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don, and in this movement, which met overwhelming



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 625

Opposition, his cavalry became separated from the main
body. He participated in the final council of war, and
after the surrender returned to Richmond with Gen.
R. E. Lee. He then retired to his home in Stafford
county, and resided later near Alexandria. In 1874 he
delivered an address at Bunker Hill which greatly aided
the restoration of brotherly feeling. He was a conspic-
uous figure at the Yorktown centennial, and at the
Washington centennial celebration at New York city, at
the head of the Virginia troops, he received a magnifi-
cent ovation. In 1885 he was nominated for governor
by the Democratic party and made a memorable and
successful campaign against John S. Wise. After serv-
ing as governor until 1890, he became president of the
Pittsburg & Virginia railroad. In 1896 he was sent to
Cuba as consul-general at Havana, under the circum-
stances one of the most important positions in the diplo-
matic service. In this he represented the United States
with such dignity and ability that he was retained in the
place after the inauguration of President McKinley,
through all the trying difficulties preceding the war with
Spain. After the outbreak of war he was made a major-
general of volunteers in the United States army, and at
the close of hostilities was appointed military governor
of the province of Havana.

Major-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, the sec-
ond son of Gen. Robert E. Lee, was bom at Arlington,
Va. , May 31, 1837. He was educated at Harvard college,
where he was graduated in 1857. In the same year he
was appointed second lieutenant of the Sixth infantry,
United States army, and in this rank he served in the
Utah campaign under Albert Sidney Johnston, and sub-
sequently in California. Early in 1859 he resigned his
commission and took charge of his farm, the historic
White House, on the Pamunkey river. He was heartily
in sympathy with the Confederate cause, and organized
a cavalry company early in 1861, becoming one of the
leading spirits in the formation of the gallant body of
troopers which were subsequently distinguished in the
history of the army of Northern Virginia, and contrib-
uted so effectively to its successes. In May he received
the rank of captain, corps of cavalry, C. S. A., and in
the same month was promoted major in the regular

Va40



626 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

army. During the West Virginia campaign he acted as
chief of cavalry for General Loring. In the winter of
1861-62 he was ordered to Fredericksburg, Va., and was
commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Ninth Virginia
cavalry regiment, promotion to the colonelship following
in March. With his regiment he was attached to the
cavalry brigade of J. E. B. Stuart, and shared its opera-
tions during the retreat from Yorktown toward Rich-
mond. In the famous raid around McClellan's army
Stuart's men were led by the three colonels, Fitz Lee,
W. H. F. Lee and W. T. Martin; the artillery under
Breathed. His troopers defeated the enemy's cavalry
at Hawes' Shop, June 13th, during this expedition. Upon
the organization of the cavalry division in the following
month, his regiment was assigned to the brigade of Fitz-
hugh Lee, and he participated in the operations of this
command in the campaign of Second Manassas. After
serving on the advanced line before Washington, during
the advance into Maryland, he was particularly distin-
guished in the rear-guard fighting after the action at
Turner's pass. Squadron after squadron of his regiment
bore the brunt of the attacks of the Federal advance
until they were the last to enter Boonsboro. At this
point Colonel Lee was unhorsed and run over in crossing
a bridge ; and severely bruised and at first unconscious,
lay by the roadside for some time in full view of the
passing enemy. He managed to escape and finally
reached the army on the Antietam, where he was wel-
comed as one from the dead. Subsequently he com-
manded a detachment of Lee's brigade during the Cham-
bersburg raid, and held the advance during the return
movement in the rear of McClellan's army. His intre-
pid conduct and coolness in demanding the surrender of
a largely superior force of the enemy which held White's
ford on the Potomac, caused the withdrawal of this
obstacle which might have been fatal to the safe return
of Stuart's command to Virginia. At the reorganization
in November he, having been promoted brigadier-gen-
eral, was given command of the brigade of cavalry con-
sisting of the Fifth, Ninth, Tenth, Fifteenth Virginia
and Second North Carolina. During the operations
preceding and following the battles of Fredericksburg-
and Chancellorsville he was frequently engaged, and
during the combats with Pleasanton's cavalry before the




MaJ.-Gen. L. L. LouAX.
Brle.-Gen. R, D. Lillet.
MaJ.-Gon. J. E. B. Stuart.
Brig.-Gen. R. L, Page.



MaJ.-Gen. Wm. Smith.
Rrlg.-Gen. H. H. Walkrr.
Drig.-Qen. A. W. Reynolds.
Bi>ig.-Oen. Eppa Huston.



MaJ.-Gon. Samuel Jones.
Brfg'.-Gen. JNO. B. Floyd.
Brlg.-Gen. J. D. Imbodkn.
Brig.-Qen. W. C. Wickuam.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 627

Gettysburg campaign he fought at Fleetwood Hill and
Brandy Station, where he engaged the enemy in a series
of brilliant charges with his regiments, in one of the last
of which he received a severe wound through the leg.
General Stuart reported "the handsome and highly sat-
isfactory manner" in which he handled his brigade, and
the deplorable loss "for a short time only, it is hoped,
of his valuable services. " But, in his helpless condition,
he was taken prisoner by Federal raiders and carried to
Fortress Monroe, where, and at Fort Lafayette, he was
held until March, 1864. On his return to the army he
was promoted major-general and assigned to the com-
mand of a division of the cavalry. He participated in
the operations of the cavalry from the Rapidan to the
James in 1864; was at Malvern hill when Grant crossed
the river; opposed Wilson's raid against the Weldon rail-
road in June ; commanded the cavalry at Globe Tavern,
August ; at Five Forks held the right of the Confederate
line; and during the retreat to Appomattox, aided Gor-
don in repulsing repeated assaults. After the surrender
he retired to his plantation, and resided there until his
removal to Burke's Station in 1874. He was president
for a time of the State agricultural society, served one
term in the State senate, and sat in the Fiftieth, Fifty-
first and Fifty-second Congresses as representative of the
Eighth Virginia district. He died at Alexandria, October
IS, 1891.

Brigadier- General R. D. Lilley entered the Confeder-
ate service in the spring of 1861 as captain of the Augusta
Lee Rifles, a volunteer company, which marched through
the mountains under Col. J. M. Heck, after the battle of
Philippi, to recruit the forces in western Virginia. At
Huttonsville, General Garnett ordered two regiments to
be formed from the volunteer and militia organizations,
and the Rifles was assigned to the Twenty-fifth Virginia
infantry, under Colonel Heck. This regiment occupied
Rich mountain, and there Captain Lilley, in command
of his company, took part in the defense of Camp Gar-
nett. During the night retreat from that post, he and
part of his company followed the lead of Major Hotch-
kiss, over the mountain, and reached Beverly in safety ;
but the remainder of the column became separated and
were captured by McClellan. He remained with the



628 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

army of the Northwest through the fall and winter of
1 86 1, and shared its valorous service in the defeats of the
Federals at the Greenbrier river and Alleghany mount-
ain, and at McDowell in May, 1862. Subsequently his
regiment was attached to Early's brigade of Ewell's
division, and he was identified with the career of that
famous brigade throughout 1862. At the battle of
Cedar Mountain he attracted the attention of General
Early by his gallantry in advancing among the foremost,
with a small body of men, including the color-bearer,
after the regiment had been thrown in disorder by a rear
attack. At Second Manassas he again won commenda-
tion for his gallantry in driving back a column of the
enemy while in command of the brigade skirmish line.
He was promoted major in January, 1863. In April and
May, the Twenty-fifth was with Imboden in western Vir-
ginia, and rejoining the army was assigned to J. M.
Jones' brigade of the Stonewall division. Major Lilley
won high praise by his services in command of the skir-
mish line of this brigade at Gettysburg, and was pro-
moted lieutenant-colonel. He served with distinction at
Mine Run, and after the battles of the Wilderness and
Spottsylvania Court House was promoted brigadier-gen-
eral and assigned to the command of Early's old brigade.
In this capacity he served in the expedition through
Maryland against Washington. Soon after his return to •
the Valley he was severely wounded and captured at a
battle near Winchester, July 20, 1864, but was recaptured
four days later. On November 28, 1864, he was given
command of the reserve forces of the Valley district,
where he served during the remainder of the war. Gen-
eral Lilley died November 12, 1886.

Major-General Lunsford Lindsay Lomax, a distin-
guished officer of the Confederate States provisional army,
who rose from the rank of captain to that of major-general
in the army of Northern Virginia, was born at Newport,
R. I. , the son of Mann Page Lomax, of Virginia, a major
of ordnance in the United States army. His mother, Eliza-
beth Lindsay, was a descendant of Captain Lindsay, who
commanded a company in the light horse cavalry of Harry
Lee during the Revolution, and lost an arm in the war
for independence. His father, also, was of an old Vir-
ginia family. Young Lomax was educated in the schools



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 629

of Richmond and Norfolk, and was appointed cadet-at-
large, July i, 1852, to the military academy at West
Point, where he was graduated July i, 1856, and pro-
moted to a brevet lieutenancy in the Second cavalry.
He served on frontier duty in Kansas, Nebraska and that
region, with promotion to second lieutenant of the First
cavalry, September 30, 1856, and first lieutenant, March
21, 1 86 1, until the secession of his State from the United
States. Resigning April 25, 1861, he offered his services
to Virginia, and was appointed captain in the State forces
April 28th. He was at once assigned to the staff of Gen.
Joseph E. Johnston, as assistant adjutant-general, and
later was transferred to the field of operations beyond
the Mississippi, as inspector-general upon the staff of
the gallant Texan, Brigadier-General McCuUoch, who
commanded a division of Van Dom's army. After Mc-
CuUoch fell he was promoted inspector-general on the
staff of Maj.-Gen. Earl Van Dom, with the rank of lieu-
tenant-colonel. He served in this capacity from July,
1862, until October, when he was made inspector-general
of the army of East Tennessee. While with the western
armies he participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Ark. ,
Farmington and Corinth, Miss., the first defense of
Vicksburg from siege, Baton Rouge, La., Spring Hill
and Thompson Station, Tenn. On February 8, 1863, he
was promoted colonel and called to the eastern cam-
paigns. As colonel of the Eleventh Virginia cavalry, in
W. E. Jones' brigade, he participated in the raid in
West Virginia, and the subsequent Pennsylvania cam-
paign, including the battles of Brandy Station, Win-
chester, Rector's Cross-roads, Upperville, Gettysburg
and Buckland. On July 23, 1863, he was promoted brig-
adier-general and assigned to the command of a brigade
of cavalry organized for him of the Fifth, Sixth and
- Fifteenth Virginia regiments, and the First Maryland
cavalry. Under his command this brigade was one of
the principal factors in the subsequent operations of Fitz
Lee's division, including the fighting at Culpeper Court
House, Morton's Ford, the second encounter at Brandy
Station, Tod's Tavern, the Wilderness campaign. Cold
Harbor, Yellow Tavern, Reams' Station and Trevilian's.
His gallant and cool leadership in these important en-
gagements led to his promotion, August 10, 1864, to the
rank of major-general. He was given command of a



630 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

division composed of the cavalry brigades of Bradley T.
Johnson, W. L. Jackson, Henry B. Davidson, J. D.
Imboden and John McCausland, and rendered prominent
and distinguished service in the Valley campaign of the
army under General Early, at the battles of Winchester,
Tom's Brook and other encounters. At the battle of
Woodstock, October 9th, he was made a prisoner by
Torbert's cavalry, but made his escape about three hours
later by personally overthrowing his captor. On October
31st he was assigned to the command of the cavalry wing
of the army under Early, and on March 29, 1865, was put
in entire command of the Valley district of the depart-
ment of Northern Virginia. After the fall of Richmond
he moved his forces to Lynchburg, and when Lee sur-
rendered sent the news to General Echols, with whom
he endeavored to form a junction with the remnants of
his own, Fitz Lee's and Rosser's divisions. He suc-
ceeded in joining the army in North Carolina, and sur-
rendered his division with Johnston, at Greensboro.
Thence he returned to Caroline county, Va., and engaged
in farming, to which he quietly devoted himself during
the succeeding years until 1889, when he was called to
the presidency of the college at Blacksburg. He resigned
this position after five years' service. For several years
he has been engaged in the official compilation of the
records of the war, at Washington, D. C.

Brigadier-General Armistead Lindsay Long was born
in Campbell county, Va., September 13, 1827. He was
educated at the United States military academy, with
graduation in the class of 1850, and promotion to brevet
second lieutenant of artillery. He served in garrison at
Fort Moultrie until 1852, and on frontier duty in New
Mexico, with promotion to first lieutenant. Second artil-
lery, until 1854. His subsequent service was at Fort Mc-
Henry and Barrancas barracks, until 1855, when he was
again ordered to the frontier. With the exception of a
period at Fortress Monroe he was on duty in Indian
Territory, Kansas and Nebraska until i860. When the
crisis arrived between the North and South he was sta-
tioned at Augusta arsenal, Ga., but was transferred to
Washington, where he served as aide-de-camp to Gen-
eral Sumner until his resignation, which took effect June
10, 1861. Repairing to Richmond he accepted the com-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 631

mission of major of artillery in the Confederate service,
and soon accompanied Gen. W. W. Loring, assigned to
the command of the army of Western Virginia, as chief of
artillery. He served in the Trans-AUeghany, perform-
ing the duties of inspector-general in addition to those of
his regular position, during the summer and fall of 1861,
and was then ordered to report to Gen. R. E. Lee in the
department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
The association with the_ future commander-in-chief of
the Confederate armies, begun amid the mountains of
West Virginia, was continued throughout the four years'
war, with intimate friendship and confidence. When
Lee was given command of the army of Northern Vir-
ginia, Long was appointed military secretary with the
rank of colonel. During the subsequent campaigns he
rendered valuable service upon the field, especially in
posting and securing the artillery. His efiiciency in the
disposition of artillery was particularly shown upon the
fields of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg.
In September, 1862, he was promoted brigadier-general
and assigned to the duty of chief of artillery of the Sec-
ond corps of the army. He was actively engaged during
the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, and throughout the
severe fighting of 1864 managed his artillery with vigor
and unfailing judgment, sharing the battles of Ewell's
corps until disabled by illness. He organized the artil-
lery which accompanied Early in his campaign against
Washington. Throughout the disasters which befell
Early's army in the Shenandoah valley, subsequently,
his artillery corps behaved with a steadfast gallantry and
unfaltering courage that elicited the unbounded praise of
the lieutenant-general commanding. General Long was
with the Shenandoah army at the final disaster at Waynes-
boro and afterward accompanied Gordon's corps in
the withdrawal from Richmond, participated in its en-
gagements in April, 1865, and finally was surrendered
and paroled at Appomattox. After the war closed he
was appointed chief engineer of the James River & Ka-
nawha canal company. Soon afterward he lost his eye-
sight by reason of exposure during his campaigns. He
then removed to Charlotteville, where he passed the last
twenty years of his life in total darkness. During this
period his active mind was much employed in recalling
the incidents of the war, and it was then that he wrote



632 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

the Memoirs of Gen. R. E. Lee, a model of biographical
history, containing a very clear and most intelligent
account of the military operations of the army of North-
ern Virginia. This book was published in 1886. He
also prepared reminiscences of his army life, and a sketch
of Stonewall Jackson, which so far has not been pub-
lished. By reason of his infirmity he was compelled to
use a slate prepared for the use of the blind, and to depend
on members of his family and on friends for much assist-
ance. Under all these disadvantages he worked along
uncomplainingly, drawing his interest and delight from
what was most pleasant in his past life, cheerful, and
always with placid courage looking forward to the end of
his sad but honored career. He died April 29, 1891, leav-
ing a wife and two children, Virginia L. and E. McLean.

Major-General John Bankhead Magruder, conspicuous
in the early operations in Virginia, was born at Win-
chester, Va., August 15, 1810. He was graduated at the
West Point military academy in 1830, with the brevet of
second lieutenant. Seventh infantry, and was assigned to
the artillery school at Fort McHenry, Md. He subse-
quently served in various garrisons, on recruiting service
and in the occupation of Texas. On March 31, 1836, he
was commissioned first lieutenant of artillery. In the
Mexican war he commanded the light battery attached
to General Pillow's division, and after gallant service at
Palo Alto was made captain of the First artillery. At
Cerro Gordo he won the brevet rank of major, and he
afterward participated in the skirmish of La Ho^a, Oca-
laca, the storming of Chapultepec and the capture of the
city of Mexico. After the close of this war he served in
Maryland and California and was in command of Fort
Adams at Newport, R. I. At the formation of the Con-
federacy he promptly tendered his services and was com-
missioned colonel, C. S. A., March 16, 1861. Promotion
rapidly followed to brigadier-general, June 17 th, and
major-general, October 7, 1861. He was assigned to com-
mand of the artillery in and about Richmond on April
29th, and soon afterward was given charge of the Vir-
ginia State forces in that locality. Put in command of
the district of Yorktown in May, he defeated a Federal
force at Big Bethel, the first battle of the war, in which
his success gave confidence to the Confederate soldiers



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 633

everywhere, and correspondingly depressed the Northern
troops. He remained in this command until February,
1862. Stationed at Yorktown, with about 12,000 men,
confronting McClellan's great army of invasion, he dem-
onstrated his remarkable ability as a master of ruse and
strategy, causing McClellan to believe that a force supe-
rior to his own ^sputed his advance. Magruder was not
actively engaged at Seven Pines, but after General Lee
took command, he was put in charge of the left wing of
the Confederate army, and during the operations north
of the Chickahominy was left before Richmond to engage
the attention of the Federals. No one could have better
performed this feat than "Prince John," as he was known
in the old Federal army, on account -of his lordly air and
brilliant ability to bring appearances up to the necessities
of occasion. During the retreat of McClellan his troops-
made a spirited attack at Savage Station, and at Malvern
Hill nine brigades under his orders made a heroic charge
against the Federal position, but were repulsed with fear-
ful slaughter. At this time the Confederate government
determined to prosecute more vigorously the war in the
West and attempt to recover lost territory in Missouri
and Louisiana, and a department was formed of the
Trans- Mississippi, and General Magruder sent to its
command, with the understanding that Generals Hind-
man, Taylor and Price would report to him. If this plan
had been carried out, doubtless the history of the war in
that region would have been other than it is, but there
was a change before Magruder could reach the field, and
he was recalled to Richmond and subsequently assigned
to the district of Texas. He directed his attention at once
to the defenseless condition of the coast, and caused the
equipment of two cotton clad gunboats, and when the
Federals, attempted to occupy Galveston he recaptured
the town^anuary i, 1863, made prisoners of the garrison,
and caused the whole Federal blockade fleet to hoist the
white flag, although the uninjured vessels afterward
escaped. He continued in command, the district being
enlarged to include New Mexico and Arizona, and in
March, 1864, sent most of his forces to reinforce General
Taylor against Banks. After the close of hostilities
he went into Mexico and entered the army of Maxi-
milian with the rank of major-general, serving until the
downfall of the emperor. Then returning to the United



«34 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

States he lectured for a time upon his Mexican experi-
ence, at Baltimore and other cities, finally settling at
Houston, Tex., in 1869. He died at that city, February
19, 1871.

Major-General William Mahone was born at Monroe,
Southampton county, Va., December i, 1826. His family
in Virginia was descended from an Irish progenitor of the
Colonial period. Both his grandfathers served in the
war of 18 1 2, and his father commanded a militia regi-
ment during the Nat Turner insurrection. He was
graduated at the Virginia military institute in 1847, after
which he taught two years at the Rappahannock military
academy. He then entered upon a career as civil engi-
neer in which he became distinguished, engaging in the
construction of new railroads in Virginia, notably the
Orange & Alexandria and Norfolk & Petersburg lines.
Overcoming obstacles that had been pronounced insuper-
able in the construction of the latter line, he subsequently
became president of the railroad company. He then
conceived his great project of consolidating various roads
into a system from Norfolk to Bristol, Tenn., with the
ultimate object of extending connections to the Missis-
sippi and to the Pacific coast. But these enterprises
were brought to a sudden check by the political events of
1860-61. He promptly offered his services to Virginia,
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and soon promoted
colonel of the Sixth Virginia regiment. Serving first at
Norfolk, he was promoted brigadier-general November
16, 1861. After serving in the defense of Drewry's
bluff, he fought his brigade in Huger's division at
Seven Pines, where his men and Armistead's struck the
enemy a telling blow on the second day. He partici-
pated in the Seven Days' battles before Richmond, and
in Anderson's division of Longstreet's corps conducted
his brigade into action at the battle of Second Manassas
with conspicuous gallantry, receiving a severe wound
which prevented his participation in the Maryland cam-
paign, though his famous brigade was distinguished in
the valorous defense of the South mountain passes.
Returning to his command, he served through the suc-
ceeding struggles on the Rappahannock and in Pennsyl-
vania, and during the first day's fighting in the Wilder-
ness was intrusted with the command of his own



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 635

Wofford's, Anderson's and Davis' brigades, in an attack
on the flank and rear of Grant's advance, which rolled
Hancock's command back in confusion and promised to
repeat the victory of Chancellorsville, when Longstreet



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 62 of 153)