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298 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

of duty, led them to espouse. Thus, with the purest of
motives, Franklin Gardner left the service of the old army
and entered that of the Confederate States. He was im
mediately appointed lieutenant-colonel of infantry, his
commission dated March 16, 1861. His services were dur
ing the first year mostly in Tennessee and Mississippi.
At Shiloh he had command of a cavalry brigade. There
was very little opportunity in that battle for the cavalry
to take part; but they performed faithfully whatever
duties were committed to them. A short while after the
battle of Shiloh General Beauregard expressed his ap
preciation of Gen. Franklin Gardner in the following lan
guage : * The general commanding avails himself of this
occasion to return his thanks to General Gardner for his
services in the reorganization of the cavalry of this army.
He had been commissioned a brigadier-general a few
days before the battle of Shiloh. Soon after this he was
appointed to the command of a brigade in Withers di
vision, Folk s corps. He shared in the marches and battles
of the Kentucky campaign, and on December 13, 1862, he
received the commission of major-general in the army of
the Confederate States. Early in 1863 he was placed in
command of the important post of Port Hudson. His gal
lant defense of that place, against greatly superior num
bers, is a brilliant page of the Confederate history. The "
heroism of Gardner and his men is not dimmed by the
fact that they were finally compelled to yield to the power
ful combinations that were brought against them. After
his exchange General Gardner was assigned to duty in
Mississippi, at the last under the orders of Gen. Richard
Taylor. After the war General Gardner lived in Louisi
ana the quiet life of a planter, near Vermilionville. There
he died April 29, 1873.

Brigadier-General Randall Lee Gibson was born at
Spring Hill, Ky., September 10, 1832. His paternal
ancestors, natives of Scotland, first settled in Virginia,



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 299

where Randall Gibson, grandfather of the general, was
a revolutionary soldier. Subsequently moving to Missis
sippi, this ancestor married Harriet McKinley, and was
one of the founders of Jefferson college. On the maternal
side General Gibson was descended from the Harts and
Prestons of Kentucky. His youth was passed at Lexing
ton, Ky., and at his father s plantation in Terrebonne
parish. In 1853 he was graduated at Yale college, after
which he studied law, was admitted to practice, and trav
eled in Europe. Returning to enter upon the career of a
planter, the political crisis diverted his energies to war
and he became an aide-de-camp to Governor Moore.
He entered the Confederate service March, 1861, as cap
tain of the First Louisiana artillery. On August 13, 1861,
he was commissioned colonel of the Thirteenth Louisiana
infantry. He drilled and disciplined this regiment until it
was one of the best in the service. In April, 1862, the
effect of his good work was seen in the cheerful and ready
courage with which his men encountered the dangers and
hardships of the Shiloh campaign. In the battles of the
6th and yth of April Colonel Gibson, after the wounding
of General Adams, commanded a brigade whose losses
showed the nature of the work done by it on that well-
fought field. Colonel Gibson and his regiment partici
pated in the Kentucky campaign of the summer and fall
of 1862. Gen. D. W. Adams, in his report of the battle
of Perryville, three times mentions Colonel Gibson in
terms of the highest praise, and ends by saying, ** I will
recommend Colonel Gibson, for skill and valor, to be bri
gadier-general. At Murfreesboro (Stone s river) he com
manded the Louisiana brigade in the latter part of Decem
ber 3ist and in the memorable charge of Breckinridge s
division, January 2, 1863. After the fall of Vicksburg he
was for a time in the army of Joe Johnston in Mississippi,
but was back in the army of Tennessee in time for the
battle of Chickamauga. On the first day Gen. D. W.
Adams was wounded, and Colonel Gibson again took



300 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

command of the brigade. He commanded the brigade
at Missionary Ridge, and in January, 1864, was promoted
to brigadier-general. He and his brigade were in
the fight at Rocky Face ridge, February, 1864, and
during the long Georgia campaign they were alike dis
tinguished in the fighting from Dalton to Jonesboro.
In the command of a brigade he was perfectly at home,
and did the right thing in the right place. In this cam
paign his record is part of that of the splendid division of
A. P. Stewart, later under Major-General Clayton, than
which none did better service. In the disastrous battle of
Nashville it was this splendid division which, by its steady
bearing, assisted so materially in allaying the panic which
threatened the destruction of Hood s army when its lines
had been pierced by the exultant enemy in superior force.
In the spring of 1865 General Gibson was placed in com
mand of a small division at Spanish Fort (Mobile), in
cluding his brigade. Of his service there, Gen. Richard
Taylor has written, "Gen. R. L. Gibson, now a member of
Congress from Louisiana, held Spanish Fort with 2,500
men. Fighting all day and working all night, Gibson suc
cessfully resisted the efforts of the immense force against
him until the evening of April 8th, when the enemy
effected a lodgment threatening his only route of evac
uation. Under instructions from Maury he withdrew his
garrison in the night to Mobile, excepting his pickets,
necessarily left. Gibson s stubborn defense and skillful
retreat make this one of the best achievements of the war. "
After this General Gibson practiced law at New Orleans
until he was elected to the United States Congress. He
served as representative of the First district in the Forty-
third to Forty-seventh Congresses, and in 1882 was elected
United States senator, an office in which he represented
his State with great ability until his death at Hot Springs,
Ark., December 15, 1892. He also rendered valuable
service to the cause of education as administrator of the
Howard memorial library; trustee of the Peabody edu-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 301

cational fund; regent of the Smithsonian institute, and
president of the board of administrators of Tulane uni
versity, a noble institution indebted for its existence to
his influence and the munificence of Paul Tulane.

Brigadier-General Adley H. Gladden was born in
South Carolina, and was one of the most heroic men
of that gallant State. In every period of American
history, when a call has been made to battle for the
liberties or honor of the country, South Carolina s
valiant sons have been among the foremost in the
fray; and during the long and bloody war between
the sections of the great republic the Carolinians
were never deaf to the call of duty or honor. On every
field where they fought they added new luster to their
gallant State; and no matter where they made their
home they never forgot that they were Carolinians, and
South Carolina never forgot to love and honor them.
One who takes the pains to read the records of the gallant
leaders of the Southern armies will be surprised to note
how many of them received their best training in the
Mexican war. Though West Point furnished some of
the choicest spirits of that war so memorable for the un
broken success of the American arms, yet many other
gallant officers were there who, in that romantic struggle
of small forces against tremendous odds, measured up in
brilliant achievements to their brethren of the regular
service. No regiment in all the American army that
fought its way over all obstacles from Vera Cruz to the
halls of the Montezumas was more famous than the Pal
metto regiment of South Carolina. Gladden was the
major of that regiment, whose colonel and lieutenant-
colonel were killed, together with many of their brave
men in the storming of the Mexican works at the fierce
battle of Churubusco. In consequence of the bloody
result of that day Major Gladden became colonel of the
Palmetto regiment and led it in the assault upon the Belen



302 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

Gate, where he also was severely wounded. When the
civil war came, Colonel Gladden, whose home was then
in Louisiana, made haste to serve the cause of his be
loved South. Going to Pensacola as colonel of the First
Louisiana regiment, on September 30, 1861, he was com
missioned brigadier-general and assigned to command
of a brigade, including the First regiment, of which D. W.
Adams then became colonel. He was in command of his
brigade during the bombardment of the Confederate forts
at Pensacola harbor, and General Bragg expressed thanks
for the able support he rendered. Subsequently Bragg,
expressing a desire to form a brigade of regiments which
should set an example of discipline and official excellence,
said, " I should desire General Gladden to command
them." In January, 1862, Gladden was transferred to
Mobile and thence to Corinth, where he was in com
mand of a brigade composed of four Alabama regiments,
the First Louisiana and Robertson s battery. At Shiloh
this brave officer proved that he had lost none of the
fire of his youth. General Beauregard thus describes his
death: " In the same quarter of the field all of Withers
division, including Gladden s brigade, reinforced by
Breckenridge s whole reserve, soon became engaged,
and Prentiss entire line, though fighting stoutly, was
pressed back in confusion. We early lost the services
of the gallant Gladden, a man of soldierly aptitudes and
experience, who, after a marked influence upon the issue
in his quarter of the field, fell mortally wounded. " Struck
down by a cannon-ball, he was carried from the field and
soon afterward he died.

Brigadier-General Henry Gray. The State of Louisiana
gave many gallant defenders to the cause of the South.
Whether in Virginia or in Tennessee, or on her own soil,
her soldiers were among the bravest of the brave, conspic
uous for daring on the field of battle and for fidelity to
duty on all occasions. Among these gallant spirits none



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 303

deserve more the grateful remembrance of their country
men than Henry Gray, who entering the service in 1861
as a subordinate officer had by May 17, 1862, received
his commission as colonel of the Twenty -eighth Louisiana.
The sphere of action assigned him by the Confederate
authorities was within the limits of his own State.
Through the first months of his service he had no oppor
tunity for distinction. But when in 1863 the Federals in
New Orleans began to make attempts to extend their con
quests in the southwest, all those brave sons of Louis
iana who had not yet had an opportunity to strike a sin
gle blow, found steady employment in watching the move
ments of the enemy and thwarting his plans by gallantly
defending every foot of the soil of their beloved State.
An enterprising commander like Dick Taylor kept his
own troops, and those of the enemy as to that matter, on
the tramp all the time. When they were not attacking
him, he was making hostile demonstrations against them.
There were many fierce encounters which tried the en
durance and valor of the troops as sorely as did the great
battles in other parts of the Confederacy. These move
ments of Taylor s troops greatly helped to secure to
the Confederacy, to the very last , the possession of their
great Trans- Mississippi department. Along the Teche
there were many brave deeds performed. Colonel Gray,
amid these stirring scenes, found ample opportunity to
show the metal of which he was made. In April, 1863,
at Camp Bisland occurred one of those desperate affairs
in which the troops could plainly see the great disadvan
tage under which they labored, especially in regard to
the superiority in numbers of the force arrayed against
them. Gen. Richard Taylor, in his report of this battle
and others that preceded and followed it, said : * * Colonel
Gray and his regiment (the Twenty-eighth Louisiana),
officers and men, deserve most favorable mention. Their
gallantry in action is enhanced by the excellent discipline
which they have presented, and no veteran soldiers could



304 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

have excelled them in their conduct during the trying
scenes through which they passed. In one of these nu
merous combats on the Teche, Colonel Gray received a
painful wound. During the Red river campaign he com
manded a brigade in Mouton s division. So well did he
handle it that, after the campaign had ended in the total
defeat of the Union army and fleet, the commission of a
brigadier-general in the provisional army of the Confeder
ate States was conferred upon him, dated from the battle
of Mansfield, May 8, 1864. After the war General Gray
resided in Louisiana until his death, December 13, 1892.

Brigadier- General Harry T. Hays. The Seventh Lou
isiana, one of the crack" regiments of the State, in
which many of the best families of New Orleans were
represented, and its gallant colonel, Harry T. Hays, were
at an early date familiar names in the army of Northern
Virginia. The record of this command and its colonel
began with the First Manassas. In Early s brigade on
that day they shared in the march and flank attack which
completed the rout of the Federal army. In Jackson s
brilliant Valley campaign of 1862 the Seventh Louisiana
was attached to the brigade of Gen. Richard Taylor, of
E well s division. At Port Republic Colonel Hays was
wounded. This prevented his participation in the
Seven Days battles and Second Manassas. On July
25, 1862, while still absent on account of his wound, he
received the commission of brigadier-general, taking the
brigade formerly commanded by Gen. Richard Taylor,
who had been ordered to Louisiana to take charge of
operations in that quarter. At the battle of Sharpsburg
the brigade, commanded by General Hays, was in the
fiercest part of Jackson s battle. Of that terrible struggle
Stonewall Jackson said in his report: " The carnage on
both sides was terrific. At this early hour General Starke
was killed. Colonel Douglass, commanding Lawton s bri
gade, was also killed. General Lawton, commanding divi-



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 305

sion, and General Walker, commanding brigade, were
severely wounded. More than half the brigades of Law-
ton and Hays were either killed or wounded, and more than
a third of Trimble s, and all the regimental commanders
in those brigades, except two, were killed or wounded."
Again at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettys
burg Harry Hays and his brigade exhibited their old-
time endurance and valor, and in Swell s first day s fight
at Gettysburg Hays led his brigade in the victorious on
set of that corps that swept the Federals under Howard
and Reynolds from the field, through the town of Gettys
burg and to the heights beyond. In all the battles in
which he participated, from Port Republic, where Winder
tells of how in the charge that won the day, "Hays moved
his command forward in gallant style with a cheer,"
down to the desperate struggle in the Wilderness, in the
spring of 1864, the name of General Hays is frequently
mentioned in flattering terms in the reports of command
ing officers. His gallantry in battle is frequently noted
in Early s report of the fighting around Winchester while
on the march to Gettysburg, and of the superb conduct of
himself and brigade at Gettysburg. On the pth of May,
1864, at Spottsylvania Court House, General Hays was se
verely wounded. In the fall of 1864 he had recovered
sufficiently to attend to duties in Louisiana to which
he had been assigned, and was kept busy trying to get
together all absentees from the commands east of the
Mississippi; on the loth of May, 1865, he was notified of
his appointment as major-general in the army of the Con
federate States. But the Confederacy had already ceased
to exist everywhere, except in the Trans-Mississippi
department, where he then was. On the 26th of May the
Trans-Mississippi also gave up the fight, and the war was
ended. After the war General Hays resided at New
Orleans until his death August 21, 1876.

Brigadier- General Louis Hubert was born in LOUIS-
LA 20



306 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

iana. He was a cadet at West Point from 1841 to 1845,
when he was graduated as brevet second-lieutenant of
engineers. His only service in the United States army
was as assistant engineer in the construction of Fort Liv
ingston, Barataria Island, Louisiana, 1845-46. He then
resigned his commission and became a planter in Iber-
ville parish. He was major of the Louisiana militia
from 1847 to 1850, and colonel from 1858 to 1861 ; a mem
ber of the State senate from 1853 to 1855, and chief en
gineer of the State from 1855 to 1860. At the beginning
of the civil war he entered the army of the Confederate
States as colonel of the Third Louisiana infantry, which
was a well-drilled and well-equipped organization made
up chiefly of men from the northern part of the State,
and was placed in the brigade of Gen. Ben McCulloch.
In the battle of Wilson s Creek it was McCulloch s com
mand that encountered Sigel. General McCulloch in his
report of the fight with Sigel says : When we arrived
near the enemy s battery we found that Reid s battery
had opened upon it, and it was already in confusion.
Advantage was taken of it and soon the Louisianians
were gallantly charging among the guns, and swept the
cannoneers away. Five guns were here taken. On the
7th of March, 1862, at the battle of Pea Ridge, while Mc
Culloch and Mclntosh were leading a charge which at first
promised success, they were suddenly struck in flank by
an overwhelming force of the enemy. McCulloch and
Mclntosh were killed, and Hubert with a number of his
officers and men were captured. On May 26, 1862,
Colonel Hebert was commissioned as a brigadier-general,
and after having been exchanged he led the second bri
gade in Little s division of Price s army, now in north Mis
sissippi. At the battle of luka, Hebert s brigade bore
the brunt of the attack by Rosecrans two divisions.
Reinforced by Martin s brigade, they drove the enemy
back, capturing nine guns and bivouacking upon the
ground which they had won. On account of the approach



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 307

of heavy reinforcements to the enemy, Price retreated
near daylight of the next morning. After this Hebert
was for a time in command of Little s division. In bri
gade command he was at the battle of Corinth, and when
Price returned to the Trans-Mississippi he was left un
der the command of General Pemberton, whose fortunes
Hebert and his men shared in the battles and siege of
Vicksburg. After the fall of that heroic city, Hebert s
brigade was, as soon as exchanged, assigned to the army
of Tennessee, while General Hebert was sent to North
Carolina and put in charge of the heavy artillery in the
Cape Fear department, under the command of Major-
General Whiting. He continued to act as chief engineer
of the department of North Carolina until the close of
the war. After the return of peace, General Hebert
went back to his home in Louisiana and resumed his old
occupation of a planter, living in retirement and not enter
ing into political affairs.

Brigadier-General Paul Octave Hebert was born in
Iberville parish, La., December 12, 1818. He was of
Norman-French descent. He entered the United States
military academy at West Point September i, 1836,
and was graduated on the ist of July, 1841, as second-
lieutenant of engineers. He served as acting assistant
professor of engineering at West Point from August,
1841, to July, 1842, and as State engineer and surveyor
general of Louisiana in 1845. Resigning in the latter
year he re-entered the service of the United States in
1847 with appointment as lieutenant-colonel of the Four
teenth infantry, in the brigade commanded by Gen. Frank
lin Pierce. He was frequently mentioned by General
Pierce in his reports as the gallant young Creole colonel.
At the battle of Molino del Rey, one of the fiercest of the
bloody combats of the valley of Mexico, his gallantry was
so conspicuous that he was brevetted colonel. After the
war Hebert returned to his home in Louisiana. In 1852



308 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

he was a member of the convention which met to revise
the constitution of his State. In the same year he was
elected governor. Soon after the expiration of his term
as governor, William Tecumseh Sherman was, through
his influence, elected superintendent of the Louisiana
military academy. In that position he was quite popular,
and Hebert and many others hoped that the future great
Union general would espouse the cause of the South. But
Sherman resigned his position just before Louisiana se
ceded, and going North entered the service of the United
States. Hebert, as was to be expected, was zealous in
the cause of the South and his native State. He was at
once commissioned by Governor Moore as brigadier-gen
eral of the State military force, and on August n, 1861,
was commissioned brigadier-general in the provisional
army of the Confederate States. During this first year
of the war he was put in command of the district of Louis
iana and especially of the defenses of New Orleans. For
a short time he had command of the Trans- Mississippi
department, which was turned over to him by General
Magruder when the latter was placed in command of the
department of Texas. Though he performed with great
fidelity all the duties of the various commands to which
he was assigned, he was not actively engaged except at
Milliken s Bend, where he acquitted himself in such a
manner as was to be expected from a man of his reputa
tion and courage. During 1864 he was in command of the
district of Texas and the Territory of Arizona. After the
surrender of the armies of Lee and Johnston, Magruder
transferred to Hebert the command of the department of
Texas, and by him it was surrendered. After the war had
ended General Hebert resumed business in his native
State. He died on the 2pth of August, 1880, at New
Orleans

Brigadier-General Edward Higgins, of Louisiana, was
from 1836 to 1844 a lieutenant in the United States



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 309

navy. For four years from that time, being still in the
navy, he commanded an ocean steamer. Preferring that
position he resigned from the regular service and con
tinued in the merchant marine until it was evident
that there would be war between the North and South.
He then left the steamship service and in April, 1861,
entered that of the Confederate States as captain of the
First Louisiana artillery. He served as aide-de-camp
to General Twiggs while that officer was commander of
the post at New Orleans. In February, 1862, he was com
missioned lieutenant-colonel, Twenty-second Louisiana.
At the time of the attack upon New Orleans, 1862, he
was in command of Forts Jackson and St. Philip. He
made a gallant defense of these forts so long as defense
was possible, and then surrendered to the fleet which had
already passed up the river and captured the city of New
Orleans. In December, 1862, when Sherman marched
against Vicksburg and attacked the Confederates at
Chickasaw bayou, Colonel Higgins had charge of the
heavy batteries at Snyder s mill. He conducted his de
fense so skillfully and valiantly that General Pemberton
called particular attention to his conduct. He had re
ceived his commission as colonel on April n, 1862, and
had the Twenty-second Louisiana (artillery) under his
command. He was placed in charge of the batteries of
heavy artillery on the river front at Vicksburg in the
beginning of 1863. He strengthened the works along
the river in every way, preparing for the tremendous
ordeal which those on this part of the Vicksburg line must
pass. Long before the investment of the city by land,
the men in charge of the river front were subjected to
furious bombardment by the fleets of the enemy. In his
management of the task committed to him he gave the
greatest satisfaction to his superiors, and in the official
report of the operations on every part of the line of
defense prepared by General Pemberton after the fall of
Vicksburg, he was especially complimented for coolness,



310 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY.

gallantry and skill. After he had been exchanged he was
commissioned brigadier-general October 29, 1863, and was
placed in command of the posts and batteries around
Mobile. Here he measured up to his reputation already



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