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are ready is to take a fruit or two, and while holding
the fruit in the left hand, pull the stalk with the
right, and if it comes away easily, with the stone
attached, the sooner they are gathered the better.

Strawberries for bottling whole must be gathered
while firm, which is before they are fully ripe, other-
wise they will not keep. The Oxonian" is one of the
best varieties for this purpose.

Grafted Trees.— These had better be looked to,
and if the scions are growing well the bindings may
be removed entirely, taking care that on trees in the
open the young shoots from the grafts are properly-
secured against damage by wind, and if the scioDS
have made about 3 feet of"growth the points should
be pinched out.

Wall trees should have young shoots properly
trained to fill their respective positions, and all the
laterals pinched in to one or two buds, taking out
the points of the shoots when they have made about
o feet of growth.

Cordon trees may be allowed to grow as much as
they will, merely keeping the laterals pinched. A.
Ward, Stoke Edith Park, Hereford.



106



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE.



[July 28, ia«8.



The Kitchen Garden.



Turnips — .A good breadth of these useful vege-
tables should now be sown for giving a supply
throughout the winter. This sowing will produce
roots of a moderate size that may be relied on to
keep sound during that period of the year, lied
Globe (Veitch's) is undoubtedly one of the best
varieties for this purpose, but it is also advisable to
sow a small quantity of Chirk Castle for latest use.
The fact of this variety keeping firm longer than any
other white-fleshed turnip overrules any objection on
account of its black skin. It is not necessary to
make any great preparations for this crop, and as a
rule manure will not be necessary unless the ground
is very poor, and if any be given it should consist of
bone-dust or something equally rich in phosphates
in preference to anything that contains much
nitrogen. A piece of ground from which an early
Potato crop has been cleared will be suitable, fork-
ing over lightly, breaking it down well and levelling
it, and the seed should be sown in rows 2 feet apart,
and the plants thinned as soon as they are ready,
leaving them 9 inches apart in the rows. It is well
to sow plenty of seed in case the flea should attack
the plants, aud if that should occur give a good dress-
ing of wood-ashes and soot in a dry state when the
leaves are damp, and repeat as often as may be
necessary. An occasional hoeing to keep down weeds
will be all the attention the crop will require
until full grown. All Cabbage beds should
be cleared of stumps. &c, as soon as possible
after cutting the heads, or considerable im-
poverishment of the ground to no purpose will
ensue ; bat if it be deemed advisable, a few rows
only may be left to form sprouts, these often proving
very useful early in the winter after the Savoys are
used. W. H. Divers, Ketton Hall, Stamford.



Home Correspondence.

gfisp* Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending early
intelligence of local events likely to be of interest to
our readers, or of any matters which it. is desirable to
bring under the notice of horticulturists.

Photographs or drawings of gardens, or of remarkable
plants, trees, cfc, are also solicited.



PASSIFLORA EDULIS (GRENADILLA FIG).— A
fine example of this stove or warm greenhouse
climber growing a 10-inch pot stood on the border
in the corner of a small house at Common Hill,
Mrs. Clay's pretty place, near Ilfracombe, trained
up the back wall and down one of the rafters, and
carrying a very heavy crop of fruit, is well worthy of
notice in the pages of the Gardeners' Chronicle. The
roots have pushed through the pot into the border,
otherwise a plant having its roots confined to a
10-inch pot could not possibly support such a spread
of foliage and heavy crop of fruit as the one observed
is carrying. Mr. Dadds, the gardener, states that
the fruit is much appreciated for dessert when eaten
with cream and sugar. When fully grown it is about the
size of an ordinary Elruge Nectarine, having a horny
skin, which turns from a glossy green to brown when
the fruit is ripe. The fruit contains a large number of
seeds, and possesses a peculiar flavour. The species
can be easily raised by seed or cuttings put in in the
ordinary way in a hotbed or any other structure afford-
ing heat and moisture, shifting the young plants
into larger pots, as they require more room at the
roots, using a compost of four parts sandy loam and
one of leaf-mould. It is a rapid grower, but the
shoots should not be stopped — only thinned out to
prevent crowding. If fruited in pots liberal surface-
dressing of Beeson's manure should be given once or
twice a week before giving water at the roots while
the plants are swelling their fruits. H. W. Ward.

TURNING PLANTS OUT-OF-DOORS.— The bene-
ficial results of this practice are much more marked
if the subjects have been prepared for the change ;
if this has not been done, the plants are apt to lose
about as much as they gain. Although the temperature
outside may be as high as that maintained indoors,
yet generally the difference in humidity is so different,
that should bright sunny weather follow, the plants
are very likely to flag, when if remedial measures
are not immediately applied, much injury may be
done A capital plan is to have a sort of skeleton
greenhouse or frame over which a shading is spread,



and which can be rolled up in the usual way when
not wanted. This shading is also extremely handy
to let down in the autumn nights when there is likely
to be danger from frost. Thick Hessians or
" Forfar Scrim " is good cheap material to use
for this purpose — or, better, if some of the
mineralised shadings be used. These shadings will
also throw off a considerable amount of water,
if they are given a good slope, and fixed so that
they are fully stretched when let down. It is
also important that these plants are placed in such a
position as to prevent theirgetting water-logged, and
also the ingress of worms. It is a good plan to
arrange the plants in lines, and standing the pots on
a couple of parallel strips of wood, or similar contri-
vance, a few inches high ; this method affords good
drainage, and it is rather difficult for worms to gain
entrance. After the plants are arranged in position,
fill in the spaces between the pots with coal-ashes,
or other plunging material. This protects the roots,
and greatly reduces the amount of labour in water-
ing. In selecting a site, choose a sheltered, yet open
position, which with the aid of the appliances men-
tioned, many of the more tender Cape and New
Holland subjects may be turned out with advantage.
F. Boss.

COLOURED POTAT03.— If Mr. Grant will apply
to Mr. II. Dean, Ealing, W., in the winter, he will
certainly be able to obtain Rufus Potato through
him ; other growers may have it also. Some growers
have a peculiar liking for coloured Potatos, and there
can be no doubt but that some truly first-rate sorts
beyond those named hide their goodness under
coloured skins. Radstock Beauty, carmine blotched ;
Reading Russet, bright red ; The Dean, violet ;
and the popular Beauty of Hebron, pink ; are
first-rate sorts, which it will be hard to excel.
As the Vicar of Laleham Potato has received such
excellent notice at Mr. Grant's hands, and is with-
out doubt very widely grown, some sketch of its
origin may not be out of place. The actual Vicar
of Laleham, the little riverside Middlesex parish,
where all that remained of Matthew Arnold was so
recently laid to rest, was a few years ago the Rev.
Mr. Peake. That gentleman, who has since betaken
himself to another sphere of labour, was a real lover
of Potatos, a raiser in a somewhat haphazard way of
some seedlings, and withal a very genial gentleman.
One autumn, a few years ago, he called upon me to
show me three or four Potatos, small, but pretty, and
of a purplish colour. They were the product of two
very diverse parents — Paterson's Victoria, once such
a popular and first-rate flattish white round, and of
Red Emperor, a bad Potato, esteemed very handsome
then, but a moderate cropper, and peculiarly subject
to the disease. Everybody knows the origin of Vic-
toria, but Red Emperor was, no doubt, of Brazilian
origin, as I grew stocks of it once which had been
brought home from Brazil. The few Potatos Mr.
Peake brought me were left for growth the following
year, and the produce, though not even then large,
was excellent, and indicated a first-class variety. Mr.
Peake called to see my produce, and finding I gave the
new comer a good character, suggested that it
merited a name. I agreed, and then he intimated
that as we had a Rector of Woodstock he saw no
reason why there should not be a Vicar of Laleham.
That name was adopted for the Potato, and as such
it has won honour for itself and some kudos, I
hope, for its namesake and raiser. I always re-
gretted that the Vicar was not a white-skinned
variety. Had it been so it would long ere now have
been one of the most popular of market sorts. As it
is, it ought to find a big sale as a late spring stock in
the market. I did not feel satisfied with the quality
of the Vicar, as its flesh is hardly — in my soil at least —
of that flaky, mealy quality which marked its parent
Victoria. A cross between the Vicar and that
excellent but sparse-cropping white, Woodstock
Kidney, however, gave in the Dean just what I
desire, as I regard that as almost a perfect Potato.
It is rounder than the Vicar, has a rougher coat, and
of deeper hue, whilst its flesh is tinged with yellow
like that of the Victoria and Woodstock Kidney.
I have always found a little yellow in the flesh of a
Potato indicated flavour, whilst too much not un-
frequently meant closeness. I have therefore pre-
ferred the Dean to the Vicar, as the former is a dis-
tinct improvement. My experience of seedling
Potatos has been, that really fine kinds often take
threeor four years to show their true characters — some
take even longer. A promising kind may fail to
give size in its tubers for three or four years, but
presently the real character is fully developed, and
it remains permanently fixed. The particular



Potato inquired about by Mr. Grant— Rufus— is a
seedling from Early Rose crossed with Mr. Fenn's
small but good red kidney, Bountiful ; that also
has a yellow tinge in the flesh, and although,
like Bountiful, the tops are not very robust, the
tubers are large and of even size ; they materially
resemble those of Vermont Beauty when it was
first grown in this country. It is not unnatural that
crosses between white and coloured Potatos should
produce sorts of each colour, and of intermediate
shades, but it is unusual to find two coloured kinds
producing pure white forms ; that has often hap-
pened in the course of my crossing and raising
experience. I have usually found the pollen parent
to be the most marked in its effects upon the
produce, but there is no absolute rule. Wehavesucha
wealth of good Potatos, however, that it is very
difficult to raise any better ones. A. D.

NECTARINES IN SUCCESSION. — I herewith
enclose three fruits of Violette Hative Nectarine,
taken from different parts of one tree, the branches
of which are taken through holes in the partition
into houses earlier and later than the one in which
the tree is planted. The three successions have for
several years finished satisfactorily. The earliest
fruits commenced to stone when the latest were in
bloom — a condition ot things which I had previously
some doubt of when applied to the Peach or Netar-
ine. It has, however, proved a valuable method of
producing a succession of fruit from one and the
same tree, and I send you the specimens in case any
of your readers should doubt the possibility of the
same having been accomplished. Geo. Fennell, The
Gardens, Fairlawn, Tunbridye, July 12. [A very
interesting case, as the roots were subjected to a
uniform, the shoots to a variable temperature. The
earliest fruit was dead ripe, one would require another
fortnight, and the latest a month to be ripe. Ed.]

THE NON-WARRANTY OF SEEDS. — Will you
allow me to say a few words on this important sub-
ject to the retail seed dealer, and how the non-
warranty clause first came about ? As I was in some
way connected with the first trial that took place in
the Queen's Bench on the seed adulteration after
the passing of the then called new Act to prevent
the adulteration of seeds, the affair is still vivid in
my memory, I may recapitulate a few of the facts,
as appeared in the Gardeners' Chronicle special report
at the time of the trial, and of which the retail trade
appear not to have taken the least notice, and not
until within the last year or two has the subject
received any attention whatever. But the wholesale
trade was alive to the matter, and hence the non-
warranty clause. The case turned on the adulteration
or colouring of Trifolium with sulphurous acid gas —
yearling or old seed had been coloured to represent
new growing seed, but of course was perfectly useless.
I myself tested the growth of the seed ; but on the
trial that went for nothing; it was bought by sample,
and, according to the judge's decision, though a fraud
had been perpetrated, the bulk compared with the
sample ; though good or bad, that was immaterial so
long as bulk and sample agreed. The bulk of the
doctored seed came to hand at the end of the season ;
there was a great hurry about it — in fact, so urgent
were the farmers that it was delivered to several at
the railway statiou, never coming into the seedsman's
premises, proving that the seed could have been
tampered with only before transit, exonerating the
seedsman from any blame, beyond error of judgment,
which scores fell into besides the same season. He
was the only man in the United Kingdom who
protested against it and took the matter up on public
grouuds for the benefit principally of the farming
community, and contested it in the Queen's Bench,
in London, thereby doing more service to the farmer
than any man then living. Several samples and
bulks of seed coming from the same source that
same season were excellent in growth, throwing the
seedsman off his guard. In the latter part of the season
through the urgent demand, there was not time to
test the growth, hence the. error. After this trial
the non-warranty affair appeared. As a witness I will
narrate a few facts to show what the retail man may
expect. I had with me a trial book of seeds showing
the testing of 700 samples that season under the
seedsman in question, to show it was the custom of
good houses to test the growth of seeds before send-
ing them out, the seedsman in question bem"
very particular in this respect. But the
judge wanted further proof than this, so I,
myself, went to. three of the principal London
houses, asking them' to come forward and testify
as to the custom of the Loudon trade testing



July 28, 18S8.]



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE:



107



the growth of seeds before sending them out, but
not one of these would do so. One gentleman who
was for the opposition, was touched upon this point
by the seedsman's counsel — he was connected
with a London firm now defunct, and, I think
the man likewise, but if he still lives he may
remember stating that it was not the general
custom of the trade to test the growth of seeds
before sending them cut; and this, in my im-
pression, greatly injured the seedsman's cause.
This very gentleman was a witness before the select
committee of the House of Commons on the seed
adulteration before the passing of the Seed Adultera-
tion Act, and to inquiries there stated it was the
custom of the London trade to test the growth of
everything before it was sent out. Here was a man
as a Government witness giving opposite accounts.
Had the retail trade been half awake, as the whole-
sale trade were, this subject ought to have been
followed up all through the country, and a society
formed for their protection ; I have for years seen
the necessity of such a society, and the retail
trade ought to have seen at once the necessity of
protecting themselves. A single individual coming
forward having experienced a gross fraud, show-
ing his desire to serve the public with genuine
articles, and lighting single-handed a powerful
society — if there is a champion amongst seedsmen
he ought to be the one. I do not think it speaks
much in favour of the retail trade to allow a single
individual to be ruined in a good cause and a power-
ful society opposing. A society would not in any
way benefit me, as I have entirely left the trade, as
my card will show ; but after being many years con-
nected with the trade I still feel interested in it.
Apologising for trespassing on your space. I
Play.

HAUTBOIS STRAWBERRY.— That this fruit does
not find a place in our fruiterers' shops in our large
towns is somewhat singular and disappointing, the
flavour being much liked for its piquancv, even if
the fruit at its best is only a small one. Many
growers having been supplied with plants which were
either male or female only, have necessarily not
succeeded in fruiting it, and have condemned" it as
unfruitful, and this belief has spread — it not having
become generally kuown that the male flower is pro-
duced on one plant, and the female on another.
Given runners selected from a plantation in good
bearing, and therefore of mixed sexes, the fruitful-
nesa of a new plantation is assured, and when the
plants are once possessed, the formation of new
beds, whenever found necessary, presents no difficul-
I have found the plant do best on a border
north, that is, behind a tall hedge or wall, so
as to secure some amount of shade from the
sin. and a cool soil: in warm positions the
plants do not usually set their fruits so well,
p issibly because it sets its fruits rather late,
wlien in the generality of summers the soil is
grtting in such positions exhausted of its moisture.
A good distance to plant the runners is 1 foot apart
ill the rows, and the latter at 2 feet or rather more
i the soil be good. It increases fruitfulness
i i the plants if the runners are allowed to root in the
r i'.vs the first year, as then there will be no want of
a due mixture of male and female plants. The
plantation in the second year may have the alleys
b -tween the lines reduced to 1 foot in width, by per-
mitting the rooted runners to extend 6 inches on
each side of the original row. In the third year —
and it is not advisable to destroy the plantation until
it is six or seven years old, or at any rate before a
new one is in full bearing — the alleys may be allowed
to become overrun with the runners, and every third
original row cleared out with the spade to form an
alley between what will then be beds of two rows
each. By following up this method of renewal,
but in various ways, the plants may be kept in bear-
ing for the time stated. As a manure for the Haut-
bois there is nothing better in easily accessible
materials, than leaf-mould and Mushroom bed dnng
spread over the plants during the winter. As the
fruits are borne on tall stalks there is seldom any
occasion to mulch the soil with short straw to pre-
serve them from the dirt, yet in all dry soils a mulch
is an improvement so long as the alleys remain open.
Now is a good time to lay down plantations. M. V,'.

WHAT IS AN "HERBACEOUS'' PLANT ?— At
p. 73 Mr. E. Jenkins asks the above question, but it
is quite clear, from his remarks, that he has little or
nothing further to learn on that particular point.
To many per=ous, however, the term " herbaceous"
is bewildering, and is the cause of endless disputes



at horticultural shows ; such being the case would it
not be better to substitute the word " perennial," so
that the wording of a class in prize schedules may
read thus — "Hardy perennial plants." Thi
now so many caulocarpic plants exhibited as her-
baceous — under misapprehension of the word — that
it seems to me the time has arrived for widening
the field to admit them. Of course in a class worded
as suggested it is quite possible for mistakes to occur
sometimes, but I think they would be less frequent
than they have been in the past. J, II
Inin/.

CABBAGES. — 1 have seen during the past, few
days some few excellent new Cabbages, which bear
special merits, and are well worthy of mention. At
Messrs. Sutton & Sons' trial grounds, Reading, out
of myriads of Cabbages in trial, and all having
exactly the same treatment, there stood out specially
early and excellent Sutton's Little Gem, a very
dwarf emerald-green variety, very distinct, and with
solid hearts, which seems to be a "gem" indeed in
a large family. The second Cabbage is Sutton's
1 Dwarf, larger than the first, with hearts
of the usual conical form, but every one so firm,
white, and handsome that the variety commanded
attention. I should regard this kind for garden use
a- a very prince amongst Cabbages. The plants
will stand very close together, and for small gardens
would prove a great boon. The selected stock of
Sutton's Dwarf Biood-Red, or pickling Cabbage, is
also a very noticeable strain, and one which should
for ever supersede the old huge leafy stocks of
pickling Cabbages. If the heads are less big, they
are firmer, deeper in colour, less hard in texture,
and less strong in flavour. It is a very pretty as
well as a very superior pickling Cabbage. At
Heckfield Place Gardens, Mr. Wildsmith drew
special attention to a Cabbage named Veitch's
Earliest of All — of course a somewhat pretentious
designation, because some other Cabbages which are
smaller- hearted are earlier ; but for a large or rather
good-sized garden Cabbage, it is. withont doubt, a
superb variety, not only because so good at all
points, but so early for its size. This variety, whilst
carrying fairly large, clean, solid-pointed heads, has
very few outer leaves, and in that respect alone
merits distinction. There can be no doubt that
in the matter of Cabbages — thanks chiefly to the
keen watchfulness of our seedsmen in these sharp
competition days — we are going a-head, and it is
hoped in a fair way soon to obliterate all the large,
big-headed leafy stocks. Mr. Wildsmith also had a
few heads left of the French Early Etampes, a won-
derfully good Cabbage, which, without doubt, will
soou find its way — if it has not done so already — into
our English trade lists. A. D.



Societies.



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL.

Tuesday, Juxi 24. — The exhibition held in the
Drill Hall. .lames Street, Westminster, in conjunc-
tion with that of the Southern Section of the
National Carnation and Picotee Society, made a
pretty display altogether, and fairly filled the table
space. The best feature of the whole, apart from
the. special exhibits of the latter Society, was the
line collection of Perns sent up by Messrs. Birken-
head, of Sale, Manchester. This were a surprise
to many South country growers, and was greatly
admired. The visitors during the afternoon were
more numerous than on any previous occasion, since
the Society removed from Kensington.

Floral Committee.

Present : G. P. Wilson, Esq., in the Chair, and
Messrs. Shirley Hibberd, H. Herbst, J. Eraser. W.
Bates, Rev. W. Wilks, T. Brines, Ii. Dean, C.Noble,
H. Ballantine, C. Pilcher, J. Dominv, H. M. TolleM,
.1. O'Brien, E. Hill, G. Paul, B. Wvnne, and
Dr. Masters.

The Chairman contributed from his garden at
Wisley flowers of hardy Lilies of strong growth.
These were giganteum, Brownii, Martagon in three
vars., elegans, avenaceum, concolor, and Coridion,
the latter from a bulb growing in a pot. Sprays of
the showy crimson Spirrea palmat came from Mr.
Charles Noble's nurseries, Bagshot.

A large group of stove and greenhouse plants and
Orchids was contributed by Mr. B. S. Williams,
Victoria and Paradise Nurseries, Ilolloway, and con-
sisted of several tine species and hybrid forms of



Cypripedium, Cattleya gigas, Masdevallias, Vanda
teres, two well-bloomed pieces of Oncidium incurvum,
the spikes of bloom measuring from 3 to 4 feet
in height : Epidendrum cochleatum was a good plant
with ten flower spikes. Perns, Palms, and Dracienas
were interspersed as usual amongst the flowering
plants.

Dahlias of the pompon, Cactus and single classes,
and H.P. and T. Koses, were sent by Messrs. Cheal
& Sous. Crawley.

Roses, both II.P'.s and Teas, in considerable
numbers, and of capital quality, were shown by Mr.



Online LibraryÉcole des langues orientales vivantes (France)Gardeners chronicle & gardening illustrated → online text (page 47 of 327)