and finish his medical education in
the university of Louisiana, and, after his graduation, in 1855, he
practiced his profession in Ouachita parish until 1859, when he
returned to Edinburgh to pursue a post-graduate course of study.
Early in 1861, hearing of the prospect of war in the United States,
he determined to participate in the eflort of the South for inde-
pendence, and reached New York on the first day of March, 1861,



1034 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Proceeding directly to New Orleans, he tendered his professional
services and was made assistant surgeon of the Fifth Louisiana
regiment, a few months later being promoted surgeon. His regi-
ment became a part of the army of Northern Virginia, being
assigned to Hays' brigade of Ewell's division, and he shared its
service on the field, participating in the discharge of his duties
upon the battlefields of Yorktown, Lee's Mill, Williamsburg,
Seven Pines, the Seven Days' battles. Cedar Run, Second Manassas,
Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Winchester, Gettys-
burg, the Wilderness, the "bloody angle" at Spottsylvania, Han-
over Court House, and other minor engagements. At Gettysburg
he was thrown from his horse and suffered a dislocation of the
shoulder, which disabled him for field service for several months.
He was given leave of absence, and while yet carrying his arm in
a sling, went to Fredericksburg, and was married on July 22, 1863,
to Miss Ella McCarty, a beautiful Virginia girl, of Scotch descent,
whom he had met at Jackson's headquarters at church in the pre-
ceding April. Then, accompanied by his bride, he went to Rich-
mond, where he was detailed for hospital duty for five months.
When able to perform field duty, he rejoined his command at
Raccoon Ford, and served with it during the remainder of the war,
except when absent on furloughs, occasioned by the illness of his
wife and himself. After the close of hostilities he established him-
self in the medical practice at Fjedericksburg, where he has since
continued, with a well-deserved allotment of the prosperity and
happiness that have fallen to Virginia in the latter days. He is a
member of the State medical society and holds the office of ma-
rine hospital surgeon at the port of Fredericksburg. Dr. Martin
has three children living: Catherine, wife of W. L. Seddon; Rev.
Hugh McD., Jr., an Episcopal clergyman at Richmond, Va. ; and
Anne Gilmer, wife of R. E. Stoflfregen.

Colonel Rawley White Martin, of the Fifty-third Virginia in-
fantry, was born in Pittsylvania county in 1835. He was educated
at the university of Virginia, and was graduated as doctor of
medicine in 1858, at the university of New York. He then engaged
in the practice of his profession at Chatham, Va., but was hardly
well launched in this career before he turned from it for the patriotic
service of his State. He enlisted, April 22, 1861, in the Chatham
Grays, a company of which he very soon became first lieutenant.
His company was assigned as Company I to the Fifty-third Vir-
ginia regiment, and participated in the early engagement at Big
Bethel. At the reorganization, in the spring of 1862, he was elected
captain. In this rank he was identified with the service of Armis-
tead's brigade in the battles of Seven Pines, and the Seven Days'
campaign. Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Harper's Ferry, Fred-
ericksburg, and the Suffolk campaign. In the spring of 1863 he
was promoted major and soon afterward advanced to lieutenant-
colonel. He was slightly wounded in the battle of Seven Pines and
during the Seven Days' battles. At Malvern Hill the regiment
was greatly reduced by casualties and sickness. His company was
thrown forward as skirmishers and becoming immediately engaged
was supported by the remainder of the regiment, driving back the
enemy, but meeting a deadly fire. Fletcher Harwood, color-bearer
of Company K, was cut down by a shell, and, as recorded in the



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 1035

War Records, "instantly Captain Martin seized the flag, and with
words of encouragement called on all to follow. The noble, manly
conduct of Captain Martin was such as to challenge the admira-
tion of all." In the final charge in the evening, Colonel Tomlin
reported, "The different members of our regiment were formed
into one company, under command of Captain Martin, whose gal-
lantry was not exceeded by any one in that memorable battle."
The regiment lost 30 killed and wounded out of 128 in action.
For a time thereafter Captain Martin was in command of the
regiment. He had also been in command at the battle of Gaines'
Mill. In the memorable charge of PLckett's division at Gettysburg
he led the advance of his regiment. Fitzhugh Lee, in his life of
Gen. R. E. Lee, has written: "It is said that when the head of
what had been so grand an attack got within a few yards of the
second defensive line it consisted of Armistead, his lieutenant. Col-
onel Martin, and five men. With the destruction of the head the body
perished, and one-half of those who crossed the road and followed
Armistead were killed." At this forefront of the tide of_ Confed-
erate valor Colonel Martin fell, dangerously wounded, within the
Federal lines. He lay in the field hospital there three months, and
was afterward at the Baltimore hospital until his partial recovery,
when he was held as a prisoner of war at Fort McHenry and'
Point Lookout until May, 1864. Upon being exchanged two
months later he was assigned, on account of his wounds, to de-
tached duty, and was sent to South Carolina by the secretary of
war to select a site for a military prison. Returning to Virginia
in December, in January, 1865, he was put in command of a body
of reserves near Rappahannock. After his parole at Bowling Green
in June, 1865, he resumed his professional career at Chatham, and
remained there until April, 1895, when he removed to Lynchburg.
Dr. Martin has been a member of the board of visitors of the
university of Virginia, has served since 1893 as president of the
State board of health, and as president of the board of medical
examiners for Virginia. He was married in 1867 to Ellen, daugh-
ter of James Johnson, and they have four sons and two daugh-
ters. The ancestry of Dr. Martin has figured in every military
struggle in which the State has been intimately interested. His
father. Dr. Chesley Martin, born in 1808, was not regularly en-
listed in the Confederate service, but he took part in the battles
of Big Bethel and Malvern Hill, and being assigned to detail duty
with the rank of captain, by Governor Smith, served throughout
the war. His grandfather, William Martin, served in the war of
1812, with the rank of sergeant; and his great-grandfather Martin
was a soldier of the Revolution. He was president of State medical
society in 1886-87.

Thomas Staples Martin, United States senator from Virginia, was
born in Albemarle county, July 29, 1847, at the town of Scotts-
ville. In 1853 his parents removed to the country, near that town,
where Mr. Martin has resided since that date. He was educated at
the Virginia military institute, where he was a cadet from March i,
1864, to April 9, 1865, and at the university of Virginia, where
he was a student during two sessions. Being less than fourteen
years of age he did not enlist in the Confederate army during
the period of the war, but, while a cadet at the Virginia mili-



1036 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

tary institute, he was a member of the cadet battalion and a con-
siderable part of his time was spent in the Confederate service.
Soon after leaving the university of Virginia he began the
reading of law at his home, and qualified himself for the prac-
tice of the profession. He was licensed in the fall of 1869, and
since that time has devoted himself to the profession closely and
with marked success, attaining a prominent position among the
lawyers of the State. For a number of years he served as a mem-
ber of the board of visitors of the Miller manual labor school, of
Albemarle county, and as a member of the board of visitors of
the university of Virginia, but had never held nor had been a can-
didate for any political office. State or national, until on De-
cember 19, 1893, he was elected United States senator for the term
commencing March 4, 1895, to succeed Hon. Eppa Hunton. His
term of service will expire March 3, 1901.

Matthew Fontaine Maury, a Virginian, one of the most distin-
guished of American philosophers, whose discoveries and genius
made clear the feasibility of the Atlantic cables, and who was
hailed by Humboldt as the founder of a new science, faithfully ad-
hered to his native State during the Confederate era, and rendered
important services to the Confederate government. He was born
January 16, 1806, in Spottsylvania county, son of Richard and
Diana (Minor) Maury. His descent is from a Huguenot refugee,
Matthew Maury, who married a great-granddaughter of John de
la Fontaine, of the French court, who suffered death because of his
religion, in the reign of Charles IX. He was reared in Tennessee,
entered the United States navy in his sixteenth year, and made his
first cruise in the ship which returned General Lafayette to France.
He subsequently made a voyage around the world, and, after
various service, published "Maury's Navigation," which was
adopted as a naval text-book. He was promoted lieutenant in
1837, and, soon after, met with a painful accident which disabled
him for several years and caused lameness for life. During his
period of disability he maintained great literary activity, was the
cause of reforms in the navy, directed the gauging of the Missis-
sippi, and advocated the connection of the great lakes with the
Mississippi by canal. Beginning in 1842, he created the naval ob-
servatory at Washington, of which he became the head, and insti-
tuted the tabulation of material for charts of the sea. His first
chart was received with doubt, but was soon proved to be accurate
and invaluable, and his system has since been applied to all seas.
He established the system of deep-sea sounding and unfolded the
mechanism of the oceans in his immortal work, "The Physical
Geography of the Sea." Recognition came to him rapidly. He
received orders of knighthood from many nations, and foreign
academies of science hastened to bestow their honors. When Vir-
ginia seceded he promptly resigned his rank in the Federal navy,
and oflfered his services to his native State. He served as one
of the council of three, chosen by the governor at this crisis, and,
after the State forces were incorporated in the Confederate army,
he was commissioned captain, C. S. N., and later was sent to
Europe as a naval agent of the Confederacy, in which capacity he
purchased and fitted out Confederate cruisers. At the close of the
war he went to Mexico and was appointed to the cabinet of Em-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 1037

peror Maximilian and was subsequently sent on a mission to
Europe. Later he resumed his scientific work, prepared his manual
of geography, received from the university of Cambridge the degree
of LL. D., and declined, at Napoleon's hands, the superintendency
of the Imperial observatory at Paris, preferring to accept the chair
of physics in the Virginia military institute. He died at Lexing-
ton, February i, 1873. By his marriage to Anne, daughter of Dab-
ney Herndon, he had five daughters and three sons. Colonel Rich-
ard Launcelot Maury, a son of the foregoing, was born at Fred-
ericksburg, Va., in 1840. He was reared at Washington, D. C,
and was graduated at the university of Virginia, in several depart-
ments, in 1857 to i860. He studied law at Washington and was
admitted to the bar in i860, but had hardly launched upon his pro-
fessional career, when the war of the Confederacy was begun and
he was impelled by loyalty to his native State to tender her his
services. He became a private, on April 28, 1861, in the famous
Company F, organized at Richmond, and originally assigned to
the First Virginia regiment. Before this company left Richmond,
Maury was promoted lieutenant and detached under orders from
the secretary of the navy. In July he reported to Commodore Hol-
lins, and participated in the capture of the steamer St. Nicholas,
in the Potomac river, and the seizure of three other merchantmen
as prizes in Chesapeake bay. After this adventurous and success-
ful enterprise he was promoted major of Virginia volunteers and
assigned to the Twenty-fourth Virginia regiment, subsequently a
part of Pickett's division, with which he served gallantly from
Second Manassas to Appomattox, receiving promotion to lieu-
tenant-colonel and colonel. He took part in the defense of York-
town, was one of the few surviving field officers, at Williamsburg;
fought at Seven Pines; commanded his regiment in the attack on
Casey's camp, and was badly wounded and honorably mentioned
in the official reports; participated in the battles of Fredericksburg
and Chancellorsville ; in 1864 was in the campaign against New
Bern, Plymouth and Fort Caswell, N. C, and, returning to Vir-
ginia upon Butler's advance at Bermuda Hundred, fought under
Beauregard at Drewry's Bluff, where he was desperately wounded
and disabled. Nevertheless, upon the evacuation of Richmond
he rejoined the army on crutches and shared in the surrender at
Appomattox. After this event he went to Mexico, and was honored
by appointment as assistant commissioner of immigration by Em-
peror Maximilian. At the fall of the empire he proceeded to
Nicaragua, where he became superintendent of the Javali silver
and gold mine. In 1868 he returned to Virginia and embarked in
the practice of law at Lexington, as a partner of the late Gov.
John Letcher. Since 1873 he has resided at Richmond, and has
been very successfully engaged in the legal profession.

Colonel Morton Marye is among the many prominent Virginians
who, at the call of their State, took up arms in 1861. He entered
the service as lieutenant-colonel of the Seventeenth Virginia regi-
ment. The spring of 1862 found this regiment in the brigade of
Gen. A. P. Hill of the grand army that was collected in the peninsula
for the defense of Richmond. As Gen. Joe Johnston retired
before the advance of McClellan, his rear guard was constantly
engaged in skirmishing with the advance of the enemy. At Wil-



1038 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

liamsburg was fought a considerable battle in which both sides
claimed the victory, though whatever there was of real advantage
lay on the side of the Confederates. In this affair General Hill's
troops fought with the determination always exhibited when under
the leadership of that gallant officer. Hill, in his report, speaks in
high terms of the splendid conduct of his men and of the soldierly
bearing of all his regimental commanders, saying of Marye and
the rest that "they were brave, active and energetic in the dis-
charge of their duties." When Gen. Robert E. Lee, upon the
wounding of Johnston, took command of the army that was gath-
ering from every quarter for the defense of the Confederate capital,
with the bold aggressiveness so characteristic of him, he made
ready to assail the army of General McClellan in a gallant efifort
to raise the siege of Richmond. Bringing Jackson from the scene
of his triumphs in the Shenandoah valley, he defeated the grand
army, that had so confidently marched for the conquest of Vir-
ginia and the South, in the series of battles known as the "Seven
Days." In all these brilliant battles and movements Colonel
Marye so led his regiment as to be mentioned by his division
commander, Longstreet, as "distinguished for gallantry and skill."
When Longstreet went to the aid of Jackson, at Second Manassas,
Colonel Marye was again in the thickest of the fight and received
so severe a wound that his leg had to be amputated. This inca-
pacitated him for further active service in the field, though he con-
tinued to aid in every way the cause so dear to his heart. Colonel
Marye was a prominent lawyer before the war, and after its close
resumed the practice of his profession. He has been for several
years auditor of the State of Virginia.

Wyndham Robertson Mayo, mayor of Norfolk in 1896, was born
in that city, April 4, 1844. He is a descendant of one of the early
families of Virginia, the Mayos having emigrated in the last cen-
tury from southern England to the Barbadoes islands and thence
to Virginia, where they became influential professional men and
planters. Col. William Mayo, the first of the line in the Old Do-
minion, was associated with Col. Richard Byrd in locating the
boundary of Virginia and North Carolina. The father of the mayor,
Peter Poythress Mayo, born in Powhatan county in 1797, died in
1857, was one of the leading attorneys of Norfolk and served as
State's attorney. His wife, Ann Elizabeth Upshur, was a daughter
of Littleton Upshur, a planter of Northampton county, and a niece
of Judge Abel P. Upshur, who was secretary of war and navy
under President Tyler, and one of the distinguished people killed
on board the Princeton, by the explosion of a gun, during that
administration. Mayor Mayo, as a youth, attended school at the
Norfolk military academy, at a private institution in Powhatan
county, and at William Dinwiddle's school in Albemarle county,
until 1859, when he received the honor of appointment to the United
States naval academy at Annapolis. He was enrolled there until
the spring of 1861, when upon the secession of Virginia he resigned
from the academy, and entered the Confederate service, being as-
signed to the navy. At first detailed for battery duty he served
at Pig's Point, opposite Newport News, and subsequently at
Drewry's bluff in repelling the advance of the Federal fleet up
the James river. At a later date he served upon the Confederate




W. R. MAYO



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 1039

ironclads Savannah, Charleston, and Wilmington, took part in the
defense of Fort Fisher, N. C, during both of the Federal bom-
bardments, and the assault, and afterward served in the batteries
below Wilmington until the evacuation of that post. He then
joined the army of Northern Virginia, and participating in the
battle at Sailor's Creek, was captured April 6, 1865, and taken to
Johnson's island, Ohio. Upon his release at the close of hostilities,
he promptly returned to civil life and shipped before the mast in
the merchant service, where his abilities were soon recognized by
promotion to mate and subsequently to master. In 1874 he was
happily married to a daughter of Commodore Stephen Decatur, of
the United States navy, at Boston, Mass., and in the following year
he left the sea, and in 1877 settled at Norfolk, his native city. Es-
tablishing at that time steam brick works on the James river he
has since continued in that business with much success. He has
taken a prominent part in social, business and political life, has
frequently participated in various conventions of the Democratic
party, has served as collector of customs for the ports of Norfolk
"and Portsmouth under the first administration of Mr. Cleveland,
and was elected mayor of the city in May, 1896. Mr. Mayo has
three children: Stephen Decatur, Wyndham Robertson Jr. and
Maria Ten Eyck Decatur.

John Gaw Meem, Jr., of Shenandoah, Va., was born at Lynch-
burg in 1833. Becoming a student at the Virginia military insti-
tute, he was graduated in 1852, and subsequently for four years
was engaged with his father in the dry goods business. He then
went to Brazil as assistant engineer to Charles Fentor Mercer
Garnett, in the building of the Dom Pedro Segunda railroad. After
three years' stay in South America he returned to his native State
and for some time acted as surveyor of streets and alleys at Lynch-
burg. In April, 1861, he entered the Confederate service as second
lieutenant of the Lynchburg Home Guard, which became Company
G of the Eleventh Virginia infantry regiment. With this com-
mand he participated in the afifair at Blackburn's Ford, the battle
of Bull Run, and the fight at Dranesville. In the fall of 1861 he
was appointed aide-de-camp upon the staff of Gen. E. Kirby
Smith, with whom he served in the actions at Richmond, Ky., and
Jenkins' Ferry, Aik., and continued with the commander of the
Trans-Mississippi department until the close of the war, surrender-
ing at Galveston, Tex. Then returning to Virginia, he was
engaged in farming in Shenandoah county until i8&j, at the same
time taking an active part in public affairs, and in 1869 received
the honor of election as brigadier-general of militia. During the
following two years he served as State statistician in the agri-
cultural department of Virginia, and, from 1886 to 1889, held the
ofHce of chief computer in the supervising architect's office at
Washington, D. C. In 1893 he was appointed, by the secretary of
the treasury, superintendent of public buildings, and in this capacity
he supervised the building of the bureau of engraving and printing.

Fleming Meredith, of Richmond, a gallant Confederate veteran,
who in 1892 was appointed to the office of deputy sheriff at Rich-
mond, was born in King William county, October 10, 1836. He
was reared and educated there and at Richmond college. In April,
1861, with the first to enlist in the defense of the State, he entered



1040 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

the military service and continued in the field until Appomattox.
The command of which he became a member was known as Lee's
Rangers, and afterward as Company H of the Ninth Virginia cav-
alry. He enlisted as a private and was soon afterward promoted
first sergeant, the rank in which he served during the remainder of
the war. He has the remarkable record of honorable participation
in fifty-three battles, in all of which the gallant trooper did his
whole duty with heroic devotion to the cause of the Confederacy.



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 117 of 153)