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general of the brigade of Gen. A. P. Hill, and during the Manassas
campaign as adjutant-general of Longstreet's division. In Oc-
tober, 1862, he was transferred to the adjutant-general's depart-
ment as chief of staff of Gen. A. P. Hill's light division of Jack-
son's corps of the army of Northern Virginia, as which he served
until, after the battle of Chancellorsville and the death of General
Jackson, the Third army corps was formed and Gen. A. P. Hill
placed in command, when he remained with his former commander
as adjutant-general and chief of staff of the Third army corps,
through the campaign from the Wilderness to Petersburg, the
defense of the capital, and the retreat to Appomattox. During his
service he participated in all the battles of the army of Northern
Virginia, except the early affairs before Richmond, following the
battle of Williamsburg, where he was wounded and disabled; and
the battle of Gettysburg, at the time of which he was disabled'
from a wound received at Chancellorsville when in front of the
lines, immediately between Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson and the en-
emy. Returning to Richmond after the surrender, he re-engaged
in the business of civil life, and becoming successful in financial
affairs is now accounted one of the leading bankers of the city. He
is a member of both Lee and Pickett camps, U. C. V.

Lieutenant John T. Parham, of Petersburg, a veteran of the
Thirty-second Virginia infantry regiment, is a native of Prince
George county, born in 1842. His father, Henry Parham, for
some time clerk of the county of Prince George, was in the Con-
federate service first as a courier for Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, and
•later was on service at the Confederate States arsenal until the



1090 COXFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

close of hostilities. John T. Parham enlisted in the Confederate
service April 24, 1861, as a private in the Thirty-second regiment.
During the remainder of that year he served upon the peninsula,
and upon the opening of the campaign against McClellan he took
part in Longstreet's division in the battles of Williamsburg and
Seven Pines, and the Seven Days' campaign which resulted in the
discomfiture of the Federal army. Then in Semmes' brigade of
McLaws' division he marched into Maryland, and was with his
regiment at Crampton's Gap, where the artillery in charge of Col-
onel Montague rendered effective service. His regiment went into
the fight at Sharpsburg with 158 men and lost 15 killed and 57
wounded. Their colors received seventeen shots, and the pike
was twice cut in two by rifle balls. At Fredericksburg, in Corse's
brigade of Pickett's division, he served in the center of the Con-
federate line, and subsequently he was with his division in the
Suffolk campaign. After the Gettysburg campaign he was trans-
ferred to Gen. Eppa Hunton's brigade. In an engagement at
Brooks' church he was wounded, but he continued with his regi-
ment, took part in the hard fighting at Cold Harbor, Fort Har-
rison, Fort Gilmer and Chafiin's Bluff, and continued in tlie defense
of Richmond until the evacuation. JHe marched with the army to
Appomattox and was paroled at Lynchburg three days after the
surrender. During his service he was promoted corporal, later
was on the color guard, and at the close had the position of ensign
with the rank of first lieutenant. He has been engaged in business
since the war, and has rendered public service as a member of the
city council, as deputy collector of customs under Cleveland's first
administration, and as deputy sergeant since 1888. He is past grand
commander of the Knights Templar of Virginia, and has had a dis-
tinguished career in the Masonic and other orders. In 1871 he was
married to Miss Lucy Hatcher, of Chesterfield county, whose
seven brothers served in the Confederate army, two losing their
lives. They have two children, H. V. Parham, deputy clerk, and
Anna Belle. The son, H. V. Parham, served as second lieutenant
in Company G, Third regiment Virginia volunteers, in the recent
war with Spain.

Charles D. Parker, of Hampton, Va., who entered the service
of the Confederacy in his fifteenth year, and served through a
large part of the war, was born in Halifax county, N. C, Novem-
ber 24, 1847. His father, David Parker, of Edgecombe county, N.
C, who served in the Mexican war and died in 1848, was the son
of Hardy Parker, a native of England who accompanied his parents
to Edgecombe county in childhood, and died upon the farm which
he had occupied for sixty-one years, at the age of eighty-four,
his wife, Harriet Weeks, living to the same age. The wife of
David Parker was Emily, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Man-
gum) Wood. Charles D. Parker entered the service in October,
1862, as a courier for Capt. William Brown, and seven months
later was attached to the quartermaster's department under the
same officer. He was subsequently detailed to guard various ware-
houses along the railroads of North Carolina and Virginia, under
Col. David Pender, and after a year's service in this capacity, was
put in charge of a wagon train, and sent through the country
gathering up the tenth which was contributed by the citizens for



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 1091

the maintenance of the army. The fact that he never had any diffi-
culty in obtaining the full legal share from each farmer, and fre-
quently was told to help himself to what he needed, illustrates the
generous devotion of the people. In the fall of 1864 young Parker,
whose efficient services had attracted the attention of his superiors,
was granted an examination for the army service, and was as-
signed to Company C of the Seventeenth North Carolina regi-
ment, as a private. Soon afterward he was detached as a provost
guard at Weldon, N. C, where he remained until the close of the
war. He then found himself penniless and with his life career yet
to choose. He worked at farming until August, 1866, when "he
began an apprenticeship of over three years in the carpenter's trade
at Goldsboro, N. C. He subsequently attended school, and after
that was in the service of the Wilmington & Weldon railroad as
brakeman and later as freight conductor. From 1872 he was for
twenty years mainly associated with railroad work, as foreman for
a contractor, car inspector and employe in the cabinet shops, lat-
terly with the Richmond & Danville road, at Richmond. Since
1892 he has conducted with much success an establishment of his
own as general mechanic at Hampton. In its management he has
displayed both mechanical genius and a fine business ability. He
maintains his Confederate comradeship as a member of R. E. Lee
camp, No. 3. He was married in 1867 to Lear A. Green, who died
in 1871, leaving one child, Walter L., and in 1880 he married
Ella M. De Berry.

Joseph A. Parker, now a leading business man at Portsmouth,
Va., had an adventurous career during the war of the Confederacy
as a member of Captain McNeil's command, which rendered famous
service in the northern valley and along the Baltimore & Ohio
railroad, at times keeping ten thousand Federal soldiers on guard
in that region. He was born at Portsmouth September 7, 1841,
and was educated at St. Mary's college, Maryland, where he spent
four years in study. In July, 1864, he left there with six student
companions to enter the Confederate service. He, with two of
his comrades, joined McNeil's command at Moorefield, and served
with it to the end. John H. McNeil, their leader, was a Virginian,
but for several years had been a resident of Missouri, and had
had some military experience in Kansas. In 1861 he had returned
to his native region, and organized an independent command of
two hundred and fifty men, which contained spirited and adventure-
loving men from nearly every trade, business and profession. In
the fall of 1864, a rumor reached them that Sheridan had been de-
feated by Early and was in full retreat, and their numbers being
increased by stragglers, they moved to burn the Crawfordsville
bridge on the Shenandoah to cut ofif Sheridan's retreat. On the
following day, during a skirmish with a Federal picket, McNeil was
shot down by one of the stragglers, whom he had refused permis-
sion to accompany the squad to burn the bridge. It was after-
ward learned that the straggler was a Federal spy, but his deed
of assassination was seen by no one but the victim, and he strangely
requested his men, before his death, not to punish his murderer.
Meanwhile the assassin escaped. Jesse, the son of Captain Mc-
Neil, now assumed command, as first lieutenant, but on account
of his youthfulness and inexperience, some advocated unitinglRe



1092 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

. company with the command of Harry Gilmer. In order to dem-
onstrate the young lieutenant's fitness, a movement was planned

, against Cumberland, Md., which was executed with great bravery
and adroitness, and resulted in the capture of General Kelly, in
command at Cumberland, and of General Crook, since known as
a great Indian fighter, who happened to be at Cumberland on a
visit to the young lady who afterward became his wife, a lady, by
the way, who was thoroughly Confederate and had a brother in
McNeil's troopers. This famous exploit was performed by sixty-
five men, on a bitterly cold night, and four Federal pickets were
evaded in reaching their destination. They conveyed the two
Federal generals to Richmond and they were soon exchanged.
In this and other exciting adventures Mr. Parker took part, and
well earned the honorable title of Confederate veteran. He was
paroled May I3, 1865, and made his way home on horseback alone,
encountering no little danger in passing through the mountains.
In the subsequent years he has attained prominence and influence
in business and social life, conducting a wholesale grocery estab-
lishment, and holding the office of director in the Merchants and
Farmers' bank, the Portsmouth cotton manufacturing company,
and the Western branch Strawbridge company, and the presidency
of the Air Line turnpike. In 1867 he was married to Mary Virginia
Phillips, and they have eleven children living.

Lieutenant John Henry Parker, of Manchester, Va., was born
at Port Royal in 1822, and left home at the age of fifteen years
to enter upon a life at sea. He enlisted in the United States navy
as midshipman on the sloop-of-war Falmouth, and after a three
years' cruise on this vessel, attended the Naval asylum school at
Philadelphia. After this he was stationed six months at the Nor-
folk navy yard, and then went to sea again. His career in the
United States navy continued with distinction to himself and credit
to the service for many years, during which he received promo-

■ tion through several grades. With the rank of first lieutenant upon
the sloop-of-war Dakota, Commander Radford, of Virginia, then
lying in the harbor of Hong Kong, China, he first received news
of the hostilities between the North and South. Commodore
Stribling, of South Carolina, lay near by in the Hartford. Some
exciting discussions followed between the Northern and Southern
officers, and Lieutenant Parker was called before the commodore
on account of expressing his opinion that the South was entitled
to some of the men-of-war. The lieutenant asked to be allowed to
return to the United States, on account of the embarrassment of
"his position, but as most of the officers of the squadron were
Southern men, his request could not be granted. Commodore
Stribling and Captain Radford were soon relieved from duty by
Northern officers, and the vessels sailed for New York. While
coaling at St. Thomas, instructions were received for the Dakota
to assist in the capture of the Sumter, Captain Semmes' privateer.
Before reaching Martinique, an English vessel was sighted and
mistaken for the Sumter and Lieutenant Parker was in an unpleas-
ant predicament, as the vessel prepared for action, it being his
duty to fight his ship under the commander's orders, and was

- much relieved by the discovery that Semmes had eluded his pur-
suers. Returning to St. Thomas he sought, through a friend, to



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 1093

obtain the protection of the British flag, but found that impossible.
Before reaching New York it had been intimated that he was
destined for Fort Warren, but he was handsomely treated by the
Northern officers, was given all the money due him and granted
leave of absence. He then started for Virginia with a Marylander
who had been running the blockade with hospital stores, and two
others, and reaching the Virginia river at a point where it was
six miles wide, they started across in a small boat. Unfortunately
the attention of a patrol boat was soon attracted, and the party
was captured before they could return to the Maryland shore,
with the exception of Lieutenant Parker, who jumped overboard
and made the shore in safety. It was a winter night, February,
1862, and the discomfort which he experienced on landing was
heightened by the necessity of making his way, in order to escape,
through a marsh covered with thin ice, in which he waded till the
water reached his neck. Finally, more dead than alive, he found
shelter with hospitable Marylanders, and after an exciting expe^-i-
«nce eluding Federal patrols, he was permitted by one of his new
found friends, cm the Wicomico, to "steal" his dug-out for a
twenty-two mile trip down that river and across the Potomac.
After being compelled to pay his crew $100 he reached Virginia
soil without detection, and there at once encountered a guard of
sharpshooters, who indicated their willingness to forcibly resent
his nocturnal invasion of the State. But he soon found friends and
proceeding to Richmond, having resigned his Federal commis-
sion he was commissioned first lieutenant in the Confederate navy.
He was first employed in obstructing the James river at Drewry's
blufi, was afterward attached to the naval rendezvous at Rich-
mond, and later established and had charge of a navy yard on the
Pamunkey river. This the evacuation of the Norfolk region com-
pelled him to abandon and destroy, including the hull of a gunboat
which he had under way. Then being ordered to the department
of equipment, repairs, etc., of the navy, with Captain Farrand, the
successor of Captain Maury, he was soon left in charge of that
■department, including care of one of the navy yards, and a naval
storehouse, from which he furnished building material to Selma
and other points. In the discharge of numerous duties of this sort,
he remained at Richmond until the evacuation, when he was de-
puted tjy Secretary Mallory to vacate the naval office, destroy the
Patrick Henry, all vessels on the stocks and naval stores. Having
performed this duty he proceeded to Danville, and was ordered
to follow the presidential party to Charlotte, N. C. At the North
Carolina line he met the sons of General Lee returning with the
intelligence that Johnston had surrendered, and that Mr. Davis had
advised them to go home. The lieutenant then turned over the
mules and wagons accompanying him to the wounded Confed-
erate soldiers acting as drivers, and went to the home of his sisters
in the mountains. Subsequently he went to Richmond and was
duly paroled, although he had heard that a naval officer, anxious
for prize money, had signified a desire to hang him for burning
the vessels at Richmond. Since the close of hostilities he has
been living in peace and comfort upon a farm in Chesterfield
county. His career well illustrates the loyalty of Virginians to
their native State, and the hardships many of them experienced for
the sake of standing under her banner.
Ta 69



1094 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

William Harwar Parker, lieutenant in the Confederate States
navy, was a son of Com. Foxhall Parker, U. S. N., grand-
son of Capt. William H. Parker, of the Revolutionary navy, and
great-grandson of Judge Richard Parker, one of the first judges of
the court of appeals of Virginia, all of whom were from West-
moreland county. He was appointed midshipman in the United
States navy October 19, 1841, and joined the receiving ship North
Carolina, at New York. In 1843-44 he served in the Mediterranean
and on the coast of Brazil on the line-of-battle ship Columbus, and
from 1844 to 1847 was on the frigate Potomac in the West Indies
and Gulf of Mexico, while attached to that vessel participating in
the coast operations of the Mexican war. He was on shore at the
batteries at Brazos, Santiago, during Taylor's first battles, May
8 and 9, 1846; was at the capture of Tampico, served in the
naval battery at Vera Cruz March 24, 1847, was present at the
capture of Tabasco, and in addition to his gallant services, survived
two attacks of yellow fever. Returning home in June, 1847, he
was at the naval academy from October following until June, 1848.
At this institution he was graduated at the head of a class of loi,
and received number two of the entire class of 1841, which was
24s strong when first appointed. In the fall of 1848 he sailed from
Boston in the sloop-of-war Yorktown as passed midshipman and
sailing master, and was wrecked near the Cape de Verde islands
September s, 1850, afterward returning to America on the John
Adams. In 1851 he was attached to the brig Washington on the
coast survey; served in the gulf on the Cyane in 1852-53, and was
then ordered to the naval academy at Annapolis as instructor in
mathematics, a position he retained until October, 1857, when he
sailed from Boston in the famous new frigate Merrimac, for the
Pacific, in the rank of lieutenant, to which he had been promoted
in 1855. Returning in December, 1859, he was stationed at the
naval academy as instructor in seamanship, naval tactics and naval
light artillery. He resigned his Federal commission and came
South, April 19, 1861, and rendered his first services to the new
government in organizing a battery of howitzers. Receiving the
rank of lieutenant, C. S. N., he commanded the gunboat Beaufort
in the naval battle in February, 1862, off Roanoke island, and
during the final struggle of Commodore Lynch's flotilla on the
Pasquotank, he manned the guns of the battery at Cobb's point,
and took part in the fight, sending his boat on to Norfolk. There
he again took command of the Beaufort and participated in the
naval battles of March 8 and 9, 1862, in Hampton Roads, in the
first day's action taking his vessel alongside the Congress to re-^^
ceive her surrender. Subsequently given command of the gun-
boat Dixie, he burned her when Norfolk was evacuated, and was
then assigned to command the Drury at Richmond. This posi-
tion he resigned to become executive officer of the Palmetto State,
an ironclad in Charleston harbor, with which he served when the
blockade was broken at that port, and in the first attack on Fort
Sumter by the Federal fleet. Later ordered to Richmond, he or-
ganized the Confederate naval academy, and served as superin-
tendent until the close of the war, also for a time being in com-
mand of the Richmond, of the James river squadron. The Pat-
rick Henry used as schoolship, was usually stationed near Drewry's-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 1095

bluff, and the cadets, under Lieutenant Parker's command, had
actual practice in warfare. He also rendered valuable service in,
May, 1864, by holding Drewry's blufi against Butler's advance
until reinforcements could be brought up. On the night of the
evacuation of Richmond he detailed a small squad of midshipmen
to destroy the Patrick Henry, and with the remainder left Rich-
mond in charge of the train conveying the treasure of the Con-
federate government. He escorted the treasure by rail and by
wagon to Augusta, Ga., sometimes being dangerously close to
parties from Sherman's army, and then returning to Abbeville,
S. C, turned over the money intact to the secretary of the treasury
accompanying President Davis. The cadet corps was then dis-
banded, an action for which Mr. Davis expressed his great regret
to Captain Parker, and he returned to Norfolk. In December,.
1865, he entered the service of the Pacific mail steamship com-
pany, and was captain of a steamer running between San Francisco-
and Panama until 1873, when he resigned. He served as presi-
dent of the Maryland agricultural college from 1875 to 1882, and
in 1886 was appointed minister of the United States to Corea. He
was the author of "Naval Light Artillery," a text-book presented
to the United States government, and still in use at Annapolis;
"Elements of Seamanship," "Harbor Routine and Evolutions,"
"Naval Tactics," "Sailing Directions, etc.," "Recollections of a
Naval Officer," and "Familiar Talks on Astronomy." Captain
Parker died early in 1897.

Major William W. Parker, M. D., during the war of the Con-
federacy noted as the commander of Parker's battery, and since
then no less distinguished in professional and private life, was
born in Caroline county in 1834. At the age of fourteen his home
was made at Richmond, where he received his academic education,,
and was graduated professionally at the medical college of Vir-
ginia in 1848. He embarked in the practice at Richmond, and con-
tinued it until the outbreak of the war, except during a period,
1854-55, passed in the hospitals of Europe. He organized the Vir-
ginia Life Guards, at Richmond, a company which was assigned
as Company B to the Fifteenth Virginia infantry regiment. He
went out with this command as a private, being mustered in May
23, 1861, and participated in the battle of Big Bethel, where his
company fired the first volley. In December, 1861, he resigned
and returning to Richmond organized a battery of light artillery
of one hundred and forty men in March, 1862, which was mustered
in March 14th, with himself as captain, and was henceforth known
as Parker's battery. Near the close of the war he was promoted
major, but in the confusion of the period never received his com-
mission. With his artillery command he participated in the battles
of Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Cambrett Station, Tenn., Dean'a
Station, Tenn., and Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he fired the
first shot at 4:15 a. m., of the first day, firing in all 1,142 rounds
that day, and on the last day, after the army retired, he fired the
last 300 rounds. At Spottsylvania he rendered gallant and effect-
ive service, and subsequently participated at Cold Harbor and
Hewlett House. With his command he participated in the retreat
and surrendered fourteen guns at Appomattox. After the close
of hostilities he resumed his practice at Richmond, which is stilt



1096 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

continued. He has also done beneficent work as the organizer
of the Richmond home for ladies, and president of the Male orphan
asylum, the Magnum asylum and the Foundling hospital. He is an
honorary member of Pickett camp, Confederate Veterans.

Marshall Parks, one of the most distinguished citizens of south-
eastern Virginia, was born in Norfolk, November 8, 1820. He is
the son of Marshall Parks, a native of Cambridge, Mass., who
came to Norfolk in early manhood and married Martha Boush, a
member of one of Norfolk's historic families. The elder Parks
was the owner of a large number of steamboats and other craft,
plying in the vicinity of Norfolk, was the founder and owner of
the famous Hygeia hotel at Old Point Comfort, and was the re-
builder of the Dismal Swamp canal, the granite locks of which
are an enduring monument to his memory. He died in 1840. The
son, Marshall Parks, left school at New Haven, Conn., at the age
of fifteen years, and during the next five years was associated with
his father's enterprises, and in establishing the South mills, on the
canal, in North Carolina, where the senior Parks and John Tabb
owned large grist and lumber mills. While there he was_ the first
postmaster of the town, and having previously had military ex-
perience, was a major in the Second North Carolina regiment and
declined promotion to brigadier-general on account of his being
under age, and about to leave the State. He had been reared, it
might almost be said, upon steamboats, and he was thoroughly
familiar with their management and with the navigable waters
near Norfolk. After his father's death he built an iron steamer
in New York which he named the Albemarle. In 1842, though not
a naval officer, he was given command of the steamboat Germ, the
■first to be run on an inland course from the Atlantic to the great
lakes. This boat had horizontal wheels and was built at the Nor-
folk navy yard by the national government. The trip was made
to exhibit this new mode of propelling, which was thought best



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 125 of 153)