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Farm. With Longstreet's corps he took part in the sec-
ond battle of Manassas, and shared the distinction won
by Anderson's corps at Harper's Ferry and Sharpsburg.
In November General Lee requested Pryor to return to
Richmond and organize a brigade to operate south of
the James river. He rendered valuable services in that
field until his resignation, August 26, 1863. In 1864 he
was captured by the United States troops and for a time
confined at Fort Lafayette. Upon the close of hostilities
he urged a policy of quiet acquiescence in the results of
the war, but did not long remain in the South, remoAdng
to New York city, and embarking in the practice of law,
in which he attained great distinction. The degree of
LL. D. was conferred upon him by Hampden-Sidney
college.

Brigadier-General Alexander Welch Reynolds was
bom in Clarke county, Va., in August, 181 7, and
was graduated at the United States military academy in
1838, in the class of Generals Beauregard, Hardee,
Edward Johnson and Stevenson. He was promoted sec-
ond lieutenant First infantry on graduation, and first lieu-
tenant a year later; served in the Florida war as adjutant
of his regiment in 1838-40, and again in 1840-41 ; subse-
quently was on frontier duty in the northwest, and then
on recruiting service until 1847, when he was promoted
captain and assigned to quartermaster duty. In the
latter capacity he served at Philadelphia, in the Mexican
war, and in Indian Territory and New Mexico. He was
on duty as a quartermaster at various points, mainly in
Texas, from 1857, until he left the United States service



656 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

to enter the Confederate army, in which he received the
rank of captain of infantry. In July, 1861, he was com-
missioned colonel of the Fiftieth Virginia infantry,
Floyd's brigade, with which he participated in Floyd's
campaign in West Virginia. He was in command of the
post at Lewisburg during the winter following. After
the men had returned from the Fort Donelson campaign.
Colonel Reynolds was ordered in April to collect his reg-
iment and go to the support of Gen. E. Kirby Smith,
at Knoxville. A few weeks later, he was in command of
a brigade composed of the Thirty-ninth and Forty -third
Oeorgia infantry, to which was added Latrobe's Maryland
battery. With this command he was sent to Chatta-
nooga, and thence to Vicksburg, where he was assigned to
Stevenson's division, in command of a brigade of four
Tennessee regiments. He was commended oflficially for
Tiis faithful service during the siege of Vicksburg. Being
exchanged in July, 1863, he resumed command of his
brigade, when it was restored to the service, with the
rank of brigadier-general. After the battle of Chicka-
mauga he was assigned to a brigade composed of the
Fifty-eighth and Sixtieth North Carolina and the Fifty-
fourth and Sixty-third Virginia, which he commanded
in the battle of Missionary Ridge. Subsequently his
brigade was attached to Stevenson's division, Hardee's
■corps, with which -he was actively engaged in the Atlanta
campaign, until painfully wounded at New Hope church.
Upon the close of hostilities he went to Egypt, and in
1866 was appointed a brigadier-general in the army of
the khedive. After serving in the Abyssinian war he
resided for a time at Cairo, and died at Alexandria,
Egypt, May 26, 1876

Brigadier-General Beverly Holcombe Robertson, a
native of Virginia, was graduated at the United States
military academy in 1849, ^o<i promoted to brevet sec-
ond lieutenant of the Second dragoons. After a year at
the cavalry school at Carlisle, Pa., he was promoted
second lieutenant, and ordered to the West. He
served in New Mexico, Kansas and Nebraska, participat-
ing in battle with the Apache Indians at Jornado del
Muerto, and with the Sioux at Blue Water, and earning
promotion to first lieutenant, until 1859, when, being
ordered to Utah, he became adjutant of his regiment



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 657

and acting assistant adjutant-general of the department
of Utah. He was promoted captain March 3, 1861, but
in August, having severed his connection with the United
States service, he accepted a commission as colonel, Vir-
ginia volunteer cavalry. In the cavalry brigade organ-
ized by General Stuart in the latter part of 1861, he com-
manded the Fourth regiment, Virginia cavalry. After
Yorktown had been abandoned, and the Federal lines
were close to Richmond, he made a gallant fight at New
Bridge, in an attempt to repossess Mechanicsville, exer-
cising brigade command in the action. In June, Jackson
having concluded his Valley campaign, Robertson was
promoted brigadier-general and sent to Mount Jackson
to take command of Ashby's cavalry, and protect that
region. From Ashby's command was organized the
Seventh cavalry regiment. Col. W. E. Jones ; the Twelfth
regiment, Col. A. W. Harman; and the Seventeenth
battalion (later the Eleventh regiment), Maj. O. R.
Funsten. These, with the Sixth regiment. Col. P. S.
Floumoy, and the Second regiment, Col. T. T. Munford
(which had accompanied Jackson), constituted Col. Rob-
ertson's brigade when he rejoined Stuart on the Rapidan
river in August. Very soon afterward he participated in
the victory at Brandy Station, and was congratulated by
Stuart upon the superior discipline and stability of the
command he had organized. During the battle of Grove-
ton he was in command on the right holding back Porter,
and on the 30th of August, made a handsome cavalry
fight against Buford's brigade, on the Federal left flank,
driving the enemy and capturing 300 prisoners. On
September 5 th, General Robertson was ordered to the
department of North Carolina for the organization and
instruction of cavalry troops. In this capacity he dis-
played excellent ability, also participating in the demon-
stration against New Bern in March, 1863. Of his bri-
gade he led two regiments, the Fourth and Fifth North
Carolina cavalry, to reinforce Stuart in May, 1863;
took an important part in the fight at Upperville, and
during the Gettysburg campaign, commanded the cav-
alry division left with the main army, with orders to
watch the enemy, and follow in the rear of Lee, after
Stuart started on his raid through Maryland. This divi-
sion consisted of his North Carolina brigade and his
former Virginia brigade, now commanded by W. E.

Vs42



658 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Jones. On the last day of the Gettysburg battle his
command fought a cavalry battle near Fairfield, and
during the retreat was engaged in repeated skirmishes,
particularly at Funkstown and Hagerstown. After the
return to "Virginia, his two regiments having been reduced
to 300 men, he asked to be transferred to another field,
and was assigned in October to the command of the Sec-
ond district of South Carolina. In this field he remained,
with enlarged command, during the remainder of the
war, defeating the Federal attempt to possess John's
island in July, 1864, commanding the cavalry forces
which covered the retreat of Hardee from Charleston,
and participating in several engagements with Sherman's
troops. General Robertson is now engaged in the insur-
ance business at Washington, D. C.

Major-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser was born upon
a farm in Campbell county, Va., October 15, 1836,
the son of John and Martha M. (Johnson) Rosser. The
family removed from Virginia to Texas in 1849, and from
that State Rosser was appointed to the United States
military academy in 1856. The course of study being
then five years, he was in the graduating class when it
was ordered into the field by President Lincoln. He
immediately resigned, and proceeding to Montgomery
was commissioned first lieutenant in the regular army of
the Confederate States. Being assigned as instructor to
the Washington artillery of New Orleans, he commanded
the Second company of that organization at the battles of
Blackburn's Ford and Manassas in July, 1861, and with
Stuart at Munson's hill and the battle of Lewinsville.
His success in shooting down McClellan's observation
balloon won him promotion to captain, and in this rank
he commanded his battery in the defense of Yorktown
and on the retreat up the peninsula. At the battle of
Mechanicsville he was severely wounded, and was soon
promoted to lieutenant-colonel of artillery, and a few
days later to colonel of the Fifth Virginia regiment of
cavalry. Thus began his career as a cavalryman, in
which he won great distinction as a dashing, intrepid and
skillful officer. He commanded the advance of Stuart's
expedition to Catlett's Station, in the campaign against
Pope, and captured the latter's orderly and horses; in
the fight at Groveton, Va., August 28, 1862, commanded




Brig-.-Gen. P. T. Moore.
Mai.-Gen Wm, Mahone.
Brlg.-Gen. W. E, JONBS.
Mai-Gen. G. W. C Lke.



Brlff.-Gen. Dakikt, BraoLKS.
MfiKT-Oen. W. H F. Lek.
Briff.-Gen. D. A WniPlGER.
MaJ.-Gen. GEO. £. FiCKETT.



MaJ.-Gen. Edward Johnson.
MaJ.-Gen. Carter L. Stevenson.
Brig. -Gen. R. Ltndsat Walker.
Jlrlg.-Gen. Edwin G. Lee.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. SS*

the only cavalry with Jackson ; and confronted and held
in check the forces of Fitz John Porter on August 29th.
At South Mountain he commanded the only cavalry at
Crampton's gap, and with Pelham's artillery took a
prominent part in the gallant fight. He participated
in the battle of Sharpsburg, and subsequently for a time
led Fitzhugh Lee's brigade during the fighting against
Pleasanton. At the opening of the battle at Kelly's ford,
he was upon court-martial duty, with Stuart and Pelham,
but rode immediately to the front with those officers,
and finding his regiment in the rear, charged with it
upon the enemy who was crowding back the Confederate
front, and drove him back some distance. The Feder-
als, reaching a wood, dismounted and opened a heavy
fire, in which Rosser fell severely wounded, and Pelham
was killed while leading his regiment in another charge.
Rosser was disabled until the Pennsylvania campaign,
when he rode with Stuart around Hooker and Meade,
and participated in the three days' fight at Gettysburg.
After this battle he was promoted to brigadier-general,
and assigned to the old brigade of Turner Ashby, "the
Laurel brigade." With this gallant command he was
conspicuous in the campaigns of 1864. On May sth, the
opening day in the Wilderness, "a large force of cavalry
and artillery on our right flank was driven back by Ros-
ser's brigade," and on June zd he "fell upon the rear of
the enemy's cavalry" near Hanover Court House, and
"charged down the road toward Ashland, bearing every-
thing before him," quoting the telegraphic reports of
Gen. R. E. Lee. At Trevilian's station he drove Custer
back against Fitz Lee and captured many prisoners, but
was painfully wounded while leading a charge at the
head of his brigade. He also took part in the famous
"cattle raid," while Grant was about Petersburg. He
won all the distinction possible in the desperate struggle
against Sheridan's overwhelming forces in the Shenan-
doah valley, and in command of Fitzhugh Lee's division
saved Early's army at the battle of Cedar Creek, holding
the line and checking the enemy's pursuit until 9 130 p. m. ,
then taking position in the works at Fisher's hill, and
safely conducting Early's retreat to New Market next
day. He was promoted major-general in November, 1864.
He conducted the successful expedition against New
Creek, W. Va. , taking many prisoners and great quanti-



660 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

ties of Stores, and in January, 1865, with 300 men, crossed
the mountains in deep snow and bitter cold, and surprised
and captured two infantry regiments in their works at
Beverly, W. Va. Returning to the vicinity of Petersburg
in the spring of 1865, he commanded a division of cavalry
during the remainder of the struggle, fighting with honor
at Five Forks, and at High Bridge, April 6th, defeating
and capturing the entire command of General Read, who
fell in combat with General Bearing. On April 7 th, Ros-
ser captured General Gregg, and rescued a wagon train
near Farmville, and in the last hour of battle at Appo-
mattox, a little after daylight April 9, 1865, charged the
Federal cavalry and escaped from the fatal field with his
command. Under directions from the secretary of war,
he began a reorganization of the scattered troops of the
army of Northern Virginia, but was made a prisoner
about the time of Johnston's surrender. After the return
of peace he was for a time superintendent of the
National express company under General Johnston, was
assistant engineer in the construction of the Pittsburg &
Connellsville railroad, and in the spring of 1870 became
connected with the construction of the Northern Pacific
railroad. Beginning in an humble capacity he became
chief engineer of the eastern division in 1871, and built
the main part of the road. Later he was chief engineer
of the Canadian Pacific, and located and built the road
west of Winnipeg. Since 1886 he has resided near Char-
lottesville, Va.

Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles, a native of Massa-
chusetts who tendered his services to Virginia at the
beginning of the great war, was born January 3t, 1810,
and was graduated at the United States military academy
in the class of 1833. His military service was rendered
mainly with the Fifth infantry in the Northwest until
the Florida war of 1839-40, in which he participated with
the rank of first lieutenant. He was then stationed in
Wisconsin and Michigan until 1845, when he took part
in the military occupation of Texas. Going into the
Mexican war next year, he took part in the battles of
Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and won promotion to
captain. In 1847 he served at Vera Cruz, San Antonio
and Molino del Rey, and was promoted brevet major for
gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and brevet lieu-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 661

tenant-colonel for his services at Chapultepec. From
the close of that war until 1858 he was on duty mainly in
Texas. After taking part in the Utah expedition, he was
on sick leave of absence until the outbreak of the Confed-
erate war, when he resigned from the United States army.
He was commissioned brigadier-general of Virginia vol-
unteers in April, and assigned to the command of the
State forces along the line of the Potomac from Mount
Vernon south, and in May was put in command of troops
from the counties surrounding Fredericksburg, where he
was stationed. His rank then became that of colonel in
the provisional army. The troops under his command
repulsed the attacks of Federal vessels at Aquia creek
and Mathias point in June, 1861. In August following
he was commissioned brigadier-general, provisional
army. Confederate States, and ordered to Pensacola,
Fla., and two months later to New Orleans, where he
organized a brigade which was sent to Corinth early in
1862, General Bragg desiring the benefit of the experi-
ence and soldierly ability of Ruggles in that quarter. He
reported the landing of Grant's army at Shiloh, March
1 6th, and in the great battle which followed, in April, he
commanded the first division of Bragg's corps, consisting
of the brigades of Anderson, Gibson and Pond, and was
conspicuous through the two days' fight for the skill and
gallantry with which he handled his troops. After he
had driven the enemy from his front, a rally was made,
which would have resulted disastrously to the Confeder-
ates if Ruggles had not made a rapid and masterly con-
centration of artillery at a point enfilading the right flank
of Prentiss' division. The artillery, thus admirably
placed, worked havoc in Prentiss' command, and drove
back the reinforcements coming to his assistance, so that
within an hour the entire command surrendered to the
infantry attack, in which Ruggles' men had an important
part. During the next day his troops fought valiantly,
and he shared their danger, on one occasion leading the
charge of the Seventeenth Louisiana, with its regimental
flag in his hand. He fought the successful battle of
Farmington, May 9th, and continued in division command
during the siege of Corinth,, but on June 26th was assigned
to the district comprising the gulf counties of Mississippi
and Louisiana east of the river. He commanded the left
wing of Breckinridge's army in the successful battle of



662 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Baton Rouge ; in August was put in command at Port
Hudson, and later was given command of the First mil-
itary district of Mississippi, with headquarters at Jack-
son. In April, 1864, he made his headquarters at Col-
umbus, where he had a force of about 3, 000 men, and was
in the field opposing various Federal expeditions during
the Vicksburg campaign. Subsequently he remained for
some time unassigned, though anxious for duty in spite
of his advanced age, but finally accepted the post of com-
missary-general of prisoners of war. After the close of
hostilities he resided at Fredericksburg, Va., except
four years when in charge of a large estate in
Texas. He was a member of the board of visitors of the
United States military academy in 1884. His death oc-
curred at Fredericksburg in 1897.

Brigadier-General James E. Slaughter, a native of
Virginia, entered the military service of the United
States in April, 1847, as second lieutenant of Voltigeurs.
He was transferred to the First artillery in June, 1848,
and was an officer of that command until the formation
of the Confederate States, with promotion in 1852 to the
rank of first lieutenant. He received a commission as
first lieutenant, corps of artillery, Confederate States
army, and became inspector-general on the staff of Gen-
eral Beauregard after the transfer of the latter to the
department of Alabama and West Florida. After the
bombardment at Pensacola, in which Lieutenant Slaugh-
ter rendered valuable service under fire, General Beaure-
gard reported that to him, probably more than to any
one else in the command, he was indebted for patient
labor and unceasing vigil given to the organization and
instruction of the troops. Beauregard earnestly recom-
mended his promotion to brigadier-general, which was
bestowed in the spring of 1862. In May he was appointed
chief of the inspector-general's department of the army
of the Mississippi, under General Bragg. In this duty
he continued through the Kentucky campaign, and was
then assigned to the charge of the troops of Mobile,
that port being threatened by Federal invasion. Thence
he was transferred in April, 1863, to Galveston, Tex.,
as chief of artillery for General Magruder. Later in the
year he was given charge of the eastern sub-district
of Texas, and command of all the troops of the Sebond



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 663

division. During the remainder of the war period he
played an important part in Confederate afifairs in Texas,
for some time performing the duties of chief of staff.

Brigadier-General William E. Starke went to the assist-
ance of Gen. R. S. Garnett at Laurel hill, early in July,
1861, as colonel, and served as his aide-de-camp in the
disastrous retreat on the Cheat river. His coolness and
judgment in the midst of the confusion that followed the
death of General Garnett were highly commended by
Colonel Taliaferro, who succeeded to command. Sub-
sequently he was put in command of the Sixtieth Virginia
regiment, and sent to Lewisburg, to the support of
General Floyd, whence, in December, he was ordered
to accompany General Donelson's brigade to Bowling
Green, Ky. It appears, however, that he was instead,
attached to General Wise's command, stationed at Golds-
boro, N. C. During the Seven Days' campaign in
Virginia he commanded his regiment in Field's brigade,
and was commended for gallantry, and his promotion to
brigadier-general followed early in August, 1862. Re-
porting for duty to General Jackson, he was assigned to
command of the Second Louisiana brigade and marched
■with it to Manassas. In that campaign he took com-
mand of the Stonewall division, after General Taliaferro
was wounded on the 28th. He was with Jackson at the
capture of Harper's Ferry, and at Sharpsburg was called
on again to take command of the division, after the fall
of J. R. Jones. Soon afterward he himself fell mortally
wounded, pierced by three minie balls, and survived but
an hour. Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, in reporting the
Isattle of Second Manassas, said: "I cannot forbear doing
but scant justice to a gallant soldier now no more. It
was my fortune during the two days of battle, during
which he commanded the division, to be thrown con-
stantly in contact with Brigadier-General Starke. The
"buoyant dash with which he led his brigade into the most
withering fire on Friday, though then in command of the
division; the force he showed in the handling of this
command ; the coolness and judgment which distinguished
Mm in action, made him to me a marked man, and I
regretted his early death as a great loss to the army and
the cause. ' ' His name deserves lasting remembrance in
association with the Stonewall division.



664 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Brigadier-General Walter Husted Stevens, whose Con-
federate service was rendered in Virginia, was born at
Penn Yan, N. Y., August 24, 1827. He was appointed
from New York to the United States military academy,
where he was graduated fourth in the class of 1848, and
promoted in the army to brevet second lieutenant, corps
of engineers. After a short service at Newport harbor,
R. I., he was assigned to the repair of fortifications,
defending the approaches to New Orleans until 1853,
when he was put in charge of the survey of the rivers
and harbors of Texas. From 1853 to 1857 he served as
lighthouse inspector on the coast of Texas, with the
rank of second lieutenant until 1855, when he was pro-
moted first lieutenant. He was superintending engineer
of the construction and repair of fortifications below New
Orleans, 1854-60, superintended the construction of the
custom house and the fortifications at Galveston, and
was a member of the special board of engineers for Gulf
defenses. Entering the service of the Confederate
States iii May, 1861, he accompanied General Beaure-
gard to Virginia, as a member of his staff, and with the
rank of captain, corps of engineers. He served with the
advance forces at Fairfax Court House for some time
before the battle of Manassas, and laid out the works
there in an admirable manner. General Beauregard
reporting that he had "shown himself to be an officer of
energy and ability. ' ' General Bonham commended him
for his indefatigable labors, and constant attention to
execution of orders, in camp and field, and Gen. J. E.
Johnston especially mentioned his valuable services dur-
ing the battle of July 21st. He was promoted major, and
appointed chief engineer of the army of Northern Vir-
ginia, under Johnston, and was commended for his skill-
ful and devoted services both in his own profession and
as a member of the general staff at Seven Pines. After
General Lee came into command of the army, he was
succeeded by Colonel Gilmer, and with promotion to
colonel was given charge of the defensive works around
Richmond. In command of the troops and defenses of
Richmond in 1863-64, he participated in the operations
against Kilpatrick's and Dahlgren's raid, and rendered
valuable assistance to General Beauregard when the city
was threatened by Butler. In August, 1864, he was



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 665

promoted brigadier-general and assigned to his former
position* of chief engineer of the army of Northern Vir-
ginia. After the close of the war he went to Mexico
and became superintendent and constructing engineer of
the railroad from Vera Cruz to the capital, the property of
which he skillfully preserved from damage during the war
of that period. He died at Vera Cruz, November 1 2, 1867.

Major-General Carter L. Stevenson, a Virginian distin-
guished in the western armies throughout the war,
was a graduate of the National military academy, of the
class of 1838. He went into the United States army
with the rank of second lieutenant, and was assigned to
the Fifth infantry. He served on frontier duty in Wis-
consin, and was promoted first lieutenant September 22,
1840. His principal service after this was rendered in
the Florida war and in the military occupation of Texas,
until the Mexican war. He participated with distinction
in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma as
well as other events of this struggle, and in June, 1847,
was promoted captain in the Fifth infantry. He served



Online LibraryClement Anselm EvansConfederate military history; a library of Confederate States history → online text (page 65 of 153)