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GIFT OF
EVGENE MEYER.JR




CONFEDERATE
MILITARY HISTORY



A LIBRARY OF CONFEDERATE
STATES HISTORY, IN TWELVE
VOLUMES, WRITTEN BY DISTIN
GUISHED MEN OF THE SOUTH,
AND EDITED BY GEN. CLEMENT
A. EVANS OF GEORGIA.



VOL. IV.



Atlanta, Ga.
Confederate Publishing Company

J899



r



COPYRIGHT, 1899,
BY CONFEDERATE PUBLISHING COMPANY





TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE.

CHAPTER I. First and Last Situation in the Beginning-
Preparing for War The Dual Organizations of North Caro
lina Troops, State and Confederate 5

CHAPTER II. From Bethel to First Manassas Fighting
Along the Coast Supplies of Clothing and Arms a Serious
Difficulty 21

CHAPTER III. The Second Year Burnside s Expedition
Roanoke Island Lost Battle at New Bern South Mills and
Fort Macon Renewed Efforts to Raise More Troops 32

CHAPTER IV. The Federal Movements Against Richmond-
Peninsular Campaign Dam No. i, or Lee s Mill Retreat
up the Peninsula Williamsburg Hanover Court House
Seven Pines Jackson s Wonderful Valley Campaign 46

CHAPTER V. The Great Struggle of 1862 for Richmond-
Battles of Mechanicsville Cold Harbor, Frayser s Farm, Mal-
vern Hill North Carolina Troops Conspicuous in all En
gagements McClellan s Utter Defeat by Lee 76

CHAPTER VI. The Campaign Against Pope Cedar Mount
ain Gordonsville Warrenton Bristoe Station Groveton
Second Manassas Chantilly, or Ox Hill Pope Defeated
at all Points 92

CHAPTER VII. Lee s Maryland Campaign The March to
Frederick City The "Lost Order" Mountain Battles
Crampton s Gap Boonsboro Vigorous Skirmishing The
Surrender of Harper s Ferry by the Federals Battle of
Sharpsburg or Antietam First North Carolina Cavalry with
J. E. B. Stuart in Pennsylvania 106

CHAPTER VIII. The Fredericksburg Campaign Affairs in
North Carolina Supplies for Troops Brought by the Ad
vance Engagements in North Carolina Battle near Golds-
boro North Carolina Troops in the Western Army Battles
of Murfreesboro and Stone s River 133

CHAPTER IX. North Carolina in the Beginning of 1863
Gathering Fresh Supplies Demonstrations by D. H. Hill
Against New Bern Fights at Deep Gully and Sandy Ridge
Siege of Washington, N. C. Blunt s Mills and Gum
Swamp 150

CHAPTER X. Chancellorsville Brandy Station Winchester
Berryville Jordan Springs Middleburg Upperville
Fairfax 156

CHAPTER XL The Confederate Invasion of , Pennsylvania-
Battle of Gettysburg North Carolinians in the Three Days
Fighting on the Retreat The Potomac Recrossed by Lee s
Army Cavalry Fighting in Virginia during the Invasion of
Pennsylvania 171

HI



IV CONTENTS.

PAGE.

CHAPTER XII. Defense of Charleston North Carolinians in
Mississippi The Battle of Chickamauga East Tennessee
Campaigning North Carolina Cavalry in Virginia In-
fair ry Engagements around Rappahannoek Station Fights
at Kelly s Ford, Bristoe and Payne s Farm 200

CHAPTER XIII. North Carolina Events, 1803-64 Federal
Treatment of the Eastern Part of the State Military Oper
ations in the State Ransom Recovers Suffolk Victory of
Hoke and Cooke at Plymouth Gallant Fighting of the
Albemarlc Spring Campaign, 1864, in Virginia 218

CHAPTER XIV. The Wilderness, 1864 Grant Moves on Rich
mondThe Opening Battles of May The "Bloody Angle"
Battle of Drewry s Bluff Service of North Carolina Com
mands Hoke s Division 229

CHAPTER XV. Services of the North Carolina Cavalry along
the Rapidan Battle of Yellow Tavern The Second Cold
Harbor Battle Early s Lynchburg and Maryland Cam
paigns Battles in the Valley of Virginia Activity of the
Confederate Cavalry , 249

CHAPTER XVI. Around Petersburg Beauregard s Masterly
Defense Lee s Army in Place and Grant is Foiled The
Attempt of Grant to Blow up the Fortifications Battle of
the "Crater" The Dreary Trenches Reams Station
The Fort Harrison Assault The Cavalry 262

CHAPTER XVII. The North Carolina Regiments in Ten
nessee and Georgia Campaigns, 1864 Events in North Caro
linaFort Fisher The Close of the Fourth Year-North
Carolina Troops in Army Northern Virginia. 1865 Battles
near Petersburg Hatcher s Run Fort Stedman Appo-
mattox 273

CHAPTER XVIII. The Last Battles in North Carolina Gen.
T. G. Martin s Command Battles with Kirk and the Federal
Marauders The Army under Gen. Joe Johnston Evacua
tion of Forts Fight at Town Creek Engagement at Kins-
ton Battle at Averasboro Johnston Repulses Sherman at
Bentonville Johnston Falls Back to Durham Surrender . 280

BIOGRAPHICAL 287



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FACING PAGE.

ANDERSON, GEORGE B 296

AVERASBORO, MAP OF BATTLEFIELD. . 280

BAKER, LAWRENCE S 296

BARRINGER, RUFUS 296

BENTONVILLE, MAP OF BATTLEFIELD 280

BRANCH, LAWRENCE O B 3*7

BURNSIDE EXPEDITION (Map) 32

CLINGMAN, THOMAS L 296

COOKE, JOHN R 296

Cox WILLIAM R 34

DANIEL, JUNIUS 296

GATLIN, RICHARD C 340

GILMER, JEREMY F 34

GODWIN, ArcniBALD C 3 1 ?

GORDON, JAMES B 34

GRIMES, BRYAN 296

HILL, D. H., JR i

HOKE, ROBERT F 31 7

JOHNSTON, ROBERT D 296

KlRKLAND, W. W 296

LANE, J AMES H 34

LEVENTHORPE, CALI.ETT 34

LEWIS, WILLIAM G 296

McRAE, WILLIAM 3^7

MARTIN, JAMES G 296

NEW BERN, BATTLEFIELD OF (Map) 40

NEW BERN TO GOLDSBORO (Map) 144

NORTH CAROLINA, MAP OF Between pages 286 and 287

FENDER, WILLIAM D 3 r 7

PETTIGREW, JAMES J 34

RAINS, GABRIEL J 296

RAMSEUR, STEPHEN D 34

RANSOM, MATTHEW W 3*7

RANSOM, ROBERT, JR 34

ROBERTS, WILLIAM P 3*7

SCALES, ALFRED M 34

TOON, THOMAS F 3*7

VANCE, ROBERT B 3 J 7

WILMINGTON, N. C. , FRONT OF (Map) 276

WHITING, WILLIAM H. C 317




D. H. HILL, JR.



NORTH CAROLINA

BY

D. H. HILL, JR.



PREFACE.

IN presenting this sketch of the North Carolina troops
in the Civil war, the author feels that, in justice to
himself and to the heroic soldiers whose deeds it
attempts to commemorate, some facts in connection with
its preparation should be stated.

The authorship of this chapter was originally assigned
to a distinguished participant in the deeds recorded.
He, however, after vainly striving for about a year to
find time in which to write the sketch, was reluctantly
forced by his engagements to relinquish the undertak
ing. Thereupon the author was invited to prepare the
chapter. The time which the publishers could then allow
for the collection of material and the completion of the
manuscript necessitated more rapid work than such a
subject merits.

This necessity for haste especially prevented the col
lection of much-needed data about the last twelve months
of the war. During those months the Confederate officers
wrote very few official reports. The only way, there
fore, to get reasonably full information concerning the
events of that period is by correspondence with the sur
vivors. This was attempted, but the time was too short
for satisfactory results.

The author regrets exceedingly that many gallant
deeds and minor actions are shut out by space limitation.
He can only hope that the publication of this imperfect
sketch may incite other pens to more elaborate works.
As a subsequent edition of this work may be published,
the author asks for the correction of any errors unwit
tingly made.

3



4 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

He renders hearty thanks to Judge A. C. Avery for the
use of some material that he had collected; to Judge
Walter Clark for books, and to Col. T. S. Kenan and
Judge Walter Montgomery and others for valuable
counsel and sympathy.



CHAPTER I.

FIRST AND LAST SITUATION IN THE BEGINNING-
PREPARING FOR WAR THE DUAL ORGANIZA
TIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA TROOPS, STATE AND
CONFEDERATE.

WHEN the women of North Carolina, after years of
unwearying effort to erect a State monument to
the Confederate dead, saw their hopes realized in
the beautiful monument now standing in Capitol Square,
Raleigh, they caused to be chiseled on one of its faces
this inscription :

FIRST AT BETHEL:

LAST AT APPOMATTOX.

This terse sentence epitomizes North Carolina s devotion
to the Confederacy. From the hopeful loth day of June,
1 86 1, when her First regiment, under Col. D. H. Hill,
defeated, in the first serious action of the Civil war,
General Pierce s attack at Bethel, to the despairing gth
day of April, 1865, when Gen. W. R. Cox s North Caro
lina brigade of Gen. Bryan Grimes division fired into
an overwhelming foe the last volley of the army of
Northern Virginia, North Carolina s time, her resources,
her energies, her young men, her old men, were cheer
fully and proudly given to the cause that she so deliber
ately espoused.

How ungrudgingly the State gave of its resources may
be illustrated by a few facts. Gen. J. E. Johnston is
authority for the statement that for many months pre
vious to its surrender, General Lee s army had been fed
almost entirely from North Carolina, and that at the
time of his own surrender he had collected provisions



6 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

enough from the same State to last for some months.*
The blockade steamer Advance, bought by the State,
operated in the interest of the State, brought into the
port of Wilmington not counting thousands of dollars
worth of industrial and agricultural supplies "leather
and shoes for 250,000 pairs, 50,000 blankets, cloth for
250,000 uniforms, 2,000 Enfield rifles, with 100 rounds
of fixed ammunition for each rifle, 500 sacks of coffee
for the hospitals, $50,000 worth of medicines," etc.f
These articles were bought either from the sale of cotton
or on the credit of the State, and were used not only by
the State troops already mustered into the Confederate
service, and hence having no further legal claim on the
care of their own State, but were also distributed to
troops from other States. In the winter succeeding
Chickamauga, Governor Vance sent to Longstreet s
corps 14,000 suits of uniform complete. Maj. A. Gor
don of the adjutant-general s office says: "The State of
North Carolina was the only one that furnished clothing
for its troops during the entire war, and these troops were
better clothed than those of any other State. {" "The
State arsenal at Fayetteville, " reports Maj. M. P. Taylor,
"turned out about 500 splendid rifles each month" this
being after the second year of the war. Wayside hos
pitals were established in all the chief towns for the sick
and wounded. These things and hundreds of others
were done, not simply in the first enthusiasm of the con
test, but during the whole desperate struggle.

How unsparingly the State gave of her sons may be
shown by a single instance cited by Governor Vance :

Old Thomas Carlton, of Burke county, was a good
sample of the grand but unglorified class of men among
us who preserve the savor of good citizenship and enno-



* Gordon s Organization of the Troops,
f Vance s address at White Sulphur Springs.
\ " Organization of the Troops."
Article in Regimental Histories.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 7

ble humanity. He gave not only his goods to sustain
women and children, but gave all his sons, five in num
ber, to the cause. One by one they fell, until at length a
letter arrived, telling that the youngest and last, the
blue-eyed, fair-haired Benjamin of the hearth, had fallen
also. When made aware of his desolation, he made
no complaint, uttered no exclamation of heart-broken
despair, but called his son-in-law, a delicate, feeble man,
who had been discharged by the surgeons, and said,
whilst his frail body trembled with emotion and tears
rolled down his aged cheeks, "Get your knapsack, Wil
liam, the ranks must be filled!"*

Every day some heart-broken mother showed the same
spirit.

In the agitation that pervaded the South previous to
secession, North Carolina preserved its usual conserva
tive calmness of action. Her people, although pro
foundly stirred and keenly alive to the gravity of the
"impending crisis," were loath to leave the Union
cemented by the blood of their fathers. That retrospect-
iveness which has always been one of their marked char
acteristics, did not desert them then. Recollections of
Mecklenburg, of Moore s Creek, of Guilford Court House
pleaded against precipitancy in dissolving what so much
sacrifice had built up. Even after seven of her sister
States had adopted ordinances of secession, "her people
solemnly declared" by the election of the 28th of Feb
ruary, 1 86 1 "that they desired no convention even to
consider the propriety of secession.

But after the newly-elected President s Springfield
speech, after the widespread belief that the Federal
government had attempted to reinforce Sumter in the
face of a promise to evacuate it, and especially after
President Lincoln s requisition on the governor to
furnish troops for what Governor Magofrin, of Kentucky,
called "the wicked purpose of subduing sister Southern
States," a requisition that Governor Jackson, of Mis-

* Address at White Sulphur Springs.



8 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

souri, in a superflux of unlethargic adjectives, denounced
as "illegal, unconstitutional, revolutionary, inhuman,
diabolical," there was a rapid change in the feelings of
the people. Strong union sentiment was changed to a
fixed determination to resist coercion by arms if neces
sary. So rapid was the movement of public events, and
so rapid was the revolution in public sentiment, that just
three months after the State had refused even to consider
the question of secession, a convention composed almost
entirely of men who thought it was the imperative duty
of their State to withdraw from the Union was in session
in Raleigh.

On May 2oth, a day sacred to her citizens in that
it marked the eighty- sixth anniversary of the colonial
Declaration of Independence of England, the fateful
ordinance that severed relations with the Union was
adopted. Capt. Hamilton C. Graham gives the follow
ing account of the attendant circumstances : *

u As a youthful soldier and eye-witness of the scene, it
made an impression on me that time has never effaced.
The convention then in session in Raleigh was composed
of men famous in the history of the commonwealth.
The city was rilled with distinguished visitors from every
part of the State and South. The first camp of instruc
tion, located near by, under command of that noble old
hero, D. H. Hill, was crowded with the flower of the old
military organizations of the State, and sounds of martial
music at all hours of the day were wafted into the city.
When the day for the final passage of the ordinance of
secession arrived, the gallant and lamented Ramseur,
then a major of artillery, was ordered to the Capitol
grounds with his superb battery to fire a salute in honor
of the event. The battery was drawn up to the left of
the Capitol, surrounded by an immense throng of citi
zens. The convention in the hall of the house of repre
sentatives was going through the last formalities of sign
ing the ordinance. The moment the last signature was
fixed to the important document, the artillery thundered

* New Bern Memorial Address.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 9

forth, every bell in the city rang a peal, the military
band rendered a patriotic air, and with one mighty shout
from her patriotic citizens, North Carolina proclaimed to
the world that she had resumed her sovereignty. "

This step meant war, and no people were ever less pre
pared for an appeal to arms. Agriculture and allied pur
suits were the almost exclusive employments. Hence,
for manufactured articles, from linchpins to locomotives,
from joint-stools to cotton-gins, the State was dependent
on Northern and English markets. According to the
census of 1860, there were only 3,689 manufacturing
establishments of all kinds in its borders, and most of
these employed few laborers. Out of a total population
of 992,622, only 14,217 were engaged in any sort of fac
tories. The whole industrial story is told by a few of the
reports to the census officers. For instance, there were in
the State, as reported by these officers, the following insig
nificant number of workers in these most important oc
cupations: In wrought iron, 129; in cast iron, 59; in
making clothes, 12; in making boots and shoes, 176; in
tanning leather, 93; in compounding medicines, i. This
was the foundation on which North Carolina, when cut
off by the war from Northern markets and by the
blockade from English or other foreign ports, made a
most marvelous record of industrial progress, and devel
oped a capacity for self-support as unexpected as it was
wonderful.

But the State s power to manufacture the ordinary
articles of commerce was truly boundless when compared
with its capacity to produce arms, equipments and the
general munitions of war. To make uniforms for over
100,000 soldiers, and at the same time to supply regular
customers, there were seven small woolen mills! To
furnish shoes, saddles, harness for the army, and also
to keep the citizens supplied, there were ninety-three
diminutive tanneries. The four recorded makers of
fire arms were so reckless of consequences as combinedly

Nc 2



10 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

to employ eleven workmen and to use up annually the
stupendous sum of $1,000 worth of raw material. The
commonwealth was without a powder-mill, without any
known deposits of niter, and without any supply of sul
phur. Not an ounce of lead was mined, and hardly
enough iron smelted to shoe the horses. One of the pre
liminaries to war was to buy a machine for making per
cussion caps. Revolvers and sabers, as Col. Wharton
Green says, "were above all price, for they could not be
bought. Cartridge belts were made out of several
thicknesses of cloth stitched together and covered with
varnish. For the troops so freely offering themselves
there were no arms except a few hundreds in the hands
of local companies and those that the State had seized in
the Fayetteville arsenal. These, according to President
Davis,* consisted of 2,000 Enfield rifles and 25,000 old
style, smooth-bore guns that had been changed from
flint and steel to percussion. After these had been
issued, the organizing regiments found it impossible for
some time to get proper arms. Some, as the Thirty-
first, went to the front with sporting rifles and fowling-
pieces; some, as the Second battalion, supplemented
their arms by borrowing from the governor of Virginia
350 veritable flint-and-steel guns that nobody else would
have; some organized and drilled until Manassas and
Seven Pines turned ordnance officer and supplied them
with the excellent captured rifles of the enemy. How
ever, after the fall of 1862 there was no difficulty in
getting fairly effective small-arms.

But these difficulties never daunted so heroic a people
nor led them to withhold their volunteers. "None,"
says Governor Vance,f "stood by that desperate venture
with better faith or greater efficiency. It is a proud
assertion which I make to-day that, so far as I have been
able to learn, North Carolina furnished more soldiers in

* Rise and Fall of Confederate Government.
f Address at White Sulphur Springs.



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 11

proportion to white population, and more supplies and
materials in proportion to her means for the support of
the war, than any other State in the Confederacy. I
beg you to believe that this is said, not with any spirit of
offense to other Southern States, or of defiance toward
the government of the United States, but simply as a
just eulogy upon the devotion of a people to what they
considered a duty, in sustaining a cause, right or wrong,
to which their faith was pledged."

Such a military record, if the figures bear it out, is a
proud heritage. Do figures sustain it? Adjutant and
Inspector-General Cooper reports (probably a close esti
mate) that 600,000 men, first and last, enrolled them
selves under the Confederate flag. What proportion of
these ought North Carolina to have furnished? The
total white population of the eleven seceding States was
5,441,320 North Carolina s was 629,942, and it was third
in white population. Hence North Carolina would have
discharged to the letter every legal obligation resting
upon it if it furnished 62,942 troops. What number did
it actually supply?

On November 19, 1864, Adjt.-Gen. R. C. Gatlin, a
most careful and systematic officer, made an official
report to the governor on this subject. The following
figures, compiled from that report by Mr. John Neathery,
give the specific information :

Number of troops transferred to the Confederate service,

according to original rolls on file in this office 64,636

Number of conscripts between ages of 18 and 45, as per
report of Commandant of Conscripts, dated September
30, 1864 18,585

Number of recruits that have volunteered in the different

companies since date of original rolls (compiled) 21,608

Number of troops in unattached companies and serving in

regiments from other States 3,103

Number of regular troops in State service 3,203

Total offensive troops m,i35

To these must be added: Junior reserves 4,217

Senior reserves 5,686

Total troops in active service 121,038



12 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Then, organized and subject to emergency service in the

State, Home Guard and Militia 3,962

Total troops, armed, equipped and mustered into
State or Confederate service 125,000

From these official figures it will be seen that, estimat
ing the offensive troops alone, North Carolina exceeded
her quota 41,715 men. Including the Junior and Senior
reserves, who did active duty in garrison, guarding pris
oners, and on occasion good fighting, the State exceeded
its quota by 51,618. Taking all, it went over its quota
by the large sum of 55,580! This number of troops far
exceeded the State s voting population. The highest
vote ever cast was in the Ellis- Pool campaign. The
total vote in that election was 112,586. Hence, even
leaving out the Home Guards, North Carolina sent to
the Confederate armies 8,452 more men than ever voted
at one of its elections.

Another remarkable proof of the State s brave devo
tion to the Confederacy is noteworthy in this connection.
As shown by the census of 1860, the total number of
men in North Carolina between the ages of 20 and 60,
the extreme limits of military service, was 128,889. Sub
tract from this number the number of troops furnished,
and it reveals the extraordinary fact that in the whole of
North Carolina there were only 3,889 men subject to
military duty who were not in some form of martial
service. Most of these 3,889 were exempted because
they were serving the State, in civil capacity, as magis
trates, county officers, dispensers of public food, etc.
So, practically, every man in the State was serving the
State or the Confederacy. It may well be doubted
whether a more striking evidence of public devotion
was every recorded.

In April, 1861, it became apparent that a peaceful
arbitrament of existing difficulties was hardly possible,
so the authorities began to organize the troops. The
regiments, offering themselves in hot haste, were organ-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY, 13

i zed under two separate laws: First, those that organized
under the old law of the State, through Adjt.-Gen. John
F. Hoke s office, were called "Volunteers;" second,
those that organized for the war under the act of the
May convention were called "State Troops."

The "Volunteers" were the first to begin mobilization;
for on the zyth of April, a month before the secession
convention, Governor Ellis, seeing that some sort of
struggle was inevitable, had called for volunteers. The
companies responding to this call were, in accordance
with the usual routine, placed in camps of instruction to
be armed, equipped and drilled. The first camp was
pitched in Raleigh, and Governor Ellis invited Maj.
D. H. Hill, of Charlotte, to take command of it. Major
Hill was a West Pointer and a veteran of the Mexican
war. To the raw volunteers, unused to any restrictions,
as well as to the men accustomed to the laxity of militia
methods, he seemed, as Judge McRae expressed it, "a
tremendous disciplinarian." But, adds the Judge, in
speaking of the effect of his discipline on the first body
organized there, "As a proof of the value of the training,
the old First (on its disbandment at the expiration of its
term of enlistment) sent scores, I might almost say hun
dreds, of officers into other commands. " From the mate
rial assembled at Raleigh, the First regiment was soon
formed and hurried away to Virginia under Major Hill,
whom it elected colonel. Then, says Major Gordon,
whose excellent article on the "Organization of the
Troops" furnishes many of these facts, "the Second,
Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh soon followed.
The first six were sent to Virginia, the Seventh to



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