Clement Anselm Evans.

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and shell, advanced and repulsed the enemy. Jones, dis-
abled by the explosion of a shell above his head, early
in the battle turned over the command to Brig. -Gen.
William E. Starke, who fell in the fight, leaving Col.
A. J. Grigsby in command of the Stonewall division.
Jones' own brigade was successively commanded by
Capts. John E. Penn, A. C. Page and R. W. Withers, the
first two of whom each lost a leg. The division numbered
about 1,600 at the beginning of the fight, and lost about
700 in killed and wounded. He commanded his brigade
at Fredericksburg, and at Chancellorsville, on the first
day, where the Second and Third brigades, Jackson's



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 615

division, were the first to charge upon and capture the
first line of intrenchments of the enemy, in an open field
beyond Wilderness church. On account of his disability
the brigade was commanded next day by Col. T. S. Gar-
nett until the latter was killed, when Col. A. S. Vande-
venter succeeded him.

Major-General Samuel Jones was born in Virginia in
1820, and was graduated at West Point, with promotion
to a lieutenancy in the artillery, in 1841. He served on
the Maine frontier, during the boundary dispute, until
1843; in Florida, 1845-46; and from 1846 to 185 1 was on
duty at the United States military academy, as assistant
professor of mathematics and instructor of infantry and
of artillery. Then having been promoted first lieutenant
Pirst artillery, he was on various duty, at New Orleans, at
Fort McHenry, on the Texas frontier, etc. , with promo-
tion to captain in 1853, until November, 1858, when he
became assistant to the judge-advocate of the army. He
remained in that position, at Washington, until April,
1 86 1. On entering the Confederate service he was com-
missioned major, corps of artillery, C. S. A., and with
promotion to lieutenant-colonel, was appointed assistant
adjutant-general of the Virginia forces. During the
organization of Beauregard's army and the battle of First
Manassas, he served as chief of artillery and ordnance,
and his services were gratefully acknowledged by the
general commanding. Promotion to colonel was accorded
him during this service, and he was promoted brigadier-
general to date from the day of victory. He was on
duty in the Potomac district, in command of a brigade of
Georgia regiments subsequently under George T. Ander-
son, until January, 1862, when he was put in command
of the army of Pensacola, relieving General Bragg. On
March 3d he assumed command of the department of Ala-
bama and West Florida, with headquarters at Mobile.
In April, being promoted brigadier-general, he was as-
signed to command of a division of the army at Corinth
under General Van Dorn, including the brigades of Rust,
Maury and Roane, and in June he was put in command
of Hindman's division. Later he was in charge at Chat-
tanooga, and in September was stationed at Knoxville in
command of the department of East Tennessee. From
December 4, 1862, until March 4, 1864, he commanded



616 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY.

the department of Western Virginia, with headquarters
at Dublin, Va. , and in general charge of the operations
in defense of the Virginia & Tennessee railroad and the
salt mines. Subsequently he was in command of the
department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida until
succeeded by General Hardee in October. During this
period Charleston harbor was defended, and the Federal
expedition in Florida was defeated at Olustee. He com-
manded the district of South Carolina until January, 1865,
and the department of South Georgia and Florida until
May 10, 1865, when he surrendered at Tallahassee. Then
retiring to private life he was engaged in farming, with
his residence at Mattoax, Va. , from 1866 until 1880, when
he was appointed to a position in the oifice of the adju-
tant-general at Washington. In 1885 he was transferred
to the office of the judge-advocate-general. His death
occurred at Bedford Springs, Va., July 31, 1887.

Brigadier-General William E. Jones was born near
Glade Spring, Washington county, Va., in May,
1824. He was educated at Emory and Henry college and
at West Point, and began service in the United States
army with the rank of brevet second lieutenant in the
class of 1848. In 1847 he had received from Emory and
Henry college the degree of master of arts. His con-
nection with the old army continued until his resignation
in 1857, he then having the rank of first lieutenant,
mounted rifles. During this period he first served in
Missouri and Kansas, marched to Oregon in 1849, re-
mained there and in Washington Territory until 1851,
and after that was mainly on duty in Texas. After his
retirement he was engaged in farming in his native
county until 1861. Upon the passage of the ordinance of
secession he had ready a company of cavalry, the Wash-
ington Mounted Rifles, with which he joined Stuart in
the Valley and took part in the First Manassas campaign.
At this time Gen. J. E. Johnston declared that his com-
pany was the strongest in the First Virginia cavalry reg-
iment, "not surpassed in discipline and spirit by any in
the army," and recommended that Stuart be given bri-
gade command and that Jones, "skillful, brave and zeal-
ous in a very high degree," should succeed to the col-
onelcy, with Fitzhugh Lee as lieutenant-colonel. Con-
sequently he became colonel of the First, upon the



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 61T

organization of Stuart's brigade, and in the spring of
1862 was intrusted by Stuart with important duties in
watching the enemy from the Blue ridge to the Potomac.
He was watchful and vigorous and made the enemy feel
his presence. Soon afterward, being displaced by a reg-
imental election, he was assigned to the Seventh regi-
ment, Robertson's brigade. Rejoining Stuart in August
he was distinguished in the Second Manassas campaign,
his regiment fighting splendidly at Brandy Station, and
winning commendation on several other occasions. He
participated in the raid around McClellan's army foUow-
ing[the battle of Sharpsburg, and on November 8th, having
been promoted brigadier-general, was assigned to com-
mand of Robertson's, or the "Laurel brigade," largely
composed of the men who followed Ashby in the valley.
December 29th he was assigned to command of the Valley
district, including his brigade and all other troops operat-
ing in that region, being selected for this post by Stone-
wall Jackson. With the co-operation of General Imboden
he made, in April and May, 1863, a very successful raid
upon the Baltimore & Ohio railroad west of Cumberland,
destroying an immense amount of public and railroad
property. Then joining Stuart with his splendid bri-
gade, he bore the first shock, and both in morning and
evening the brunt of battle, in the famous cavalry
fight of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, his brigade ending
the fight with more horses and more and better small-
arms than at the beginning, and capturing two regimental
colors, a battery of three pieces and about 250 prisoners.
During the advance of Lee into.Pennsylvania, Jones, who-
had been pronounced by Stuart "the best outpost officer"
in the cavalry, was depended upon mainly to cover the
rear and flank of the army. He defeated a Federal cav-
alry regiment at Fairfiald, Pa. , and after the retreat of
Lee was begun pushed forward rapidly to protect the
wagon trains of Ewell's division. Hurrying on with his-
staff on the night of July 4th, he found Emack's Maryland
company with one gun, holding at bay a Federal division,
with only half the train gone by. He joined in the des-
perate fight in person and with his companions until his-
command was scattered by a charge of cavalry. Sepa-
rated from his followers, he made his way alone to Wil-
liamsport and organized all the men he could gather in
the confusion for the defense of the place before the



618 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

arrival of Imboden. Then, with half a dozen companies,
he made his way through the enemy's lines to his com-
mand, and returned with it to participate in the attacks on
Kilpatrick at Hagerstown and on Buf ord at Williamsport.
During the campaign, he reported, his brigade fgught
in three battles and the affair at Boonsboro, and captured
over 600 prisoners. Soon afterward an unfortunate
break in his relations with General Stuart, which had
■existed since the fall of 1861, became so intensified as to
have serious results. Col. O. R. Funsten was given tem-
porary command of the brigade, and on October 9th
General Jones was ordered to report for duty in south-
west Virginia. There he organized an excellent cavalry
brigade, with which he co-operated with Longstreet in
east Tennessee, and in November defeated the enemy
near Rogersville. At Saltville, Va., in May, 1864, with
Gen. John H. Morgan, he foiled Averell's designs against
that post, defeated the Federals at Wjrtheville, and pur-
sued them to Dublin. On May 23d he was assigned to
command of the department of Southwest Virginia in
the absence of General Breckinridge. It was at that
moment a position of great importance, as the district
was in a turmoil on accotmt of the incursions of Averell
and Crook and Sigel, and Hunter was preparing to
advance on Lynchburg. Early in June three strong
columns of the enemy were marching against him, and
he made a stand with his own brigade, Imboden's and
Vaughn's before Hunter, at Piedmont. In the desper-
ate fight which followed, June 5th, he was killed and
his body fell into the hands of the enemy.

Brigadier-General Thomas Jordan was born in Luray
-valley, Va., September 30, 18 19. He was graduated at
the United States military academy in 1840, and entered
the active service as second lieutenant of the Third
infantry, in garrison at Fort Snelling, Minn. Taking
part in the Seminole Indian war, he was among those
who surprised and captured the chief, "Tiger Tail, " near
Cedar Keys, in November, 1842. Subsequently he served
on frontier duty until 1846, when he was promoted first
lieutenant. In the Mexican war he served creditably at
Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and being promoted
captain and quartermaster in 1847, he remained at Vera
Cruz for a year after the war. His services from that



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 619

time, in the United States army, were rendered in the
Southern garrisons and on the Pacific coast. May 21,
•I 86 1, he resigned and was commissioned captain, corps of
infantry, C. S. A. He was with the forces first collected
at Manassas Junction as lieutenant-colonel and staff offi-
cer, and when Beauregard took command there he was
promoted colonel and made chief of staff and adjutant-
general of that army. During the battle of July 21st he
was intrusted with the important duty of directing from
the rear the disposition of reinforcements, and after the
fight he accompanied President Davis to the field. His
assistance in the organization of the forces there was
gratefully acknowledged by Beauregard, whom he sub-
sequently accompanied to the west. He inspected the
forces at Columbus, Ky., and advised their withdrawal,
and .during the advance from Corinth rendered impor-
tant service in the preparation for the battle of Shiloh.
In this famous conflict he was very active along the line,
giving orders as occasion required in the name of General
Johnston, and at one time having with him and under his
direction the chiefs of staff of the different corps com-
manders. For his invaluable services on this field he
was promoted brigadier-general, April 14, 1862. Sub-
sequently he served as chief of staff with General Bragg
until after the Kentucky campaign. When Beauregard
was called to the defense of Charleston, he joined his old
commander as chief of staff of that department. In
May, 1864, he was assigned to the command of the Third
military district of South Carolina. After the restoration
of peace in the United States, General Jordan became
chief of the general staff of the Cuban insurgent army.
In May, 1869, he landed at Mayari with 300 men, and
ammunition and supplies for 6,000, and in December of
the same year succeeded to the chief command of the
army of independence. He gained a signal victory over
superior forces of the enemy at Guaimaro in January,
1870, but on account of a want of supplies he soon
resigned and returned to the United States. Of recent
years he has resided at New York, and edited the Min-
ing Journal. In 1868 he published, in association with
J. B. Pryor, a valuable work on "The Campaigns of
Lieutenant-General Forrest," and his minor contribu-
tions to Confederate history have been numerous and
interesting.



620 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Major-General James Lawson Kemper was born in
Madison county, Va., June ii, 1823, of a family descended
from John Kemper, of Oldenburg, who settled in Vir-
ginia in 1 7 14, in the "Palatinate Colony." He was edu-
cated at the Virginia military institute and Washington
college, where he took the degree of master of arts, and
his subsequent study of the law was pursued at Charles-
ton, Kanawha county. In 1847 he was commissioned
captain in the volunteer army by President Polk, and he
joined General Taylor's army after the battle of Buena
Vista. Subsequently he became prominent in the polit-
ical life of the State, and served ten years as a member
of the house of delegates, two years as speaker, and for a
number of years as chairman of the committee on mili-
tary affairs. He was also president of the board of vis-
itors of the Virginia military institute. On May 2, 186 1,
he was commissioned colonel of Virginia volunteers and
assigned to the command of the Seventh regiment of
infantry. Joining his regiment at Manassas he ren-
dered efficient special service to General Beauregard in
procuring him 200 wagons. He was in battle at Black-
burn's ford, and on July 21st, assigned to the brigade
commanded by Col. Jubal A. Early, he aided in striking
the final blow on the extreme left of the Federal line,
which immediately preceded the rout of McDowell's
forces. Three days after this battle his regiment was
assigned to the brigade commanded by General Long-
street, and subsequently by A. P. Hill, under whom Col-
onel Kemper, with the Seventh regiment, was in the
hottest of the fight at Williamsburg. Immediately after
this he was given command of the brigade which had
been successively under Longstreet, Ewell and A. P.
Hill, and he fought his regiments with distinguished
skill and courage during the first day at Seven Pines and
throughout the Seven Days' fighting before Richmond.
At Fra5'ser's he made a gallant advance over difficult
ground, broke the enemy's line and captured a battery.
With Longstreet's corps he reached the scene of battle
at Manassas, August 29, 1862, and in the subsequent
fighting served in command of a division consisting of his
own, Jenkins', Pickett's and N. G. Evans' brigades. At
South mountain he commanded his brigade, and in con-
junction with Garnett, the two commands not exceeding
800 men, met Hatch's force of 3,500 before Turner's



CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 621

Gap. This little force of Confederates performed prod-
igies of valor, causing General Doubleday to report that
he had engaged 4,000 or 5,000 men under the immediate
command of Pickett, and Hooker reported that Hatch,
after a 'violent and protracted struggle" in which he
was "outnumbered and sorely pressed," was reinforced
by Christian's brigade, in spite of which the resistance of
the enemy was continued until after dark. It was by
such self-sacrificing bravery that McClellan's army was
delayed until Lee could concentrate at Sharpsburg. In
the latter battle he commanded his brigade, also at Fred-
ericksburg, his brigade meanwhile having been assigned
to Pickett's division of Virginians. Before the battle of
Chancellorsville he was detailed to operate near New
Bern, N. C, where he rendered efficient service but
fought no important battles. He rejoined Pickett before
Suffolk, and marched with him into Pennsylvania. On
the third day of the fighting at Gettysburg he led his
brigade in the heroic charge upon Cemetery hill. As the
division concentrated in making the final assault, Kem-
per fell desperately wounded, his brother brigadiers,
Garnett and Armistead, being killed a few moments
later. He was brought off the field, but subsequently
fell into the hands of the Federals. After three months'
imprisonment and when it seemed unlikely that he
would recover, he was exchanged for General Graham, of
the United States army. His injuries prevented further
service in the field, but his gallant deeds were rewarded
by promotion to major-general, and he was given com-
mand of the reserve forces of Virginia, until the close of
the war. He then returned to Madison county, culti-
vated his land and resumed the practice of law, also tak-
ing an active part in the political movement which
resulted in the formation of the Conservative party in
Virginia, which he earnestly aided by voice and pen. In
this work he was so conspicuous as to be a candidate for
elector-at-large for the State in 1872, and in the follow-
ing year he was nominated and elected governor. He
served in this honored position for four years from Jan-
uary I, 1874. General Kemper died April 7, 1895.

Brigadier- General Edmund G. Lee was born at "Lee-
land," Va., May 25, 1835. He was educated at Hallo-
well's school at Alexandria, and at William and Mary



622 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

college, and then entered the profession of the law.
With the earliest volunteers for the defense of the State
he went to the front as second lieutenant of the Second
Virginia regiment. Soon promoted first lieutenant, he
was appointed aide-de-camp on the staff of Stonewall
Jackson, of whose brigade the Second formed a part at
First Manassas. Of the Thirty-third regiment, same bri-
gade, he was promoted major, and later lieutenant-col-
onel; and in this rank he participated in the Valley
campaign of 1862, and the subsequent operations of that
year. At Fredericksburg, having been promoted col-
onel, he commanded his regiment. Early in 1863, on
account of ill health, he retired from the service, but in
the fall of the same year he returned to active duty and
in June, 1864, was assigned to temporary command at
Staunton, Va. , with orders to do all in his power to organ-
ize the local forces and aid in the defense of the Valley.
But the Confederates met with a serious reverse at that
point immediately afterward; Gen. W. E. Jones was
killed, and Staunton was occupied by the Federals. On
September 20, 1864, Colonel Lee was promoted briga-
dier-general, and he was subsequently sent to Canada on
secret service for the government. After the war his
ill health compelled him to spend the winters in the
far South. He died at Yellow Sulphur Springs, Va.,
August 24, 1870.

Major-General Fitzhugh Lee was born at Clermont,
Fairfax county, Va., November 19, 1835. He is the son
of Sydney Smith Lee, who was a brother of Robert E.
Lee, and son of Gen. and Gov. Henry Lee. Sydney
Smith Lee had a distinguished naval career for over
forty years, beginning as a midshipman when fourteen
years of age. He commanded a vessel at Vera Cruz,
was three years commandant at Annapolis, and for the
same period in charge of the Philadelphia navy yard;
commanded Commodore Perry's flagship in the Japan
expedition, and when the first Japanese embassadors
came to America, he was associated with Parragut and
D. D. Porter in a committee for their reception and
entertainment. He resigned his position as chief of the
bureau of coast survey to join the Confederacy, and was
on duty at Norfolk; in command of fortifications at
Drewry's bluff; chief of the bureau of orders and detail,.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 62*

and in command of fortifications on the James during
the siege of Richmond. Fitzhugh Lee was graduated at
the United States military academy in 1856, and after
serving until January i, 1858, in the cavalry school at
Carlisle, Pa., as an instructor, he was assigned to fron-
tier duty in Texas with his regiment, the Second cavalry.
He served at several Texas posts, and on May 13, 1859,
in a fight with Comanche Indians was shot through the
lungs with an arrow, and his life despaired of. In
i860 he was ordered to report to West Point as instructor
of cavalry. In 1861 he resigned his commission as first
lieutenant, and tendered his services to his native State.
He was commissioned first lieutenant, corps of cavalry,
C. S. A. ; promoted lieutenant-colonel. First Virginia
cavalry (Stuart's regiment), August, 1861, and colonel,
March, 1862. His first service was rendered in staff
duty, under General Beauregard at Manassas, and as
adjutant-general of Ewell's brigade during the battle of
First Manassas. In the spring of 1862, with his regiment,
he aided in covering the retreat from Yorktown, and in
the raid of the cavalry under Stuart, around McClellan's
peninsular army, he was particularly distinguished in
the capture of the camp of his old Federal regiment, and
in the defense as rear guard while Stuart's other com-
mands built a bridge over the Chickahominy, which he
was the last man to cross. He was recommended by
Stuart for promotion to brigadier-general, which soon
followed, and at the organization of the cavalry division,
July 28th, he was put in command of the Second brigade,
consisting of the First, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Ninth
Virginia regiments and Breathed's battery. He took an
active part in the cavalry operations in Augiist, con-
nected with Jackson's advance northward, and in the
capture of Manassas depot; participated in Stuart's,
advance into Maryland, screening the movements of the
army, and after McClellan could no longer be held in
check at South mountain, his brigade covered the retreat
through Boonsboro, where there was a fierce and pro-
tracted fight. He succeeded in delaying the enemy
through the greater part of September 16 th, and then
joined the army before Sharpsburg. In November his
brigade was reorganized. He served on the Confederate
left above Fredericksburg in December, took part in the
raid on Dumfries and Fairfax Station, and in February,



€24 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY.

1863, moved to Culpeper to guard the upper Rappahan-
nock, giving battle to Averell at Kellysville, an action
which Stuart reported as "one of the most brilliant
achievements of the war," which he took "pride in wit-
nessing." At the field of Chancellorsville he led the
advance of the flank movement, rode with Jackson to
reconnoiter the position of Howard, and commanded the
cavalry in the Sunday battle. During Stuart's raid of
June, 1863, he captured part of Custer's brigade at Han-
over, and reached Gettysburg in time for a fierce hand-
to-hand cavalry fight on July 3d. During the retreat he
rendered distinguished service. He was now promoted
major-general and in September took command of one of
the two cavalry divisions, with which, when R. E. Lee
decided to push Meade from his front on the Rapidan,
lie held the lines while the main army moved out on the
enemy's flank. He fought about Brandy Station and
encountered Custer at Buckland Mills. After the con-
test with Grant in the Wilderness his division, thrown in
front of the Federal advance toward Spottsylvania,
engaged in one of its most severe conflicts. The Con-
federate troopers were a terrible annoyance to the Fed-
erals, "swarming in the woods like angry bees," and
Sheridan started on a raid to Richmond to draw them
off. At the resulting battle of Yellow Tavern, where
Stuart was fatally wounded, at Hawes' Shop and Cold
Harbor, and at Trevilian's, he contested with Sheridan
the honors of the field, and August, 1864, found him
again opposed to that famous Federal officer in the Shen-
andoah valley. Here he commanded the cavalry of Early's
army. He fought the spirited battle of Cedarville, and
at Winchester, September 19th, displayed great courage
and energy in attempting to save the field. In the midst
of a terrible artillery fire his famous horse "Nellie"
was shot, and at the same time he received a wound in
the thigh which disabled him for several months. On
recovering he made an expedition into northwestern
Virginia in the following winter. Upon the promotion of
Hampton to lieutenant-general, Lee became chief of the
cavalry of the army of Northern Virginia, and com-
manded that corps at Five Forks. After rendering inval-
uable service on the retreat, he was ordered to make an
attack, on April 9th, at Appomattox, supported by Gor-



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 61 of 153)