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themes will be assigned to each student for research during spare hours.

I Chemistry 107-108 — Analytical Chemistry and Urine Analysis. Lab-
oratory, ID hours, lectures i hour, 12 points. Professor Hostmann and Messrs.
Macsata and Jayne.

Lectures — 34 hours. During part of the time there will be discussed the "general tests" of the
Pharmacopoeia, viz. "Determination of Ash and Non- Volatile Matter," "Iodine Absorption
Value," "Saponification Value," "Acid Number of Resins," "Ether Soluble Matter," "Proximate
Assays," "Melting Points," "Boiling Points," "Congealing Points," "Solubilities" and "Gaso-
metric Estimations."

The greater part of the time will be devoted to the discussion of the practical application of
the modern theories of physical chemistry to analytical processes and methods.

Laboratory Instruction — 330 hours. The first period, comprising 100 hours, will be devoted
principally to qualitative work. Students will be supplied with pure and adulterated chemicals.
Tests of purity and identity will be performed upon the following: chloroform, ether, ethyl acetate,
phenol, glycerol, alcohol, amyl alcohol, cresol, creosote, acetanilid, chloral, paraldehyde, formal-
dehyde, acetphenetidin, salicylic acid, acetosalicylic acid and such others as time will permit.

During the second period of 100 hours, gravimetric and volumetric methods will be studied.

The student will prepare normal acid and alkali solutions. The former wUl be standardized with
barium chloride and silver nitrate, the latter with potassium bitartrate, etc. The finished solutions
will then be run against each other. Following upon this, the student will prepare iodine, potassium
permanganate, sodium thiosulphate, etc., volumetric solutions. After standardizing same, he
will use them in volumetric assays not covered during the second year. The gasometric assays
of ethyl nitrite and amyl nitrite as well as the assay of volatile oils will then be taken up and will
extend into the third period of 100 hours which will be principally devoted to the proximate assays
of the U.S.P. and of galenicals.

The final period of 30 hours will be devoted to the analysis of urine. In addition to the routine
qualitative and quantitative tests, the student will receive instruction in the principles and use
of calorimeters and polarimeters.

Text-books: Hawk, Physiological Chemistry; U. S. Pharmacopoeia; Stieglitz, Qualitative
Chemical Analysis.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 33

Chemistry 157-158 — Inorganic Quantitative Analysis. Lectures i hour,
laboratory, 8 hours, lO points. Professor Hostmann and Messrs. Macsata and
Jayne.

The aim of the fourth-year work in Analytical Chemistry is to carry forward the instruction
in chemical analysis to such a point that the student may be able to execute the more important
sanitary, chemical, and pharmaceutical analyses.

The object of analytical chemistry is twofold, viz.: qualitative and quantitative. During
the first year the detection of the component elements of compounds of unknown composition
are studied, while the work of the second and third years applies to determination of the relative
proportional amounts of the components of the various compounds studied, chiefly by the aid of
volumetric methods, leaving the more difficult and complex processes of gravimetric analysis
to be taken up in the fourth year.

The student must possess the theoretical knowledge necessary to enable him to solve chemical
equations, and to calculate the composition of substances from their formulas and vice versa.

The work will consist chiefly of gravimetric determinations, but will perforce include the test-
ing, adjusting and calibrating of delicate balances and other apparatus.

Text-books: Treadwell and Hall, Quantitative Analysis, sixth edition. Reference-book, Fre-
senius, Quantitative Analysis.

Chemistry 159-160 — Food Analysis and Toxicology. Lectures i hour,
laboratory 8 hours, lo points. Professors arny and Schaefer and Mr. A. Taub,

In order to give every advantage to the instruction in this department during the fourth year,
the College has provided very complete apparatus, which supplies the very best facilities that mod-
ern science affords.

The work in this department will cover the following courses:
* I. Analysis of various foodstuffs, including milk, butter, water, flavoring extracts, etc.

2. Chemical and sanitary examination of water.

3. Isolation and detection of organic and inorganic poisons.

In addition to the laboratory work just outlined there will be a lecture course of thirty hours
extending through the entire year, describing the various chemical methods of food examination
and explaining the principles underlying the more complex physical instruments employed by the
students in their laboratory course.

Text-books: Leach, Food Analysis; Autenrieth- Warren, Detection of Poisons; Mason, Examina-
tion of Water.

Reference- Book: Allen, Commercial Analysis.

Chemistry 161-162 — Biological Chemistry. Lectures i hour, 2 points.
Mr. Karshan.

The instruction in inorganic and organic analysis relates to the examination of substances dis-
connected from the living body, but the competent analyst must be prepared to consider and
act upon a knowledge of the natural changes which substances undergo when absorbed into the
living body, as well as the natural products there originating.

MATERIA MEDICA

Materia Medica 13-14 — Human Physiology and Hygiene. Lectures and
recitations, 2 hours, 2 points each session. Professors Rusby and Hart and
Messrs. H. Taub and Barrett,

In addition to the skill in Pharmacognosy required for the selection of drugs, the educated
pharmacist is required to possess some general information concerning the properties and uses of
the materials which he is engaged in handling and dispensing; that is, of the general classification
of medicines. As such classification depends directly upon their physiological properties, a limited
and specialized course of instruction in Human Physiology is provided.

The method consists in so arranging the order of subjects that the student shall be led from the
very first lesson to see the manner in which disordered bodily functions may be restored to a healthy



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

condition by the action of medicines, and leads to the immediate classification of the more import-
ant remedies, in connection with the study of the organs or systems to the functions of which they
apply. While this method gives an accurate knowledge of the facts involved, it permits of the
exclusion of a large portion of the subject of Physiology, and reduces to a minimum the amount
of time expended in acquiring such a knowledge of this department of Alateria Medica as is properly
required of the practising pharmacist.

Text-book: Bachman and Bliss, Essentials of Physiology; Howell, Physiology.

Materia Medica 15-16 — Botany. Lectures and recitations. 2 hours, 4 points.
Laboratory, i}4 hours, l}^ points. Professors Rusby and Hart and Mr, H.
Taub and Mr. Barrett.

The object of this course is to prepare the student for an understanding of that part of Materia
Medica which relates to vegetable drugs. In the limited time allotted to this study, it is impossible
to pursue it in all its departments, and attention is concentrated upon such instruction as will
fit the student for professional work in pharmacy. The instruction embraces the morphology of
the higher plants, from which nearly all of our vegetable drugs are derived, the terms used in
official description, systems of classification, botanical nomenclature, and the relations of the
lower to the higher plants.

The lectures are illustrated by large colored charts, and each student is furnished with carfis
bearing mounted specimens.

For the use of the instructor in the Quiz Room, the Alumni Association has provided an elabo-
rate series of papier-mache models arranged to illustrate structure and dissection.

Laboratory Course. — Pharmacognosy, while itself not a science, may be regarded as the art of
applying scientific knowledge to the examination of drugs. The theoretical and practical training
of the lecture and recitation room is designed to fit the student for such botanical observations
as can ordinarily be made with the naked eye.

To enable him to extend these observations by the use of the simple or dissecting and the com-
pound microscope, in preparation for the study of Pharmacognosy in the following year, a course
of laboratory instruction is provided. This portion of the work is under the direction of Pro-
fessor Hart, and consists in thoroughly training the students in the use of the simple microscope,
and in teaching the structure of all parts of the plant which can be studied with that instrument.

The material for these studies is collected during the summer season, and carefully selected
with a view to best illustrating the points brought out in the lecture-room.

Text-book: Kushy, Manual of Botany.

Materia Medica 17-18 — Vegetable Histology. Lectures }4 hour. Lab-
oratory, 1 3^ hours, 23^ points. Professors Ballard and Hart and Mr. H.
Taub and Mr. Barrett.

This course is given in conjunction with the first year botany laboratory and is prerequisite to
the more advanced work of microscopic pharmacognosy, technical microscopy and food microscopy.

The Microscope and Microtechnic. — ^As ability to properly use a microscope is the foundation
of success in all branches of microscopy, first attention is given to a consideration of the parts
of the instrument. The uses of the various types of objectives, oculars, illuminating apparatus
and mechanical accessories are explained and demonstrated. The details of sectioning, embedding,
staining and mounting specimens are illustrated by demonstrations, and at least part of the work
is performed by the student.

Vegetable Histology. — This part of the course includes the study of plant tissues and the various
types of cell contents. A physiological groupmg of the tissues is followed by detailed study of
the forms, modifications, locations, functions and differences in chemical constitution of the
cellular elements concerned in protection, support, absorption, transportation, synthesis and stor-
age. The organic and inorganic cell contents are classified; details of their synthesis are considered
and the more commonly used microchemical tests are demonstrated. This work is followed by a
detailed study of the arrangement of cells and disposition of cell contents in the various parts and
organs of the plant. Each student prepares a set of specimens for use in the course and is re-
quired to follow the lecture explanations by personal observation and drawmgs illustrating the
topics considered at each session.

Text-book: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 35

Materia Medica 19-20 — Posology. Recitations, 3^ hours, i point. Mr. H.
Taub and Mr. Barrett.

The practice in some states of issuing licenses as Assistants to those who have not completed
their pharmacy course renders it necessary that the more important facts regarding dosage and
danger of poisoning should be taught in the first year course. These recitations are designed to
meet this requirement.

Materia Medica 59 — Materia Medica. Lectures and recitations. 23^ hours.
2/4 points each Session. Professors Rusby and Hart and Mr. H. Taub and
Mr. Barrett.

This course includes instruction in both the inorganic and organic divisions of drugs.

Organic Division. — In these lectures, the drugs are arranged in the order of their botanical
relationship, there being a general correspondence between such relationship as, represented in
the various families and subfamilies, and their medicinal properties. The natural order recognized
in the classification of Engler and Prantl (Pflanzen-familien) is followed.

Some general remarks upon the families, with special reference to their medicinal constituents
and properties, will always precede the consideration of the species belonging thereto. In studying
the individual drugs, the order of topics is as follows: The definition given by the Pharmacopoeia,
habit, habitat, range, collection, preparation and commerce, important constituents, medicinal
action, uses, and doses. All instruction pertaining to description, structure, identification, sub-
stitution and adulteration is referred to the extensive course in Pharmacognosy.

Inorganic Division. — Many of the inorganic drugs are so closely related in properties and uses
to others in the organic division that their consideration in connection therewith is deemed of
advantage to the student. Those members which form classes distinct from those of the organic
division will be afterward considered, and their classification will correspond in a general way with
that found in Wood, Therapeutics. All facts concerning the chemistry and pharmacy of these
drugs will be omitted, except when necessary to explain changes of such a nature as to modify
their medicinal effects.

Text-books: Culbreth, Materia Medica and Pharmacology (for University students, Gould,
Pocket Medical Dictionary).

Materia Medica 60 — Toxicology. Lectures and recitations, i hour, i point
each session. Professors Rusby and Hart and Mr. H. Taub and Mr. Barrett.

The classification of poisons is based upon the Physiological Action of Medicines, taught during
the Junior year, and is synopticaUy presented at the beginning of the course in Materia Medica.
The Toxicology of the individual drugs is then taken up in detail in connection with their physio-
logical action and medicinal uses. Experience has shown that by this method the modes of occur-
rence of poisoning accidents, the poisonous doses, the action of poisons and their rational treat-
ment, are all made more intelligible to the student, and are better impressed upon his memory,
than by treating the subject as entirely disconnected from that of Materia Medica.

Text-book: Brundage, Manual of Toxicology.

Materia Medica 61 — Microscopic Pharmacognosy. Laboratory, ij^
hours, ij^ points. Professors Ballard and Hart and Mr. H. Taub and Mr.
Barrett.

This course comprises laboratory instruction in the classification, identification and description
of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary. The drugs and medi-
cinal products of vegetable origin are grouped according to the parts of the plant from which they
are derived and further classified on the basis of medicinal constituents. Each drug receives sep-
arate attention in the laboratory and the following details are considered — titles under which the
drug is known; botanical, geographical and commercial sources; official description, definition
and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration or substitution; preparation for market and
proper means of preservation or storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and must retain the
same for future reference. At the completion of the course each student possesses a collection of
the official crude drugs and many non-official articles of commercial or technical importance as



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

his personal property. Proficiency in the identification of the drugs studied is determined by
practical examinations at short intervals during the term. Botany (Course MM. 15-16 or its
equivalent) is prerequisite to a proper understanding of the work in this course.
Text-book: Squibbs, Atlas of the Official Drugs.

Materia Medica 62 — ^Microscopic Pharmacognosy. Laboratory, ij^
hours, i}/2 points. Professors Ballard and Hart and Mr. H. Taub and Mr.
Barrett.

The preliminary work of this course wUl consist of a brief review of the cellular elements and
cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this manner the work in vegetable
histology of the first year (Course MM. 17-18) is coordinated to the more detailed study of mi-
croscopical pharmacognosy. Powders prepared from drugs representing different parts of the
plant will be used as material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared in the first year
it will be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with the powder and
thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the changes in appearance incidental
to powdering. The number of specimens studied is necessarily limited by the amount of time which
can be given to the work but the subject matter of the course is so arranged that representative
rather than extraordinary types are considered. The student is expected to construct and use
analytical keys in the identification of the powdered materials examined. Progress in course is
determined by a series of practical examinations at short intervals throughout the year and the
student must record his observations by drawings made from his specimens.

Text-book: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology.

Materia Medica 113-114 — Applied Pharmacognosy. Lecture % hour.
Laboratory 53^ hours, 7 points. Professors Ballard and Hart.

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the principles of micro-
scopy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average commercial laboratory. The
introductory work will consist of a consideration of the general methods employed in microanalysis
and the uses of the more common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. Each student is required to prepare
sections of the various types of vegetable materials using these sections for the demonstration of
staining procedures and microchemical reactions. This will be followed by practical and indi-
vidual work in the qualitative determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalj'l.ical
methods are applicable. During this work it is expected that the student will avail himself of the
library facilities of the School and freely use the economic drug and food collections of the laboratory
for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is to duplicate actual commercial laboratory
conditions and to train the worker to depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching pur-
poses wiU, as far as possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopicsd
methods.

Prerequisite — Botany 15-16-17-18; Pharmacognosy 61-62. References: E. R. Squibb Co.,
Atlas of the Official Drugs; Kraemer, Scientific and Applied Pharmacognosy; Winton, Microscopy
of Vegetable Foods; Schneider, Powdered Drugs, National Standard Dispensatory.

Materia Medica 115-116 — Botanical Taxonomy. Laboratory course i}/2
hours, i}/2 points. Professor Rusby.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by
a study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering plants, and of
their classification and determination by the use of descriptive works. The work consists of the
laboratory study of types of the principal families, especially those rich in medicinal and poisonous
species.

Text-book: 'Rushy, Manual of Botany.

References: Bentham and Hooker, General Plantarum; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien.

Materia Medica 117-118 — Bacteriology. Lectures i hour, 2 points, lab-
oratory 1 3^ hours, i}i points. Professor Hart and Mr. H. Taxje.

The Bacteriological Laboratory in our new building has been fully equipped, and practical
work in this important field is taken up. The general principles of the science are taught, and the



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 37

students cultivate, stain, and study the more important microorganisms. Laboratory methods
in the bacterial examination of water, air, milk, ice, sputum and excreta are given, and methods of
disinfection and sterilization are practically demonstrated.
Park and Williams, Pathogenic Micro-organisms.

Materia Medica 153-154 — Plant Analysis. Laboratory, 1J2 hours. Pro-
fessor RUSBY.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by a
study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

Work in this department will be directed toward qualifying the student for the determination
and classiiication of the flowering plants of any region, by the use of the analytical flora relating
thereto. The first lessons will be devoted to the studies of plants of our own region, using Gray's
Manual. So far as practicable, the plants used in illustrations will be those yielding important
drugs not official in the United States Pharmacopoeia, and, therefore, not included in our Senior
Course of study.

References: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum; Engler and Prantl, Pfl-anzenfa?nilien.

Materia Medica 155-156 — Human Physiology. Text-book and Conferences

1 hour, 2 points. Miss Hopping.

This course consists of a series of discussions, based on assigned reading, occupying i hour
weekly throughout the term.
Text-book: Howell, Physiology.

MM. 205-206 — Morphology and Taxonomy of Cryptogams. Lectures i
point, laboratorj' 2 points. Professors Ballard and Hart.

This course comprises lectures, recitations and laboratorj' exercises in the morphologj', phylo-
geny and taxonomy of the Thallophyta, Brj'ophji.a and Pteridophj-ta. One or more representa-
tives of the different orders of each class and subclass will be studied in detail.

Prerequisite — Courses MM. is, 17, 18 or equivalent courses in botany and vegetable histologj-.

Texts: Coulter, Barnes, Cowles, Text Book of Botany, Vol. i; Strassburger, Text Book of Botany.

Materia Medica 207-208 — Chemical Microscopy. Laboratory course,

2 hours, 2 points. Professor Ballard.

PHARMACY

Pharmacy 7-8 — Theory of Pharmacy (including Pharmaceutical Latin
and Arithmetic). Lectures 3 hours, Recitation i hour. Professors Diekjian.
WiMMER and Brown and Messrs. Commons and Cabman. 8 points.

Theory of Pharmacy

The object in view in this course is to teach the student to put into practice in the laboratory
the principles of pharmaceutical manipulation taught in the lecture room. While the student's
work is individual, it is carefully supervised by professors and instructors, so that errors in con-
ception and inaccuracies in method can be promptly corrected.

In the laboratory course the students reach a point where each is competent to prepare such
pharmaceutical preparations as are in common use.

The course is designed to present, in as brief a manner as is consistent with thoroughness, those
principles of Latin etymology and construction which are essential to an intelligent understanding
and use of the terminology of Pharmacy.

As the time which can be devoted to this work in the present curriculum of schools of pharmacy
is necessarily limited, only such parts of Latin grammar will be taken up as are required for the
correct use of nomenclature of the materia medica, and prescription writing.

The nomenclature of the United States Pharmacopceia and the National Formulary will be
especially considered, and if time permits, that of the principal foreign Pharmacopceias will be



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

taken up. The subject of Latin abbreviations, as used by the physician in prescription writing,
will be specially treated.

Text-books: U. S. Pharmacopoeia; National Formulary, 4th edition; Stunner, Pharmaceutical
Latin; H. C. Muldoon, Pharmaceutical Latin; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical Arithmetic.

Pharmacy 9-10 — Practical Pharmacy. Laboratory course, 2 hours, 2
points. Professors Diekman, Wimmer and Brown, and instructors.
Text-book: Diekman and Wimmer, Pharmacy Laboratory Notes.

Pharmacy 11-12 — Dispensing Pharmacy. Laboratory course, i hour,
I point. Professors Diekman and Wimmer and Brown, and instructors.

This course embraces the methods of compounding the various types of prescriptions, from
the simplest to those requiring much technical knowledge and skill. It includes theoretical in-
struction and training in manual work. The habit of neatness, and, above all, of accuracy, ac-
quired by the student is of direct and immediate advantage to him in rendering his services more
valuable to his employer.

Text-book: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Laboratory Notes,

Pharmacy 55-56 — Practical Pharmacy. Lectures 2 hours, recitations, i
hour, laboratory course, 2 hours, 8 points. Professors Diekman, Wimmer and
Brown, and instructors.

The lectures of this course serve the double purpose of furnishing a theoretical basis for the
work of the laboratory and of supplementing the instruction given in the dispensing laboratory.



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