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the characteristic reactions of the basic components are studied in solution, or in the solid at a high
temperature. The phenomena observed are interpreted and discussed, and the conclusions re-
corded. Later, the reactions are represented by equations. The value of grouping is utilized
and separations and identifications of group members are performed. Finally, all facts acquired
by direct observation are brought together in the systematic procedure for analysis of mixtures.
In this recapitulation, individual effort is stimulated by independent work on samples of unlike

Text-book: Hostmann and McAdams, Laboratory Manual of Analytical Chemistry.

Chemistry 51-52 — Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry (for second
year college students.) Lectures and recitations, 4 hours, 8 points. Professors
Arny and Schaefer and instructors.

In the lecture course, special care is taken to keep the student instructed in the new and con-
stantly increasing applications of this science in the art of pharmacy and medicine. The preparation
of the more common organic chemicals is fully treated, and the possibilities of advances under
modern methods of research are presented to the student as they are reported. This department
of modern pharmaceutical education is becoming more important each year, and no pains are
spared to keep the instruction in Organic Chemistry fully up to the demands of the times.

All the official and the more important unofBcial organic pharmaceutical chemicals and medi-
cinal products, notably the newer synthetic remedies, are taken up, explained in detail, and classi-
fied according to their position in the various organic groups. By this method of classification
the subject of organic pharmaceutical chemistry is presented in the same sequence as that of general
organic chemistry.

Text-book: Sadtler and Coblentz, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, fifth edition; U. S. Pharmaco-

Chemistry 53-54 — Analytical Chemistry. Laboratory course, 3 hours,

3 points. Professors Hostmann and MacAdams and instructors.

The early part of the second-year course is devoted to completing the instruction in qualita-
tive analysis. The discussion of the simpler fundamental laws governing chemical and physical
changes in solution, begun in the first year, are followed to conclusion. The preliminary testing
and preparation of a sample for analysis, involving solution in solvents other than water, and the
procedure for analysis of substances insoluble in water and acids, are studied and practiced. The
greater part of the time is devoted to the study of the acidic components.

Quantitative Analysis. — Instruction in quantitative analysis is then introduced. This training
is intended to enable the pheirmacist to determine the purity of medicinal chemicals and to find


the percentage strength of preparations. Volunietric analysis being simple, rapid and accurate
for many medicinal substances, receives special consideration. As in the first year, all reactions
are discussed and the changes involved in them are represented by equations. The quantitative
significance of chemical changes is emphasized, derivation of equivalent quantities is discussed
and the use of empirical solutions is practiced. Accurate weighing and measuring are insisted on.
The student is obliged to perform careful and accurate determinations of the various components
in samples furnished him, and after checking his results, to render an extensive report-
Drag Assaying. — The instruction in quantitative analysis is extended to the determination of
the amounts of the active or principal constituents of drugs and galenicals. Since in the potent
drugs and their preparations the quantities of the active constituents are very small, the sources
of error in assaying them must be reduced to a minimum. The treatment that must be carried out
for their isolation requires much care and skill in manipulation. It is for these reasons that this
work, of necessity, falls in the last part of the course, when the student shall have been sufficiently
trained to pursue the work intelligently and skillfully.

Text-books: Hostmann, Volumetric Analysis; Hostmann, Qualitative Chemical Analysis; U. S.

Chemistry 65-66 — Inorganic Chemistry (for University Sophomores).
Lectures and recitations, 4 hours, 8 points. Professors Arny and Schaefer and

This course is a continuation of chemistry — and will be devoted to a consideration of the non-
metallic and metallic elements and their compounds. The course will open with a discussion of
ionization and throughout the course, all of the more important principles of theoretical inorganic
chemistry will be discussed. In descriptive chemistry, the course will begin with phosphorus and its
preparations and during the year the remaining non-metallic elements and all of the more important
metallic elements wiU be discussed from the standpoint of modem industrial chemistry.

Text -book: Sadtler and Coblentz, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, fifth edition.

Chemistry 103-104 — Industrial Chemistry. Lectures and recitations, 2
hours, 4 points. Professors Arny and Schaefer.

This course, supplementing the lectures on inorganic and organic chemistry of the first and
second year, considers such inorganic industries as acid, alkali, cement, fertilizer and glass manu-
facture and such industries based on organic chemistry as fermentation and alcoholic products,
wood distillation, fats and soap making, petroleum, sugar and starch products.

Text-book: Thorp, Industrial Chemistry, third edition.

Chemistry 105-106 — Chemical and General Bibliography. Lectures and
conferences, i hour, 2 points. Professors Arny and Schaefer.

This course will consist of lectures on the source books of chemistry, pharmacy, botany and
cognate sciences and on the periodical literature on the same subjects. At the conferences, special
themes will be assigned to each student for research during spare hours.

Chemistry 107-108 — Analytical Chemistry and Urine Analysis. Lab-
oratory, 10 hours, lectures i hour, 12 points. Professor Hostmann and instructors.

Lectures — 34 hours. During part of the time there will be discussed the "general tests" of the
Pharmacopoeia, viz. "Determination of Ash and Non- Volatile Matter," "Iodine Absorption
Value," "Saponification Value," "Acid Number of Resins," "Ether Soluble Matter," "Proximate
Assays," "Melting Points," "Boiling Points," "Congealing Points," "Solubilities" and "Gaso-
metric Estimations."

The greater part of the time will be devoted to the discussion of the practical application of
the modern theories of physical chemistry to analytical processes and methods.

Laboratory Instruction — 330 hours. The first period, comprising 100 hours, will be devoted
principally to qualitative work. Students will be supplied with pure and adulterated chemicals.
Tests of purity and identity will be performed upon the following: chloroform, ether, ethyl acetate,
phenol, glycerol, alcohol, amyl alcohol, cresol, creosote, acetanilid, chloral, paraldehyde, formal-
dehyde, acetphenetidin, salicylic acid, acetosalicylic acid and such others as time will permit.


During the second period of loo hiours, gravimetric and volumetric methods will be studied.

The student will prepare normal acid and alkali solutions. The former will be standardized with
barium chloride and silver nitrate, the latter with potassium bitartrate, etc. The finished solutions
will then be run against each other. Following upon this, the student will prepare iodine, potassium
permanganate, sodium thiosulphate, etc., volumetric solutions. After standardizing same, he
will use them in volumetric assays not covered during the second year. The gasometric assays
of ethyl nitrite and amyl nitrite as well as the assay of volatile oils wUl then be taken up and will
extend into the third period of loo hours which will be principally devoted to the proximate assays
of the U.S.P. and of galenicals.

The final period of 30 hours will be devoted to the analysis of urine. In addition to the routine
qualitative and quantitative tests, the student will receive instruction in the principles and use
of colorimeters and polarimeters.

Text-books: Hawk, Physiological Chemistry; U. S. PharmacopcBta; Stieglitz, Qualitative
Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 157-158 — Inorganic Quantitative Analysis. Lectures i hour,

laboratory, 8 hours, lo points. Professor Hostmann and instructors.

The aim of the fourth-year work in Analytical Chemistry is to carry forward the instruction
in chemical analysis to such a point that the student may be able to execute the more important
sanitary, chemical, and pharmaceutical analyses.

The object of analytical chemistry is twofold, viz.: qualitative and quantitative. During
the first year the detection of the component elements of compounds of unknown composition
are studied, while the work of the second and third years applies to determination of the relative
proportional amounts of the components of the various compounds studied, chiefly by the aid of
volumetric methods, leaving the more diflScult and complex processes of gravimetric analysis
to be taken up in the fourth year.

The student must possess the theoretical knowledge necessary to enable him to solve chemical
equations, and to calculate the composition of substances from their formulae and vice versa.

The work will consist chiefly of gravimetric determinations, but will perforce include the test-
ing, adjusting and calibrating of delicate balances and other apparatus.

Text-books: Treadwell and Hall, Quantitative Analysis, sixth edition. Reference-book, Fre-
senius, Quantitative Analysis.

Chemistry 159-160 — Food Analysis and Toxicology. Lectures i hour,

laboratory 8 hours, lo points. Professors Arny and Schaefer and instructor.

In order to give every advantage to the instruction in this department during the fourth year,
the College has provided very complete apparatus, which supplies the very best facilities that mod-
ern science Eiffords.

The work in this department will cover the following courses:

1. Analysis of various foodstuSs, including mUk, butter, flavoring extracts, etc.

2. Chemical and sanitary examination of water.

3. Isolation and detection of organic and inorganic poisons.

In addition to the laboratory work just outlined there will be a lecture course of thirty hours
extending through the entire year, describing the various chemical methods of food examination
and explaining the principles underlying the more complex physical instruments employed by the
students in their laboratory course.

Text-books: Leach, Pood Analysis; Autenrieth- Warren, Detection of Poisons; Mason, Examina-
tion of Water.

Reference-Book: Allen, Commercial Analysis.

Chemistry 161-162 — Biological Chemistry. Lectures i hour, 2 points.
Mr. Karshan.

The instruction in inorganic and organic analysis relates to the examination of substances dis-
connected from the living body, but the competent analyst must be prepared to consider and
act upon a knowledge of the natural changes which substances undergo when absorbed into the
living body, as well as the natural products there originating.




Materia Medica 13-14 — Human Physiology and Hygiene. Lectures and
recitations, 2 hours each, 4 points. Professors RusBY, Hart, and Taub and

In addition to the skill in Pharmacognosy required for the selection of drugs, the educated
pharmacist is required to possess some general information concerning the properties and uses of
the materials which he is engaged in handling and dispensing; that is, of the general classification
of medicines. As such classification depends directly upon their physiological properties, a limited
and specialized course of instruction in Human Physiology is provided.

The method consists in so arranging the order of subjects that the student shall be led from the
very first lesson to see the manner in which disordered bodily functions may be restored to a healthy
condition by the action of medicines, and leads to the immediate classification of the more import-
ant remedies, in connection with the study of the organs or systems to the functions of which they
apply. While this method gives an accurate knowledge of the facts involved, it permits of the
exclusion of a large portion of the subject of Physiology, and reduces to a minimum the amount
of time expended in acquiring such a knowledge of this department of Materia Medica as is properly
required of the practising pharmacist.

Text-book: Bachman and Bliss, Essentials of Physiology; Howell, Physiology.

Materia Medica 15-16 — Botany. Lectures and recitations. 2 hours, 4
points. Laboratory, 1 3^ hours, 1 3^ points. Professors Rusby, Hart and Taub
and instructors.

The object of this course is to prepare the student for an understanding of that part of Materia
Medica which relates to vegetable drugs. In the limited time allotted to this study, it is impossible
to pursue it in all its departments, and attention is concentrated upon such instruction as will
fit the student for professional work in pharmacy. The instruction embraces the morphology of
the higher plants, from which nearly all of our vegetable drugs are derived, the terms used in
official description, systems of classification, botanical nomenclature, and the relations of the
lower to the higher plants.

The lectures are illustrated by large colored charts, and each student is furnished with cards
bearing mounted specimens.

For the use of the instructor in the Quiz Room, the Alumni Association has provided an elabo-
rate series of papier-mache models arranged to illustrate structure and dissection.

Text-book: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

Materia Medica 17-18 — Botany Laboratory. Lectures J^ hour. Lab-
oratory, 3 hours, 4 points. Professors Ballard, Hart and Taub and in-

Gross Botany. — Pharmacognosy, while itself not a science, may be regarded as the art of
applying scientific knowledge to the examination of drugs. The theoretical and practical training
of the lecture and recitation room is designed to fit the student for such botanical observations
as can ordinarily be made with the naked eye.

To enable him to extend these observations by the use of the simple or dissecting and the com-
pound microscope, in preparation for the study of Pharmacognosy in the following year, a course
of laboratory instruction is provided. This portion of the work is under the direction of Pro-
fessor Hart, and consists in thoroughly training the students in the use of the simple microscope,
and in teaching the structure of all parts of the plant which can be studied with that instrument.

The material for these studies is collected during the summer season, and carefully selected
with a view to best illustrating the points brought out in the lecture-room.

Vegetable Histology. — As ability to properly use a microscope is the foundation of success in
all branches of microscopy, first attention is given to a consideration of the parts of the
instrument. The uses of the various types of objectives, oculars, illuminating apparatus
and mechanical accessories are explained and demonstrated. The details of sectioning, embedding,
staining and mounting specimens are illustrated by demonstrations, and at least part of the work
is performed by the student.



The course includes the study of plant tissues and the various types of cell contents. A
physiological grouping of the tissues is followed by detailed study of the forms, modifications,
locations, functions and dififerences in chemical constitution of the cellular elements concerned
in protection, support, absorption, transportation, synthesis and storage. The organic and inorganic
cell contents are classified ; details of their synthesis are considered and the more commonly used
microchemical tests are demonstrated. This work is followed by a detailed study of the arrange-
ment of cells and disposition of cell contents in the various parts and organs of the plant. Each
student prepares a set of specimens for use in the course and is required to follow the lecture
explanations by personal observation and drawings Ulustrating the topics considered at each

Text-books: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 19-20 — Posology. Recitations, 3^ hour, i point. Pro-
fessor Taub.

The practice in some states of issuing licenses as Assistants to those who have not completed
their pharmacy course renders it necessary that the more important facts regarding dosage and
danger of poisoning should be taught in the first year course. These recitations are designed to
meet this requirement.

Materia Medica 59 — ^Materia Medica. Lectures and recitations. 3 hours.
6 points. Professors RusBY, Hart and Taub and instructors.

This course includes instruction in both the inorganic and organic divisions of drugs.

Organic Division. — In these lectures, the drugs are arranged in the order of their botanical
relationship, there being a general correspondence between such relationship as, represented in
the various families and subfamilies, and their medicinal properties. The natural order recognized
in the classification of Engler and Prantl {PJlanzen-familien) is followed.

Some general remarks upon the families, with special reference to their medicinal constituents
and properties, will always precede the consideration of the species belonging thereto. In studying
the individual drugs, the order of topics is as follows: The definition given by the Pharmacopoeia,
habit, habitat, range, collection, preparation and commerce, important constituents, medicinal
action, uses, and doses. All instruction pertaining to description, structure, identification, sub-
stitution and adulteration is referred to the extensive course in Pharmacognosy.

Inorganic Division. — Many of the inorganic drugs are so closely related in properties and uses
to others in the organic division that their consideration in connection therewith is deemed of
advantage to the student. Those members which form clasess distinct from those of the organic
division will be afterward considered, and their classification will correspond in a general way with
that found in Wood, Therapeutics. All facts concerning the chemistry and pharmacy of these
drugs will be omitted, except when necessary to explain changes of such a nature as to modify
their medicinal effects.

Text-books: Culbreth, Materia Medica and Pharmacology (for University students, Gould,
Pocket Medical Dictionary).

Materia Medica 60 — Toxicology. Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points.
Professors Rusby, Hart and Taub and instructors.

The classification of poisons is based upon the Physiological Action of Medicines, taught during
the Junior year, and is synoptically presented at the beginning of the course in Materia Medica^
The Toxicology of the individual drugs is then taken up in detail in connection with their physio-
logical action and medicinal uses. Experience has shown that by this method the modes of occur-
rence of poisoning accidents, the poisonous doses, the action of poisons and their rational treat-
ment, are all made more intelligible to the student, and are better impressed upon his memory,
than by treating the subject as entirely disconnected from that of Materia Medica.

Text-book: Brundage, Manual of Toxicology.

Materia Medica 61 — Macroscopic Pharmacognosy. Laboratory, ij^
hours, 1 3^ points. Professors Ballard, Hart and Taub and instructors.

This course comprises laboratory instruction in the classification, identification and description


of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary. The drugs and medi-
cinal products of vegetable origin are grouped according to the parts of the plant from which they
are derived and further classified on the basis of medicinal constituents. Each drug receives sep-
arate attention in the laboratory and the following details are considered — titles under which the
drug is known; botanical, geographical and commercial sources; oflBcial description, definition
and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration or substitution; preparation for market and
proper means of preservation or storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and must retain the
same for future reference. At the completion of the course each student possesses a collection of
the ofiScial crude drugs and many non-ofiicial articles of commercial or technical importance as
his personal property. Proficiency in the identification of the drugs studied is determined by
practical examinations at short intervals during the term. Botany (Course MM. is-16 or its
equivalent) is prerequisite to a proper understanding of the work in this course.

Text-book: Squibba, Atlas of the Official Drugs.

Materia Medica 62 — Microscopic Pharmacognosy. Laboratory, ij^

hours, 1 3^ points. Professors Ballard, Hart and Taub and instructors.

The preliminary work of this course will consist of a brief review of the cellular elements and
cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this manner the work in vegetable
histology of the first year (Course MM. 17-18) is coordinated to the more detailed study of mi-
croscopical pharmacognosy. Powders prepared from drugs representing different parts of the
plant will be used as material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared in the first year
it will be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with the powder and
thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the changes in appearance incidental
to powdering. The number of specimens studied is necessarily limited by the amount of time which
can be given to the work but the subject matter of the course is so arranged that representative
rather than extraordinary types are considered. The student is expected to construct and use
analytical keys in the identification of the powdered materials examined. Progress in course is
determined by a series of practical examinations at short intervals throughout the year and the
student must record his observations by drawings made from his specimens.

Text-books: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 113-114 — Applied Pharmacognosy. Lecture M hour.
Laboratory sJ^ hours, 7 points. Professors Ballard and Hart.

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the principles of micro-
scopy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average commercial laboratory. The
introductory work will consist of a consideration of the general methods employed in microanalysis
and the uses of the more common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. Each student is required to prepare
sections of the various types of vegetable materials using these sections for the demonstration of
staining procedures and microchemical reactions. This will be followed by practical and indi-
vidual work in the qualitative determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalytical
methods are applicable. During this work it is expected that the student will avail himself of the
library f acOities of the School and freely use the economic drug and food collections of the laboratory
for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is to duplicate actual commercial laboratory
conditions and to train the worker to depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching pur-
poses wUl, as far as possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopical

Prerequisite — Botany is-16-17-18; Pharmacognosy 61-62. References: E. R. Squibb Co.,
Atlas of the Official Drugs; Kraemer, Scientific and Applied Pharmacognosy; Winton, Microscopy
of Vegetable Foods; Schneider, Powdered Drugs, National Standard Dispensatory.

Materia Medica 115-116 — Botanical Taxonomy. Laboratory course ij^
hours, 1 3^ points. Professor Rusby.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by
a study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, wUl be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering plants, and of


their classification and determination by the use of descriptive works. The work consists of the

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