College of Pharmacy of the City of New York.

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appointment to the Fellowship, and the Trustees of the College of Pharmacy
may declare the Fellowship vacant.

N.B. — Competition for the Kappa Psi Prize, the Seabury Scholarship and the
Plant Fellowship is open only to those students who take their entire course at
this College.

Since its foundation, the following Plant Fellows have continued their studies
towards the degree of Ph.D.

Moritz A. Dittmar, B.S., 1920, Ph.D., University of Bern, Switzerland, 1922.
Assistant Superintendent of the laboratories of Lehn and Fink.

Herbert C. Kassner, B.S., 1921, Ph.D., University of London, England, 1923.
Associate Professor of Chemistry, Columbia University, College of Pharmacy.

Helen A. Timmermann, B.S., 1925, Ph.D., University of London, England,
1927. Instructor in Materia Medica, Columbia University, College of Pharmacy.

Fred Levine, B.S., 1927, Samuel Goldberg, B.S., 1928, graduate students at
the University of London, England.

Louis Spencer Levy Research Scholarship. This scholarship has been
provided by Mr. Louis Spencer Levy for a period of two years, beginning with
the session of 1928-1929. It affords free tuition to that B.S. or Ph.Ch. who is
deemed qualified by the Faculty to do research work and who will devote the
greater portion of his time to investigations of the effect and usefulness of ultra-
violet radiations in the field of essential oils and perfume materials, this work
to be done under the direction of the head of the Department of Pharmacy.

^E. R. Squibb Prize. This is an annual cash prize of $100., offered by Messrs.
E. R. Squibb & Sons, in memory of Dr. E. R. Squibb. It is awarded to that
Graduate in Pharmacy who exhibits the greatest proficiency in Analytical Chem-
istry during his third year, as determined by the laboratory records.

^Louis DoHME Prize. This is an annual cash prize of $100., founded by Mr.
Ernest Stauffen, in memory of Mr. Louis Dohme. It is awarded to that Graduate
in Pharmacy who exhibits the best practical knowledge of the drugs of the United
States Pharmacopceia and National Formulary, as determined by the laboratory
records and examinations.

^Joseph Weinstein Prize. This prize consists of a compound microscope and
is established by the New York Retail Druggists' Association, in memory of Dr.
Joseph Weinstein. It is awarded to that Graduate in Pharmacy who has exhibited

iNot to be awarded in 1929.



28 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

the greatest proficiency in Analytical Chemistry during the three years, as deter-
mined by the laboratory records, and who has not secured any other prize.

^Italian Pharmaceutical Association Prize. This Association offers
annually a gold medal to that Graduate in Pharmacy who has obtained the
highest general average in practical laboratory work during the third year.

^Lehn and Fink Prize. This prize consists of a gold medal, oflfered by Messrs.
Lehn and Fink, of New York City, for the Graduate in Pharmacy attaining the
highest standing at the examinations in Pharmacy.

Westchester County Pharmaceutical Association Prize. This Asso-
ciation offers annually a gold medal to that member of the graduating class of
the College Course who has attained the highest general average in practical
laboratory work, during the three years in the Department of Pharmacy.

^German Apothecary's Association Prize. In commemoration of its
foundation in the year 1 85 1 , the German Apothecary's Association offers, annually,
a gold medal to be awarded to that member of the graduating class who has
exhibited during the final year of the College Course the greatest proficiency in
the compounding of prescriptions.

^Olshansky Memorial Medal. This is a gold medal, founded by the stu-
dents of this school in attendance upon the session of 1 923-1 924, in memory of
their beloved instructor, Jacob Caiman Olshansky, whose death occurred during
that academic year. This medal is to be awarded annually to that student who has
attained the highest average in the final year of the College Course in the subject
of Dispensing Pharmacy.

iNot to be awarded in 1929.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY



29



SYNOPSIS OF STUDIES FOR THE SESSION OF 1928-1929
(For information regarding subsequent 3'ears, see p. 76)



MM 1-2
MM 3-4
MM 5-6
Chm. 1-2
Chm. 3-4
Chm. 5-6
Phr. 1-2
Phr. 3
Phr. 8



MM 53-54
MM 57-58
MM 59-60
Chm. 51-52
Chm. 55-56
Chm. 59-60
Phr. 51-52
Phr. 53
Phr. 56
Phr. 59-60



COLLEGE


COURSE








First Year












Class


Laboratory Points






Hours


Hours




Botany




2





4


Botany




I


4


6


Posology




I





2


General Physics




2





4


Inorganic Chemistry




• zH





7


Analytical Chemistry




K


3


4


Theory of Pharmacy




3





6


Practical Pharmacy




I


3


2K


Dispensing Pharmacy




I


3


2%


Second Year









Pharmacognosy o

Human Physiology and Hygiene 2

Biology of Micro-Organisms i

General Physics i

Inorganic Chemistry 3

Analytical Chemistry o

Theory of Pharmacy 3

Practical Pharmacy i

Dispensing Pharmacy i
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence and

Commercial Pharmacy i>^



3

4
3

2

6

3

6

2K

2%



MM 1-2
MM 7
MM 9-10
Chm. 1-2
Chm. 3-4
Chm. 7-8
Phr. 1-2
Phr. 5
Phr. 10
Coll. 1-2
Coll. 3-4



UNIVERSITY COURSE



First Year



Botany


2





4


Posology


%





I


Plant Morphology and Histology


I


4K


6K


General Physics


2





4


Inorganic Chemistry


sK





7


Analytical Chemistry


K


3


4


Theory of Pharmacy


3





6


Practical Pharmacy


I


5


3K


Dispensing Pharmacy


I


5


3%


English


3





6


American Government


3





6



30



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY



MM 55-56
MM 57-58
MM 61-62
Chm. 51-52
Chm. 54
Chm. 55-56
Chm. 57-58
Phr. 51-52
Phr. 53
Phr. 58
Phr. 59-60

Coll. 51-52



Second Year



Macroscopic Pharmacognosy
Human Physiology and Hygiene
Bacteriology
General Physics
Practical Physics
Inorganic Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Theory of Pharmacj^
Practical Pharmac3^
Dispensing Pharmacy
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence

Commercial Pharmacy
German



Class
Hours



and



Laboratory Points
Hours



2>^

4K
10



Third Year



MM 105-106
MM 107-108

Chm. 101-102
Chm. 103-104
Chm. 105-106
Phr. 109-110
Phr. 111-112
Phr. 113-114



MM 151-152
MM 153-154
MM 155-156
Chm. 151-152
Chm. 153-154
Chm. 155-156
Chm. 157-158
Phr. 151-152
Phr. 153-154



Bacteriology


I


2


4


Morphology and Taxonomy of Crypto


(-






gams


I


2


4


Theories of Chemistry


I





2


Organic Chemistry


3





6


Analytical Chemistry





10


10


Advanced Pharmacy


2





4


Dispensing Pharmacy





5


5


Practical Dispensing Pharmacy





2


2


Fourth Year








Applied Pharmacognosy


H


S


6K


Botanical Taxonomy





iK


iK


Human Physiology







2


Inorganic Quantitative Analysis




8


10


Food Analysis and Toxicology




8


10


Biological Chemistry







2


Chemical Bibliography







2


Advanced Pharmacy


iH





3


Pharmaceutical Assaying





7


7



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

MATERIA MEDICA

Materia Medica 1-2 — Botany (for University Freshmen and first year College
Students). Lectures and recitations 2 hours, 4 points. Professors Rusby,
Hart and Taub and instructors.

The object of this course is to prepare the student for an understanding of that part of Materia
Medica which relates to vegetable drugs. In the limited time allotted to this study , it is impossible
to pursue it in all its departments, and attention is concentrated upon such instruction as will
fit the student for professional work in pharmacy. The instruction embraces the morphology of
the higher plants, from which nearly all of our vegetable drugs are derived, the terms used in
official description, systems of classification, botanical nomenclature, and the relations of the
lower to the higher plants.

The lectures are illustrated by large colored charts, and each student is furnished with cards
bearing mounted specimens.

For the use of the instructor in the Quiz Room, the Alumni Association has provided an elabo-
rate series of papier-mache models arranged to illustrate structure and dissection.

Textbook: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

Materia Medica 3-4 — Botany Laboratory (first year College Students).
Lectures and recitations i hour, laboratory' 4 hours, 6 points. Professors Bal-
lard, Hart and Taub and instructors.

Gross Botany. — Pharmacognosy, while itself not a science, may be regarded as the art of ap-
plying scientific knowledge to the examination of drugs. The theoretical and practical training
of the lecture and recitation room is designed to fit the student for such botanical observations
as can ordinarily be made with the naked eye.

To enable him to extend these observations by the use of the simple or dissecting and the com-
pound microscope, in preparation for the study of Pharmacognosy in the following year, a course
of laboratory instruction is provided. This portion of the work is under the direction of Pro-
fessor Hart, and consists in thoroughly training the students in the use of the simple microscope,
and in teaching the structure of all parts of the plant which can be studied with that instrument.

The material for these studies is collected during the summer season, and carefully selected
with a view to best illustrating the points brought out in the lecture-room.

Vegetable Histology. — As ability to properly use a microscope is the foundation of success in
all branches of microscopy, first attention is given to a consideration of the parts of the instrument.
The uses of the various types of objectives, oculars, illuminating apparatus and mechanical ac-
cessories are explained and demonstrated. The details of sectioning, embedding, staining and
mounting specimens are illustrated by demonstrations, and at least part of the work is performed
by the student.

The course under the direction of Professor Ballard includes the study of plant tissues and the
various types of cell contents. A physiological grouping of the tissues is followed by detailed study
of the forms, modifications, locations, functions and differences in chemical constitution of the
cellular elements concerned in protection, support, absorption, transportation, synthesis and stor-
age. The organic and inorganic cell contents are classified ; details of their synthesis are considered
and the more commonly used microchemical tests are demonstrated. This work is followed by a
detailed study of the arrangement of cells and disposition of cell contents in the various parts and
organs of the plant. Each student prepares a set of specimens for use in the course and is required
to follow the lecture explanations by personal observation and drawings illustrating the topics
considered at each session.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 5-6 — Posology (for first year College Students). Lectures
and recitations i hour, 2 points. Professor H. Taub.

31



32 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

The average dosage of U. S. P. and N. F. drugs is considered with the object of teaching the
student to recognize an overdose in actual prescription practice. The course covers the analysis
of safe and dangerous prescriptions, approximate equivalents and conversion methods from one
system into the other, and dosage of non-ofl&cial but commonly prescribed synthetic remedies.

Materia Medica 7 — Posology (for University Freshmen). Lectures and
recitations }/i hour, i point. Professor H. Taub.

The relationship in dosage of chemically similar substances and botanically related drugs is
considered during the first portion of the course; the material of the College course is given in
brief in the latter half.

Materia Medica 9-10 — Plant Morphology and Histology (for University
Freshmen). Lectures i hour, laboratory 4.}4 hours, 6}4 points. Professors
Ballard, Hart, Taub and instructors.

Morphology. — The laboratory course in morphology is designed to supplement the lectures in
pharmaceutical botany (MM. 1-2). It affords practical training in simple plant dissection, both
with and without the dissecting microscope, thereby illustrating the topics considered in the above
lecture course and fitting students for the advanced studies of pharmacognosy and taxonomy.

Histology. — This section of the course includes a detailed study of the various cellular elements
considered both as individual tissues and as integral parts of plant organs. This is followed by a
systematic review of the derivation of these tissues and organs in the evolution of the higher forms
of plant life from the lower. One or more representative orders of the Thallophyta, Bryophyta,
Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta will be studied in detail.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology, 2nd Edit.; Ballard and Hart, Laboratory
Manual; Rusby, Manual of Botany; Curtis, Nature and Development of Plants.

Materia Medica 53-54 — Pharmacognosy Macroscopic and Microscopic

(second-year College Students). Laboratory 3 hours, 3 points. Professors
Ballard, Taub and instructors.

Macroscopic. — This part of the course comprises laboratory instruction in the classification, identifi-
cation and description of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary.
The drugs and medicinal products of vegetable origin are grouped according to the parts of the
plant from which they are derived and further classified on the basis of medicinal constituents.
Each drug receives separate attention in the laboratory and the following details are considered —
titles under which the drug is known; botanical, geographical and commercial sources; official
description, definition and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration or substitution; prepara-
tion for market and proper means of preservation or storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and must retain the
same for future reference. At the completion of the course each student possesses a collection of
the official crude drugs as his personal property. Proficiency in the identification of the drugs
studied is determined by practical examinations at short intervals during the term. Botany
(Courses MM. 1-2, 3-4 or equivalent) are prerequisite to a proper understanding of the work in this
course.

Textbooks: Ballard, Laboratory Manual; Mansfield, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy.

Microscopic. — The preliminary work of this part of the course will consist of a brief review of
the cellular elements and cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this manner
the work in vegetable histology of the first year (Course MM. 3-4) is coordinated to the more
detailed study of microscopical pharmacognosy. Powders prepared from drugs representing
different parts ot the plant will be used as material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared
in the first year it will be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with
the powder and thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the changes in
appearance incidental to powdering. The number of specimens studied is necessarily limited by the
amount of time which can be given to the work but the subject matter of the course is so arranged
that representative rather than extraordinary types are considered. The student is expected to
construct and use analytical keys in the identification of the powdered materials examined. Progress
in course is determined by a series of practical examinations at short intervals throughout the year
and the student must record his observations by drawings made from his specimens.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY



33



Materia Medica 55-56 — Macroscopic Pharmacognosy (for University
Sophomores). Laboratory 2 hours, 2 points. Professors Ballard and Taub.

This course includes all of the instruction offered in Macroscopic Phar7nacognosy MM. 53-54, but
in addition many non-official articles of commercial and technical importance are studied. Expe-
rience in manufacturing fields has shown that these non-official drugs and drug materials are in
frequent use and familiarity with them is especially important in view of their non-inclusion in
the Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary.

Textbooks: Ballard, Laboratory Manual; Mansfield, Materia Mtdica and Pharmacognosy;
Youngken, Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 57-58 — Human Physiology and Hygiene (for University
Sophomores and second-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 2
hours each, 4 points. Professor Rusby and instructors.

In addition to the skill in Pharmacognosy required for the selection of drugs, the educated
pharmacist is required to possess some general information concerning the properties and uses of
the materials which he is engaged in handling and dispensing; that is, of the general classification
of medicines. As such classification depends directly upon their physiological properties, a limited
and specialized course of instruction in Human Physiology is provided.

The method consists in so arranging the order of subjects that the student shall be led from the
very first lesson to see the manner in which disordered bodily functions may be restored to a healthy
condition by the action of medicines, and leads to the immediate classification of the more impor-
tant remedies, in connection with the study of the organs or systems to the functions of which they
apply. While this method gives an accurate knowledge of the facts involved, it permits of the
exclusion of a large portion of the subject of Physiology, and reduces to a minimum the amount
of time expended in acquiring such a knowledge of this department of Materia Medica as is properly
required of the practicing pharmacist.

Textbook: Bachman and Bliss, Essentials of Physiology.

Materia Medica 59-60 — Biology of Microorganisms (second-year College
Students). Lectures and recitations i hour, laboratory i hour, 3 points. Pro-
fessor Hart and instructors.

This subject constitutes an introduction to the nature, behavior and effects of micro-organisms,
especially of bacteria. Without entering upon the subject of practical laboratory bacteriology, as
is done in the University course, it discusses the hfe history of bacteria, and the part that they
play in fermentation and decomposition, as well as in disease, and indicates the general nature of
the means employed in combatting them, and treats of biological products. The subject of steriliza-
tion, as employed in the pharmacy, and the principles of antisepsis and immunization are studied.

Materia Medica 61-62 (this course, pertaining to the Sophomore University
year in 1928-29 and thereafter, is the same as MM. 105-106, which see).

Materia Medica 105-106 — Bacteriology, (for University Juniors 1928-29).
Lectures i hour, laboratory 2 hours, 4 points. Professor Hart and instructors.

The Bacteriological Laboratory in our new building has been fully equipped, and practical
work in this important field is taken up. The general principles of the science are taught, and the
students cultivate, stain, and study the more important microorganisms. Laboratory methods
in the bacterial examination of water, air, milk, ice, sputum and excreta are given, and methods of
disinfection and sterilization are practically demonstrated.

Park and Williams, Pathogenic Microorganisms.

MM. 107-108 — Morphology and Taxonomy of Cryptogams (for Uni-
versity Juniors). Lectures I hour, laboratory 2 hours, 4 points. Professors
Ballard and Hart and instructors.

This course comprises lectures, recitations and laboratory exercises in the morphology, phylo-
geny and taxonomy of the Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta. One or more representa-
tives of the different orders of each class and subclass will be studied in detail.

Textbooks: Curtis, Nature and Development of Plants; Ballard, Laboratory Manual.



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Materia Medica 151-152 — Applied Pharmacognosy (for University
Seniors). Lecture M hour. Laboratory 5 hours, 6j^ points. Professors Ballard
and Hart.

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the principles of micro-
scopy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average commercial laboratory. The
introductory work will consist of a consideration of the general methods employed in microanalysis
and the uses of the more common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. Each student is required to prepare
sections of the various types of vegetable materials, using these sections for the demonstration of
staining procedures and microchemical reactions. This will be followed by practical and indi-
vidual work in the qualitative determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalytical
methods are applicable. During this work, it is expected that the student will avail himself of the
library facilities of the School and freely use the economic drug and food collections of the laboratory
for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is to duplicate actual commercial laboratory
conditions and to train the worker to depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching pur-
poses will, as far as possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopical
methods.

References: Winton, Microscopy of Vegetable Foods; Youngken, Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 153-154 — Botanical Taxonomy (for University Seniors).
Laboratory course ij^ hours, ij^ points. Professor RusBY.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by
a study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering plants, and of
their classification and determination by the use of descriptive works. The work consists of the
laboratory study of types of the principal families, especially those rich in medicinal and poisonous
species.

Textbook: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

References: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien.

Materia Medica 155-156 — Human Physiology (for University Seniors).
Textbook and Conferences i hour, 2 points. Miss Hopping. (Given at the
College of Physicians and Surgeons.)

This course consists of a series of discussions, based on assigned reading, occupying i hour
weekly throughout the term.
Textbook: Howell, Physiology.

CHEMISTRY

Chemistry 1-2 — General Physics (for University Freshmen and first-year
College Students). Lectures and recitations 2 hours, 4 points. Professor A.
Taub and instructors.

This course is so arranged as to emphasize those phases which have a direct bearing upon chem-
istry and pharmacy. After a consideration of the general properties of matter and the elements of
mechanics a number of lectures are devoted to the discussion of the kinetic molecular theory and to
wave motion. This is then followed by the consideration of chapters on sound, heat and magnetism.

The lectures are abundantly illustrated with experiments, the College possessing a fine set of
physical apparatus.

Textbook: Stewart, College Physics.

Chemistry 3-4— General Inorganic Chemistry (for University Freshmen
and first-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 2/^ hours, 7 points.
Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, the beginning of consecutive instruction in chemistry covering three years, is given
to the first-year students of both the College and the University Classes. It opens with a careful



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 35

consideration of the fundamental principles of chemistry, special attention being given to the modern
theories concerning valence, chemical equilibrium, oxidation and reduction and atomic structure.

Exercises in writing and calculating chemical equations and work on problems in chemical
arithmetic are given in special quiz periods devoted exclusively to these important subjects.

On the side of descriptive chemistry, the non-metals and their compounds are discussed from
their cultural, technical and pharmaceutical viewpoints.

Textbooks: Deming, General Chemistry, second edition; U. S. Pharmacopeia.

Chemistry 5-6 — Analytical Chemistry, (for first-year College Stu-
dents). Laboratory and recitations 3^^ hours, 4 points. Professors Schaefer



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