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and Macsata and instructors.

The course in analytical chemistry consists of laboratory instruction and is attended by the class
in sections. Each student is provided with the necessary equipment, and is required to perform
all the operations involved in qualitative chemical analysis. The uses of apparatus, the actions
of reagents, and the proper manner of bringing about chemical reactions are illustrated and ex-
plained. On account of the fundamental importance to the true understanding of the subject
the simple laws governing chemical action in solution and the formation of precipitates, the na-
ture of solution, etc., are explained to the student. At first, and under the guidance of the teacher,
the characteristic reactions of the basic components are studied in solution, or in the solid at a high
temperature. The phenomena observed are interpreted and discussed, and the conclusions re-
corded. Later, the reactions are represented by equations. The value of grouping is utilized
and separations and identifications of group members are performed. Finally, all facts acquired
by direct observation are brought together in the systematic procedure for analysis of mixtures.
In this recapitulation, individual effort is stimulated by independent work on unknown samples.

Textbook: Schaefer & Bliss, Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 7-8 — Analytical Chemistry (for University Freshmen). Lab-
oratory and recitations, 3 J^ hours, 4 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

The student will first be made familiar with laboratory processes by means of a course of experi-
ments in general chemistry — isolation of elements, preparation of pure compounds by means of
precipitation, crystallization, etc. and examination of their properties. Simple laws and phenomena
will be explained to the student in the course of this work. In this way, experience in manipulation,
and a true understanding of the subject will be obtained.

This preliminary course leads to a systematic course in qualitative analysis but during the first
year the reactions of the basic ions only are studied. The student is taught the separation and
identification of these, and finally is required to analyze systematically solutions containing two or
more basic ions.

Chemistry 51-52 — General Physics (for University Sophomores and second-
year College Students). Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professor
S. Schaefer and A. Taub.

This course is a continuation of Chemistry 1-2 (General Physics) and embraces the subjects of
electricity and light. Special consideration is given to ionization, electrolysis, the electron hypoth-
esis, vacuum tubes, the spectroscope, spectrum analysis, double refraction and the polariscope.

The lectures will be accompanied and made more interesting by many exhibitions and experi-
ments.

Textbook: Stewart, College Physics.

Chemistry 54 — Practical Physics (for University Sophomores). Laboratory
course 4 hours, 2 points. Professor A. Taub and instructors.

The course consists of sixteen half-day periods of four hours each, given during the second half
of the year.

This work consists of experiments in fundamental physical measurements followed by special
work in heat, light, sound and electricity. The laboratory is equipped not only with apparatus
for routine exercises, but has the appliances necessary for work in colorimetry, spectroscopy, re-
fraction, calorimetry and electro-chemistry.



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Chemistry 55-56 — Inorganic Chemistry (for University Sophomores,
and second-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3 hours, 6 points.
Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, a continuation of Chemistry 3-4 will be devoted to a consideration of the non-
metsilLic and metallic elements and their compounds. It will open with a discussion of ionization
and throughout the course, all of the more important principles of theoretical inorganic chemistry
will be discussed. In descriptive chemistry, the course wiU consider the remaining non-metallic
elements and all of the more important metallic elements. These wiU be discussed from the stand-
point of modern industrial chemistry.

Textbook: Sadtler-Coblentz-Hostmann, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, sixth edition.

Chemistry 57-58 — Analytical Chemistry (for University Sophomores).
Laboratory course 3 hours, 3 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

The course in qualitative analysis begun in the first year is continued through the first half of
the second year. The sequence of work is as follows: — (i) the study of the acidic-ions according
to an analytical scheme of separation; (2) a systematic method of preliminary testing of unknown
compounds; (3) the preparation for analysis of water-insoluble substances; and (4) the complete
qualitative analyses of unknown solutions or powders containing two or more compounds.

The second half of the year's work is devoted to a course in volumetric analysis. This begins with
the study of general principles and theoretical considerations, the ionization theory of indicators,
pH values and the use of the analytical balance. It continues with the preparation of certain
volumetric solutions and their uses in quantitative analysis by (i) neutralization (2) precipitation,
(3) oxidation and reduction, and (4) iodimetry.

Chemistry 59-60 — Analytical Chemistry (for second-year College Students).
Laboratory course 3 hours, 3 points. Professors Schaefer and Macsata and
instructors.

The first half of the second-year course is devoted to completing the instruction in qualitative
analysis. The discussion of the simpler fundamental laws governing chemical and physical changes
in solution, begun in the first year, are followed to conclusion. The preliminary testing and pre-
paration of a sample for analysis, invoh-ing solution in solvents other than water, and the pro-
cedure for analysis of substances insoluble in water and acids, are studied and practiced. The
greater part of the time is devoted to the study of the acidic components.

During the second half-year instruction in quantitative analysis is then introduced. This train-
ing is intended to enable the pharmacist to determine the purity of medicinal chemicals and to find
the percentage strength of preparations. Volumetric analysis being simple, rapid and accurate
for many medicinal substances, receives special consideration.

Textbooks: U . S. Pharmacopcsia, Schaefer and Bliss, Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 101-102 — Theories of Chemistry (for University Juniors). Lcct
tures and recitations i hour, 2 points. Professor Schaefer.

The object of this course is to bring together, to correlate and to elaborate somewhat the various
theories presented to the student in the regular chemistrj' and physics lectures. Consideration is
given to the kinetic theory, the gas laws, the laws governing change of state, the quantitative laws of
chemical combination, the atomic hypothesis, the laws of valence, the periodic system, radioac-
tivity, atomic disintegration, atomic structure, solubiUty, ionization, indicators, equilibrium,
electrochemistry and colloids.

Special importance is placed upon the practical application of modern theories of physical
chemistry to analytical processes and methods.

Textbook: Chapin, College Chemistry.

Chemistry 103-104 — Organic Chemistry (for University Juniors). Lectures
and recitations 3 hours, 6 points. Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, a continuation of Chemistry 3-4 and 55-56, will be devoted to a comprehensive
study of the carbon compounds; special care being taken to keep the course abreast the new ap-
plications of organic chemistry in pharmacy and medicine. The preparation of the more common



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 37

organic chemicals is given careful consideration and advances under modern methods of research
are presented to the class as they are reported.

All the official and the more important unofficial organic pharmaceutical chemicals and medicinal
products, notably the newer synthetic remedies, are taken up, explained in detail, and classified
according to their position in the various organic groups. By this method of classification the
subject of organic pharmaceutical chemistry is presented in the same sequence as that of general
organic chemistry.

Textbook: Sadtler-Coblentz-Hostmann, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, sixth edition; U . S. Phar-
macopaia.

Chemistry 105-106 — Analytical Chemistry and Urine Analysis (for
University Juniors). Laboratory, 10 hours, 10 points. Professor Kassner
and instructors.

This laboratory course is given to the University Juniors in two groups, each group having 14
weeks of instruction.

The first period, comprising 100 hours, will be devoted principally to qualitative work. Students
will be supplied with pure and adulterated chemicals. Tests of purity and identity will be per-
formed upon the following: chloroform, phenol, glycerol, methenamine, compound solution of
cresol, alcohol, cresol, cresote, acetanilid, chloral hydrate, paraldehyde, formaldehyde, acetphene-
tidin, salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and such other chemicals which will give the student prac-
tice in the "General Tests" of the U. S. P. X.

During the second period of 100 hours, gravimetric and volumetric methods will be studied.

The student will prepare normal acid and alkali solutions. The former will be standardized with
barium chloride and sodium carbonate, the latter with potassium bitartrate, etc. The finished solu-
tions will then be run against each other. Following upon this, the student will prepare iodine,
potassium permanganate, sodium thiosulphate, etc., volumetric solutions. After standardizing
same, he will use them in volumetric assays not covered during the second year. The gasometric
assays of ethyl nitrite and amyl nitrite as well as the assay of volatile oils will then be taken up and
will extend into the third period of 100 hours which will be principally devoted to the proximate
assays of the U.S. P. and of galenicals.

The final period of 30 hours will be devoted to the analysis of urine. In addition to the routine
qualitative and quantitative tests, the student will receive instruction in the principles and use
of polarimeters and chainomatic Westphal and analytical balances.

Textbook: U. S. Pharmacopceia.

Reference Book: Murray, Standards and Tests for Reagent Chemicals.

Chemistry 151-152— Inorganic Quantitative Analysis (for University
Seniors). Lectures i hour, laboratory, 8 hours, 10 points. Professor Kassner
and instructors.

The aim of the fourth-year work in Analytical Chemistry is to carry forward the instruction
in chemical analysis to such a point that the student may be able to execute the more important
chemical and pharmaceutical analyses.

The object of analytical chemistry is twofold, viz.: qualitative and quantitative. During
the first year the detection of the component elements of compounds of unknown composition
are studied, while the work of the second and third years applies to determination of the relative
proportional amounts of the components of the various compounds studied, chiefly by the aid of
volumetric methods, leaving the more difficult and complex processes of gravimetric analysis
to be taken up in the fourth year.

The work will consist chiefly of gravimetric determinations, but will perforce include the test-
ing, adjusting and calibrating of delicate balances and other apparatus.

Textbook: Clowes and Coleman, Quantitative Analysis. Reference book, Scott, Standard
Methods of Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 153-154 — Food Analysis and Toxicology (for University Sen-
iors). Lectures i hour, laboratory, 8 hours, 10 points. Professors Arny and
Kassner and instructor.



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

In order to give every advantage to the instruction in this department during the fourth year,
the College has provided very complete apparatus, which supplies the very best facilities that mod-
ern science affords.

The work in this department will cover the following courses:

1. Analysis of various foodstuffs, including milk, butter, flavoring extracts, etc.

2. Chemical and sanitary examination of water.

3. Isolation and detection of organic and inorganic poisons.

In addition to the laboratory work just outlined there will be a lecture course of thirty hours
extending through the entire year, describing the various chemical methods of food examination
and explaining the principles underljdng the more complex physical instruments employed by the
students in their laboratory course.

Textbooks: Leach, Food Analysis; Auteniieth-Wairen, Detection of Poisons; Mason, Examina-
tion of Water.

Reference Book: Allen, Commercial Analysis.

Chemistry 155-156 — Biological Chemistry (for University Seniors). Lec-
tures I hour, 2 points. Dr. Karshan. Given at College of Physicians and
Surgeons.

The instruction in inorganic and organic analysis relates to the examination of substances dis-
connected from the living body, but the competent analyst must be prepared to consider and
act upon a knowledge of the natural changes which substances undergo when absorbed into the
living body, as well as the natural products there originating.

Chemistry 157-158 — Chemical and General Bibliography (for Univer-
sity Seniors). Lectures and conferences, i hour, 2 points. Professors Arky and
Kassner.

This course will consist of lectures on the source books of chemistry, pharmacy, botany and
cognate sciences and on the periodical literature on the same subjects. At the conferences, special
themes will be assigned to each student for research during spare hours.

PHARMACY

Pharmacy 1-2 — Theory of Pharmacy (including Metrology and Phar-
maceutical Arithmetic (for first-year College Students and University Fresh-
men). Lectures, 2 hours, Recitation i hour. 6 points. Professors Wimmer,
Brown and instructors.

This course introduces the student to the fundamentals of pharmaceutical science. It includes
a series of lectures on the history of pharmacy, beginning with the Egj'ptian age and tracing it
through the Roman, Arabian and European periods up to the present time. Special stress is laid
on the historical development of American pharmacy, its organization and its Code of Ethics.

The course continues with the study of elementary pharmaceutical operations, such as evapora-
tion, distillation, sublimation, solution, crystallization, precipitation, filtration, etc. The lectures
are profusely illustrated by exhibitions of apparatus and lantern slides.

The lectures in Pharmaceutical Arithmetic begin with the subject of Metrology and cover every
possible kind and type of calculation used in pharmacy.

Textbooks: U. S. Pharmacopeia X; Arny's Principles of Pharmacy; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical
Arithmetic.

Pharmacy 3 — Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory (for first-year College
Students). Recitation i hour, Laboratory course, 3 hours, 16 weeks. 23^ points.
Professors Wimmer, Brown, Dorfman and instructors.

The work of this course is elementary in nature and affords students the opportunity to apply
practically their theoretical knowledge of the different systems of weights and measures, the deter-
mination of the specific gravities of various substances, the determination of alcoholic contents of
liquids, the purification and granulation of salts and the manufacture of simple galenical pre-
parations.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes and U. S.
Pharmacopoeia.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 39

Pharmacy 5 — Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory (for University
Freshmen). Recitation i hour, Laboratory course, 5 hours, 16 weeks. 3J^ points.
Professors Wimmer, Carter and instructors.

The work of this course is identical with that outlined under course Pharmacy 3 for the first-year
College Class, with an additional two hours of laboratory work. It is the purpose of this course
not only to provide the University student with the same work that is done by the College student,
but also to give him additional time for the performance of such work as pertains to retail
pharmacy, inasmuch as the work of his third year will be essentially devoted to operations per-
taining to the manufacture of pharmaceuticals on a large scale.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes and U. S.
Pharmacopceia.

Pharmacy 8 — Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory (for first-year College
Students). Recitation i hour, Laboratory course, 3 hours. 16 weeks. 2 J^ points.
Professors Wimmer, Brown, Dorfman and instructors.

This course embraces general methods of compounding pills, troches, bacilli, emulsions, oint-
ments, suppositories and the simpler types of prescriptions. It includes theoretical instruction and
training in practical work. The habits of neatness and, above all, of accuracy acquired by the
students is of direct and immediate advantage to them in rendering their services more valuable.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes, U. S. Phar-
macopceia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 10 — Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory (for University Fresh-
men). Recitation i hour, Laboratory course 5 hours, 16 weeks. 3H points.
Professors Wimmer, Brown, Carter and instructors.

The work of the Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory course for the Freshman University Class
is identical with that outlined under course Pharmacy 8 for the first-year College Class, with an
additional two hours of laboratory work.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes, U. S. Phar-
macopceia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 51-52 — Theoretical Pharmacy (including Pharmaceutical
Latin) (for second-year College Students and University Sophomores). Lectures,
2 hours. Recitation I hour. 6 points. Professors Wimmer, Brown, Dorfman
and instructors.

During the first semester of this course, one hour weekly is devoted to the general methods of
manufacturing liquid, solid and semi-solid pharmaceutical preparations. The general principles
involved in the manufacture of fluid extracts, tinctures, syrups, elixirs, masses, pills, etc. are studied
in detail. The other hour of lecture is given over to Pharmaceutical Latin, when principles of
etymology, construction of sentences and grammar, necessary to an intelligent understanding of
Latin used in prescriptions, are studied.

During the second semester, the study of the solid and semi-solid preparations of the United States
Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary is begun and completed.

Textbooks: U. S. Pharmacopoeia X; National Formulary V; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical Latin.

Pharmacy 53 — Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory (for second-year
College Students and University Sophomores). Recitation i hour, Laboratory
course 3 hours, 16 weeks. 23^ points. Professors Wimmer, Brown, Dorfman
and instructors.

The work in the Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory is a continuation of the work of the first
year. In general, consideration is here given to calcination, crystallization, solubility determinations,
percentage solutions, the manufacture of tinctures, fluid extracts and extracts by percolation, and
the preparation of various classes of galenicals, together with the manufacture of the more simple
chemicals and chemical preparations.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes and U. S,
Pharmacopeia.



40 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Pharmacy 56 — Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory (for second-year College
Students). Recitation i hour, Laboratory course 3 hours, 16 weeks. 23^ points.
Professors Wimmer, Brown, Dorfman and instructors.

The work in the Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory is a continuation of the work of the first year.
It deals more especially with prescriptions and includes the compounding and dispensing of the
various types requiring technical knowledge and skill. Consideration is given to tablet triturates,
mucilages, mixtures, the filling of capsules, cachets, collapsible tubes, etc. General instruction is
given in the reading and interpretation of prescriptions, the recognition of the various constituents
of their ingredients, together with the proper methods and manner of dispensing them.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes; Scoville, The Art
of Compounding; U. S. Pharmacopceia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 58— Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory (for University Sopho-
mores). Recitation i hour, Laboratory course 7 hours, 16 weeks. 4H points.
Professors Wimmer, Brown, Carter and instructors.

The work of this course is divided into two laboratory periods, one of three hours which covers
all of the work as outlined under course 56 of the second- year College Class, and one of four hours
consisting of the compounding and dispensing of classes of preparations such as mixtures, draughts,
lotions, solutions, emulsions, confections and jellies, pills, boli, dragees, lozenges, pastilles, lamelsand
orbicules, compressed tablets, powders, cachets, suppositories, pessaries and ointments, etc.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes; Scoville, The Art
of Compounding; U. S. Pharmacopceia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 59-60 — Commercial Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Juris-
prudence (for second-year College and University Classes). Lectures iK hours,
Laboratories iK hours. 4H points. Professor Lascoff and Lecturer
Neustaedter.

This course in Commercial Pharmacy is designed to give the student a practical knowledge of the
basic principles that underlie the successful management of a business. Owing to a lack of knowl-
edge of these principles, many pharmacists have failed to achieve the degree of success to which their
professional knowledge and training entitle them.

The course consists of all the activities incidental to the opening and operation of a retail drug-
store, including the choice of location, the elements of business administration and store manage-
ment, insurance, problems of retail merchandising, including the value of discounts, banking,
principles of advertising and salesmanship, business correspondence as well as the elements of
systematic bookkeeping.

The accounting records are the basic source of data for business management. Accordingly,
the course in commercial pharmacy will be devoted largely to the principles underlying the making
and interpretation of these records.

The course develops the subject rapidly devoting its time and emphasis to the foundational
problems of accounting. It is built up along the lines and methods of modern accounting practice.
The subject-matter includes: theories of debit and credit; classification of accounts; underlying
principles of various accounting records; business papers and documents used as the basis for first
entry; simple problems of the balance sheet and income statement; single entry; controlling ac-
counts; handling sales and purchases; safeguarding the cash; consignments, and related topics.
Ample practice for students is provided. The work will be related to the modern pharmacy.

This course is also designed to familiarize the student with the general provisions of State and
Federal Laws governing the practice of pharmacy. Ordinances and regulations having local
application only will likewise be studied.

Special attention will be given to the prohibition and anti-narcotic laws and regulations.

A knowledge of these laws and regulations is essential to the proper and safe conduct of a drug
store or pharmacy.

Textbooks: Pharmacopceia of the Untied States; The National Formulary; National Dispensa-
ory; Diekman and Wimmer, Pharmacy Notes.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 41

Pharmacy 109-110 — Theoretical Pharmacy. (For University Juniors).
Lectures i hour, Recitation i hour. 4 points. Professors Wimmer, Carter and
instructors.

This course is intended for pharmaceutical chemists. It consists of topics selected from courses
Pharmacy 31-52. Especial emphasis is laid upon the manufacture of pharmaceuticals on a large
scale.

Textbooks: U . S. Pharmacopczia X; National Formulary V.

Pharmiacy 111-112— Practical Pharmacy (for University Juniors). Lab-
oratory 5 hours. 5 points. Professors WiMMER, Carter and instructors.

This course includes the manufacture of a number of the more difficult Pharmacopceial and
National Formulary preparations, as well as of inorganic and organic medicinal remedies. The work
is intended to qualify students for positions in pharmaceutical manufacturing establishments.

Textbook: Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Notes.

Pharmacy 113-114 — Practical Dispensing Pharmacy (for University



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