College of Pharmacy of the City of New York.

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tures I hour, 2 points. Dr. Ivarshan.

The instruction in inorganic and organic analysis relates to the examination of substances dis-
connected from the living body, but the competent analyst must be prepared to consider and
act upon a knowledge of the natural changes which substances undergo when absorbed into the
living body, as well as the natural products there originating.



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

MATERIA MEDICA

Materia Medica 65-66 — Human Physiology and Hygiene (second year
College and University Classes). Lectures and recitations, i hour each, 4 points.
Professors Rusby and Hart and instructors.

In addition to the skill in Pharmacognosy required for the selection of drugs, the educated
pharmacist is required to possess some general information concerning the properties and uses of
the materials which he is engaged in handling and dispensing; that is, of the general classification
of medicines. As such classification depends directly upon their physiological properties, a limited
and specialized course of instruction in Human Physiology is provided.

The method consists in so arranging the order of subjects that the student shall be led from the
very first lesson to see the manner in which disordered bodily functions may be restored to a healthy
condition by the action of medicines, and leads to the immediate classification of the more import-
ant remedies, in connection with the study of the organs or systems to the functions of which they
apply. While this method gives an accurate knowledge of the facta involved, it permits of the
exclusion of a large portion of the subject of Physiology, and reduces to a minimum the amount
of time expended in acquiring such a knowledge of this department of Materia Medica as is properly
required of the practising pharmacist.

Text-book: Bachman and Bliss, Essentials of Physiology; Howell, Physiology.

Materia Medica 15-16 — Botany (first year College and University Classes).
Lectures and recitations, 2 hours, 4 points. Professors Rusby, Hart and
Taub and instructors.

The object of this course is to prepare the student for an understanding of that part of Materia
Medica which relates to vegetable drugs. In the limited time allotted to this study, it is impossible
to pursue it in all its departments, and attention is concentrated upon such instruction as will
fit the student for professional work in pharmacy. The instruction embraces the morphology of
the higher plants, from which nearly all of our vegetable drugs are derived, the terms used in
ofBciEd description, systems of classification, botanical nomenclature, and the relations of the
lower to the higher plants.

The lectures are illustrated by large colored charts, and each student is furnished with cards
bearing mounted specimens.

For the use of the instructor in the Quiz Room, the Alumni Association has provided an elabo-
rate series of papier-mache models arranged to illustrate structure and dissection.

Text-book: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

Materia Medica 81-82 — Biology of Micro-organisms (second year College
Class). Lectures and recitations, i hour, laboratory, r hour, 3 points. Professor
Hart and instructors.

This subject constitutes an introduction to the nature, behavior and efi'ects of micro-organisms,
especially of bacteria. Without entering upon the subject of practical laboratory bacteriology, as
is done in the University course, it discusses the life history of bacteria, and the part that they
play in fermentation and decomposition, as well as in disease, and indicates the general nature of
the means employed in combatting them, and treats of biological products. The subject of steriliza-
zation, as employed in the pharmacy, and the principles of antisepsis and immunization are studied.

Materia Medica 13-14 — Botany Laboratory (first year College Class),
Lectures and recitations i hour, laboratory, 4 hours, 6 points. Professors Bal-
lard, Hart and Taub and instructors.

Gross Botany. — Pharmacognosy, while itself not a science, may be regeirded as the art of
applying scientific knowledge to the examination of drugs. The theoretical and practical training
of the lecture and recitation room is designed to fit the student for such botanical observations
as can ordinarily be made with the naked eye.

To enable him to extend these observations by the use of the simple or dissecting and the com-
pound microscope, in preparation for the study of Pharmacognosy in the following year, a course



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 37

of laboratory instruction ia provided. Tiiis portion of the work is under the direction of Pro-
fessor Hart, and consists in thoroughly training the students in the use of the simple microscope,
and in teaching the structure of all parts of the plant which can be studied with that instrument.

The material for these studies is collected during the summer season, and carefully selected
with a view to best illustrating the points brought out in the lecture-room.

Vegetable Histology. — As ability to properly use a microscope is the foundation of success in
all branches of microscopy, first attention is given to a consideration of the parts of the
instrument. The uses of the various types of objectives, oculars, illuminating apparatus
and mechanical accessories are explained and demonstrated. The details of sectioning, embedding,
staining and mounting specimens are illustrated by demonstrations, and at least part of the work
is performed by the student.

The course includes the study of plant tissues and the various types of cell contents. A
physiological grouping of the tissues is followed by detailed study of the forms, modifications,
locations, functions and differences in chemical constitution of the cellular elements concerned
in protection, support, absorption, transportation, synthesis and storage. The organic and inorganic
cell contents are classified; details of their synthesis are considered and the more commonly used
microchemical tests are demonstrated. This work is followed by a detailed study of the arrange-
ment of cells and disposition of cell contents in the various parts and organs of the plant. Each
student prepares a set of specimens for use in the course and is required to follow the lecture
explanations by personal observation and drawings illustrating the topics considered at each
session.

Text-books: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 21-22 — Plant Morphology and Histology (first year Uni-
versity Class). Lectures i hour, laboratory, 43^2 hours, 63^ points. Professors
Ballard, Hart, Taub and instructors.

Morphology. — The laboratory course in morphology is designed to supplement the lectures in
pharmaceutical botany (M.M. 15-16). It affords practical training in simple plant dissection, both
with and without the dissecting microscope, thereby illustrating the topics considered in the above
lecture course and fitting students for the advanced studies of pharmacognosy and taxonomy.

Histology. — This section of the course includes a detailed study of the various cellular elements
considered both as individual tissues and as integral parts of plant organs. This is followed by a
systematic review of the derivation of these tissues and organs in the evolution of the higher forms
of plant life from the lower. One or more representative orders of the Thallophyta, Bryophyta,
Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta will be studied in detail.

Texts: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology, and Edit.; Ballard and Hart, Laboratory Man-
ual; Rusby, Manual of Botany; Curtis, Nature and Development of Plants.

Materia Medica 19-20 — Posology (first year College and University Classes).
Recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professor Taub.

The practice in some states of issuing licenses as Assistants to those who have not completed
their pharmacy course renders it necessary that the more important facts regarding dosage and
danger of poisoning should be taught in the first year course. These recitations are designed to
meet this requirement.

Materia Medica 59-60 — Materia Medica (second year College and University
Classes). Lectures and recitations, 3 hours, 6 points. Professors RusBY, Hart
and Taub and instructors.

This course includes instruction in both the inorganic and organic divisions of drugs.

In these lectures, the order of arrangement of the drug will be primarily in accordance with the
nature of their active constituents and then their therapeutical properties and uses, their botanical
relationships being treated subordinately. In this way, the organic and inorganic drugs wOl be
grouped together.

Text-books: Culbreth, Materia Medica and Pharmacology (for University students, Gould,
Pocket Medical Dictionary).



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Materia Medica 73-74 — Toxicology (second year College and University
Classes). Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professors RusBY, Hart
and Taub and instructors.

The classification of poisons is based upon the Physiological Action of Medicines, taught in the
preceeding year, and is synoptically presented at the beginning of the course in Materia Medica.
The Toxicology of the individual drugs is then taken up in detail in connection with their physio-
logical action and medicinal uses. Experience has shown that by this method the modes of occur-
rence of poisoning accidents, the poisonous doses, the action of poisons and their rational treat-
ment, are all made more intelligible to the student, and are better impressed upon his memory,
than by treating the subject as entirely disconnected from that of Materia Medicsu

Text-book: Brundage, Manual of Toxicology.

Materia Medica 61-62 — Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 61 — Macroscopic Pharmacognosy (second year College
and University Classes). Laboratory, 3 hours, 3 points. Professors Ballard,
Hart and Taub and instructors.

This part of the course comprises laboratory instruction in the classification, identification and
description of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary. The drugs
and medicinal products of vegetable origin are grouped according to the parts of the plant from
which they are derived and further classified on the basis of medicinal constituents. Each drug
receives separate attention in the laboratory and the following details are considered — titles under
which the drug is known; botanical, geographical and commercial sources; official description,
definition and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration or substitution; preparation for
market and proper means of preservation or storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and must retain the
same for future reference. At the completion of the course each student possesses a collection of
the official crude drugs and many non-official articles of commercial or technical importance as
his personal property. Proficiency in the identification of the drugs studied is determined by
practical examinations at short intervals during the term. Botany (Course MM. 13-16 or its
equivalent) is prerequisite to a proper understanding of the work in this course.

Text-books: Mansfield, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy; Youngken, Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 62 — Microscopic Pharmacognosy.

Microscopic. — The preliminary work of this part of the course will consist of a brief review of
the cellular elements and cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this manner
the work in vegetable histology of the first year (Course MM. 17-18) is coordinated to the more
detailed study of microscopical pharmacognosy. Powders prepared from drugs representing
different parts of the plant will be used as material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared
in the first year it will be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with
the powder and thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the changes in
appearance incidental to powdering. The number of specimens studied is necessarily limited by the
amount of time which can be given to the work but the subject matter of the course is so arranged
that representative rather than extraordinary types are considered. The student is expected to
construct and use analytical keys in the identification of the powdered materials examined. Progress
in course is determined by a series of practical examinations at short intervals throughout the year
and the student must record his observations by drawings made from his specimens.

Text-books: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 67-68 — Pharmacal Sundries (third year College Classes
1928-1929). Lectures and recitations i hour, 2 points.

The object of this course is to prepare the graduate to deal with the numerous sanitary and sick
room supplies, other than drugs and medicines, that are furnished by the average pharmacist to
his customers. The complaint is almost universal among pharmacists, that the graduates supplied
to them by the pharmacy schools know little or nothing regarding such common articles as syringes,
bandages, dressings, thermometers, catheters, apparatus for treatment of the eye and ear, and
many other similar articles which he is called upon to sell, and explain. It is believed that this
short course, fully illustrated by abundant examples, will do much to correct this deficiency.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 39

Materia Medica 151-152 — Applied Pharmacognosy. Lecture % hour.
Laboratory 5 hours, 63^ points. Professors Ballard and Hart.

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the principles of micro-
scopy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average commercial laboratory. The
introductory work will consist of a consideration of the general methods employed in microanalysis
and the uses of the more common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. Each student is required to prepare
sections of the various types of vegetable materials, using these sections for the demonstration of
staining procedures and microchemical reactions. This will be followed by practical and indi-
vidual work in the qualitative determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalytical
methods are applicable. During this work, it is expected that the student will avail himself of the
library facilities of the School and freely use the economic drug and food collections of the laboratory
for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is to duplicate actual commercial laboratory
conditions and to train the worker to depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching pur-
poses will, as far as possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopical
methods.

Prerequisite — Botany 15-16-17-18; Pharmacognosy 61-62. References: Winton, Microscopy
of Vegetable Foods; Schneider, Powdered Drugs, National Standard Dispensatory; Youngken,
Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 153-154 — Botanical Taxonomy. Laboratory course i]/^
hours, ij^ points. Professor Rusby.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by
a study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering plants, and of
their classification and determination by the use of descriptive works. The work consists of the
laboratory study of types of the principal families, especially those rich in medicinal and poisonous
species.

Text-book: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

References: Bentham and Hooker, General Plantarum; Engler and Prantl, Pflansenfamilien.

Materia Medica 117-118 — Bacteriology. Lectures i hour, 2 points, labora-
tory 2 hours, 4 points. Professor Hart and instructors.

The Bacteriological Laboratory in our new building has been fully equipped, and practical
work in this important field is taken up. The general principles of the science are taught, and the
students cultivate, stain, and study the more important microorganisms. Laboratory methods
in the bacterial examination of water, air, milk, ice, sputum and excreta are given, and methods of
disinfection and sterilization are practically demonstrated.

Park and Williams, Pathogenic Micro-organisms.

Materia Medica 79-80 (this course, pertaining to the second University
year in I929-I930and thereafter, is the same as No. 117-118, which see).

Materia Medica 155-156 — Human Physiology (for University Seniors).
Text-book and Conferences i hour, 2 points. Miss Hopping.

This course consists of a series of discussions, based on assigned reading, occupying i hour
weekly throughout the term.

Text-book: Howell, Physiology.

MM. 119-120 — Morphology and Taxonomy of Cryptogams (for Uni-
versity Juniors). Lectures I point, laboratory 4 points. Professors Ballard
and Hart.

This course comprises lectures, recitations and laboratory exercises in the morphology, phylo-
geny and taxonomy of the Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta. One or more representa-
tives of the different orders of each class and subclass will be studied in detail.

Texts: Coulter, Barnes, Cowles, Text-Book of Botany, Vol. 1; Strassburger, Text-Book of Botany.



40 COL UMBIA UNI VERSITY

PHARMACY

Pharmacy 7-8 — Theory of Pharmacy (including Pharmaceutical Latin
and Arithmetic) (first year College and University Classes). Lectures 3
hours, Recitation i hour. Professors Diekman, Wimmer, Brown, Carter
and instructors. 8 points.

Theory of Pharmacy

The object of this course is to teach the student to put into practice in the laboratory the prin-
ciples of pharmaceutical manipulation taught in the lecture room. While the student's work is
individual, it is carefully supervised by professors and instructors, so that errors in conception and
inaccuracies in method can be promptly corrected.

In the laboratory course the students reach a point where each is competent to prepare such
pharmaceutical preparations as are in common use.

The course is designed to present, in as brief a manner as is consistent with thoroughness, those
principles of Latin etymology and construction which are essential to an intelligent understanding
and use of the terminology of Pharmacy,

As the time which can be devoted to this work in the present curriculum of schools of pharmacy
is necessarily limited, only such parts of Latin grammar will be taken up as are required for the
correct use of nomenclature of the materia medica, and prescription writing.

The nomenclature of the United States Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary will be
especially considered, and if time permits, that of the principal foreign PharmacopcEias wUl be
taken up. The subject of Latin abbreviations, as used by the physician in prescription writing,
will be specially treated.

Text-books: V. S. Pharmacopmia; National Formulary, 4th edition; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical
Latin; H. C. Muldoon, Pharmaceutical Latin; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical Arithmetic.

Pharmacy 9-10 — Practical Pharmacy (for first year College and University
Classes). Laboratory course, 2 hours, 2 points. (University students have
laboratry course, 4 hours, 4 points). Professors Diekman, Wimmer, Brown,
Carter, Dorfman and instructors.

Text-book: Diekman and Wimmer, Pharmacy Laboratory Notes.

Pharmacy 11-12— Dispensing Pharmacy (for first year College and Univer-
sity Classes). Laboratory course, i hour, i point. Professors Diekaian, Wim-
mer, Brown, Carter, Dorfman and instructors.

This course embraces the methods of compounding the simpler types of prescriptions. It
includes theoretical instruction and training in manual work. The habit of neatness and, above
all, of accuracy, acquired by the student is of direct and immediate advantage to him in rendering
his services more valuable to his employer.

Text-book: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Laboratory Notes.

. Pharmacy 55-56 — Practical Pharmacy (for second year College and Uni-
versity Classes). Lectures 2 hours, recitations i hour, laboratory course 2
hours, 8 points. Professors Diekman, Wimmer, Brown, Carter and instructors.

The lectures of this course serve the double purpose of furnishing a theoretical basis for the work
of the laboratory and of supplementing the instruction given in the dispensing laboratory. All
classes of galenical preparations are taken up and their methods of preparation not only collectively,
but individually, are thoroughly considered. The common impurities of each and methods for
their detection, means of preservation and incompatibilities are also considered.

The laboratory work follows closely the plan of the lectures, the student is required to prepare
all classes of galenicals, together with the manufactxure of the more simple chemicals and chemical
preparations.

Text-books: Pharmacopmia of the United States; The National Formulary; Diekman and
Wimmer, Pharmacy Notes.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 41

Pharmacy 57-58 — Dispensing Pharmacy (for second year College and
University Classes). Recitations, i hour, laboratory course, I hour, 3 points.
Professors Diekman, Wimmer, Brown, Carter and instructors.

The work of the Dispensing Laboratory deals more especially with prescriptions and embraces
the compounding and dispensing of the various types requiring technical knowledge and skill.
General instruction is given the students in the proper reading and interpretation of the prescription,
the recognition of the various constituents of the ingredients of the prescription, together with the
proper methods and manner of dispensing them.

Pharmacy 63-64 — Commercial Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Juris-
prudence (for second year College and University Classes). 4]^ points. Lec-
tures i}/2 hours. Laboratories ij^ hours. Professor Lascoff and Lecturer
Neustaedter.

This course in Commercial Pharmacy is designed to give the student a practical knowledge of the
basic principles that underlie the successful management of a business. Owing to a lack of knowledge
of these principles, many pharmacists have failed to achieve the degree of success to which their
professional knowledge and training entitle them.

The course consists of all the activities incidental to the opening and operation of a retail drug-
store, including the choice of location, the elements of business administration and store manage-
ment, insurance, problems of retail merchandising, including the value of discounts, banking,
principles of advertising and salesmanship, business correspondence as well as the elements of
systematic bookkeeping.

The accounting records are the basic source of data for business management. Accordingly,
the course in commercial pharmacy will be devoted largely to the principles underlying the making
and interpretation of these records.

The course develops the subject rapidly devoting its time and emphasis to the foundational
problems of accounting. It is built up along the lines and methods of modern accounting practice.
The subject matter includes: theories of debit and credit; classification of accounts; underlying
principles of various accounting records; business papers and documents used as the basis for first
entry; simple problems of the balance sheet and income statement; single entry; controlling ac-
counts; handling sales and purchases; safeguarding the cash; consignments, and related topics.
Ample practice for students is provided. The work will be related to the modern pharmacy.

This course is also designed to familiarize the student with the general provisions of State and
Federal Laws governing the practice of pharmacy. Ordinances and regulations having local
application only will likewise be studied.

Spei;ial attention will be given to the prohibition and anti-narcotic laws and regulations.

A knowledge of these laws and regulations is essential to the proper and safe conduct of a drug-
store or pharmacy.

Pharmacy 101-102 — Manufacturing Pharmacy (for third year College
Class). Lectures and recitations, 2 hours, laboratory course 3 hours, 7 points.
Professors Diekman, Wimmer, Brown, Carter and instructors.

As in course 55-56 the lectures serve the double purpose of furnishing a theoretical basis for the
laboratory work and of supplementing the instruction given in the dispensing laboratory. All
classes of chemicals and chemical preparations are taken up and their methods of manufacture are
carefully and thoroughly considered. Many preparations commonly used and prescribed in foreign



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