College of Pharmacy of the City of New York.

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not completed their pharmacy course renders it necessary that the more impor-
tant facts regarding dosage and danger of poisoning should be taught in the
first year course. These recitations are designed to meet this requirement.



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

SECOND YEAR
PROGRAM OF STUDIES
Required for Ph. G. Degree

{Thirty-nine points)

Ghm. 51-52. General Organic, Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry

{Eight points)

Lectures, 2 hours Professor Arny

Recitations, 2 hours Professor Schaefer and Messrs. Macsata,

A. Taub, Flood, Jayne and Maier
^Text-book: Sadtler and Coblentz, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, fifth edition;
U. S. Pharmacopceia, ninth revision.

Chm. 53-54. Analytical Chemistry

(Three and one-half points)

Laboratory Course, 3 hours Professors Hostmann and McAdams

and Messrs. Macsata, Flood, Jayne and Maier
Text-books: Volumetric Analysis, Hostmann; Qualitative Chemical Analysis,
Hostmann; U. S. Pharmacopceia, ninth revision.

Phr. 55-56. Practical Pharmacy

(Eight points)

Lectures, 2 hours Professor Diekman

Recitations, i hour Professor Diekman

Laboratory Course, 2 hours Professors Diekman, Wimmer

AND Brown
Text-books: U. S. Pharmacopceia, ninth revision; National Formulary, fourth
edition. Pharmacy Laboratory Notes, Diekman and Wimmer.

Phr. 57-58. Dispensing Pharmacy

(Three points)

Laboratory Course, i hour Professors Diekman, Wimmer

AND Brown

Recitations, i i /3 hours Professors Wimmer and Brown

Text-book: Incompatibles in Prescriptions, Ruddiman; Dispensing Phartnacy
Notes, Diekman and Wimmer.

MM. 59-60. Materia Medica

(Six and one-half points)
Lectures, 2 hours Professor Rusby



» Text-books, the titles of which are printed in italics, are necessary; others are recommended
as useful adjuncts.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 35

Recitations, i i /3 hours . . Professors Hart and Bonisteel, Mr. H. Taub

AND Mr. Barrett

Text-books: Culbreth, Materia Medica and Pharmacology (for University
students, Gould, Pocket Medical Dictionary).

Toxicology

(Two points — Included in 59-60)

Lectures, 3^ hour Professor Rusby

Recitations, K hour Professors Hart and Bonisteel, Mr. H. Taub

AND Mr. Barrett
Text-books: Brundage, Manual of Toxicology.

MM. 61. Macroscopic Pharmacognosy

(One and one-half points)

Laboratory Course, I K hours Professors Ballard, Hart and

Bonisteel and Messrs. Taub and Barrett
Text-books: Squibb' s Atlas of the Official Drugs.

MM. 62. Microscopic Pharmacognosy

(One and one-half points)

Laboratory Course, i}4 hours Professors Ballard, Hart and

Bonisteel and Messrs. Taub and Barrett
Text-books: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology.

Phr. 63-64. Pharmaceutical Law and Accounting

(Four points)

Lectures, law Professor Diekman

Lectures and Laboratory, accounting Messrs. Abney, Ingraham and

Outwin
Text-book: Kester, Accounting Theory and Practice.

Required for Ph. Ch. Degree

(Forty-two points)

In addition to the above, the second-year University Class students are re-
quired to pursue the following:

Phr. 102. Advanced Pharmacy
Theory and Practice

(Two points)

Lectures and Recitations, i hour Professor Diekman

Laboratory, 2 hours Professors Wimmer and Brown

Text-book: Scoville, Art of Dispensing.



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION
General Organic Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry

In the lecture course, special care is taken to keep the student instructed in the
new and constantly increasing applications of this science in the art of pharmacy
and medicine. The preparation of the more common organic chemicals is fully
treated, and the possibilities of advances under modern methods of research are
presented to the student as they are reported. This department of modern phar-
maceutical education is becoming more important each year, and no pains are
spared to keep the instruction in Organic Chemistry fully up to the demands of
the times.

All the official and the more important unofficial organic pharmaceutical
chemicals and medicinal products, notably the newer synthetic remedies, are
taken up, explained in detail, and classified according to their position in the
various organic groups. By this method of classification, the subject of organic
pharmaceutical chemistry is presented in the same sequence as that of general
organic chemistry.

Analytical Chemistry

The early part of the second-year course is devoted to completing the instruc-
tion in qualitative analysis. The discussion of the simpler fundamental laws
governing chemical and physical changes in solution, begun in the first year, are
followed to conclusion. The preliminary testing and preparation of a sample for
analysis, involving solution in solvents other than water, and the procedure for
analysis of substances insoluble in water and acids, are studied and practiced.
The greater part of the time is devoted to the study of the acidic components.

Quantitative Analysis. — Instruction in quantitative analysis is then introduced.
This training is intended to enable the pharmacist to determine the purity of
medicinal chemicals and to find the percentage strength of preparations. Volu-
metric analysis being simple, rapid and accurate for many medicinal substances,
receives special consideration. As in the first year, all reactions are discussed
and the changes involved in them are represented by equations. The quantita-
tive significance of chemical changes is emphasized, derivation of equivalent
quantities is discussed and the use of empirical solutions is practiced. Accurate
weighing and measuring are insisted on. The student is obliged to perform
careful and accurate determinations of the various components in samples fur-
nished him, and after checking his results, to render an extensive report.

Drug Assaying. — The instruction in quantitative analysis is extended to the
determination of the amounts of the active or principal constituents of drugs and
galenicals. Since in the potent drugs and their preparations the quantities of the
active constituents are very small, the sources of error in assaying them must be
reduced to a minimum. The treatment that must be carried out for their Isolation
requires much care and skill in manipulation. It is for these reasons that this
work, of necessity, falls in the last part of the course, when the student shall
have been sufficiently trained to pursue the work intelligently and skilfully.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 37

Practical Pharmacy

The lectures of this course serve the double purpose of furnishing a theoretical
basis for the work of the laboratory and of supplementing the instruction given
in the dispensing laboratory. All classes of galenical preparations are taken up
and their methods of preparation not only collectively, but individually, are thor-
oughly considered. The common impurities of each and methods for their detec-
tion, means of preservation and incompatibilities are also considered. Particu-
lar attention is paid to the latter part of this subject, not only as regards the
galenical preparations, but also the various inorganic salts and newer remedies.
The subject of Homoeopathic Dispensing receives its due share of attention.

The laboratory work follows closely the plan of the lectures, the student
ascertaining by appropriate tests the identity and purity of various compounds,
and preparing many inorganic and organic pharmaceutical preparations and
salts, such as the liquors, chemical syrups, inorganic salts, organic compounds, etc.

Ample facilities are provided for students engaged in studj'ing pharmaceutical
manufacturing on a large scale, and for those engaged in assaying and carr^'ing
on plant analysis, etc. A properly equipped balance room is on the laboratory
floor for the use of students engaged in quantitative work.

The work of the Dispensing- Laboratory deals more especially with pre-
scription difficulties, and embraces the all-important subject of chemical, phar-
maceutical and therapeutical incompatibilities — those which may, as well as
those which frequently do occur. The continual introduction of new remedies
renders the subject of prescription incompatibilities a never-ending study, and
it is the aim of this department to qualify its graduates for keeping pace with
discovery.

Advanced Pharmacy

Members of the university class will devote the entire time between the exami-
nations of the college class and those of the university class to work in the phar-
macy laboratory'.

The theoretical part of the course is devoted to the study of the more advanced
methods of dispensing and compounding, as well as to the study of methods and
processes employed in the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations.

The practical part embraces the compounding of prescriptions requiring ad-
vanced knowledge and skill, and the manufacture of official preparations, such
as compressed tablets, plasters, salve mulls, pastes, pencils, sprays, inunctions
and others.

Materia Medica

This course includes instruction in both the inorganic and organic divisions of
drugs.

Organic Division. — In these lectures, the drugs are arranged in the order of
their botanical relationship, there being a general correspondence between such
relationship as, represented in the various families and subfamilies, and their
medicinal properties. The natural order recognized in the classification of Engler
and Prantl {Pflanzen =familien) is followed.



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Some general remarks upon the families, with special reference to their medic-
inal constituents and properties, will always precede the consideration of the
species belonging thereto. In studying the individual drugs, the order of topics
is as follows: The definition given by the Pharmacopoeia, habit, habitat, range,
collection, preparation and commerce, important constituents, medicinal action,
uses, and doses. All instruction pertaining to description, structure, identifica-
tion, substitution and adulteration is referred to the extensive course in Phar-
macognosy.

Inorganic Division. — Many of the inorganic drugs are so closely related in
properties and uses to others in the organic division that their consideration in
connection therewith is deemed of advantage to the student. Those members
which form classes distinct from those of the organic division will be afterward
considered, and their classification will correspond in a general way with that
found in Wood's Therapeutics. All facts concerning the chemistry and pharmacy
of these drugs will be omitted, except when necessary to explain changes of such
a nature as to modify their medicinal effects.

Toxicology

The classification of poisons is based upon the Physiological Action of Medi-
cines, taught during the Junior year, and is synoptically presented at the begin-
ning of the course in Materia Medlca. The Toxicology of the individual drugs
is then taken up in detail in connection with their physiological action and
medicinal uses. Experience has shown that by this method the modes of occur-
rence of poisoning accidents, the poisonous doses, the action of poisons and their
rational treatment, are all made more intelligible to the student, and are better
impressed upon his memory, than by treating the subject as entirely disconnected
from that of Materia Medlca.

Macroscopic Pharmacognosy

This course comprises laboratory Instruction In the classification, identification
and description of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National
Formulary. The drugs and medicinal products of vegetable origin are grouped
according to the parts of the plant from which they are derived and further
classified on the basis of medicinal constituents. Each drug receives separate
attention in the laboratory and the following details are considered — titles under
which the drug Is known; botanical, geographical and commercial sources;
official description, definition and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration
or substitution; preparation for market and proper means of preservation or
storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and
must retain the same for future reference. At the completion of the course each
student possesses a collection of the official crude drugs and many non-official
articles of commercial or technical importance as his personal property. Profi-
ciency in the identification of the drugs studied Is determined by practical exami-
nations at short intervals during the term. Botany (Course MM. 15-16 or its
equivalent) is prerequisite to a proper understanding of the work in this course.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 39

Microscopic Pharmacognosy

The preliminary work of this course will consist of a brief review of the cellular
elements and cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this
manner the work in vegetable histology of the first year (Course MM. 17-18) is
coordinated to the more detailed study of microscopical pharmacognosy. Pow-
ders prepared from drugs representing different parts of the plant will be used as
material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared in the first year It will
be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with the
powder and thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the
changes in appearance incidental to powdering. The number of specimens studied
is necessarily limited by the amount of time which can be given to the work but
the subject matter of the course is so arranged that representative rather than ex-
traordinary types are considered. The student is expected to construct and use
analytical keys in the identification of the powdered materials examined. Pro-
gress in course is determined by a series of practical examinations at short inter-
vals throughout the year and the student must record his observations by drawings
made from his specimens.

Pttarmaceutical Law and Accounting

This course in Commercial Pharmacy is designed to give the student a basic
knowledge of the principles that underlie the successful management of a business.
Owing to a lack of knowledge of these principles, many pharmacists have failed
to achieve the degree of success to which their professional knowledge and train-
ing entitle them.

The accounting records are the basic source of data for business management.
Accordingly, the course in commercial pharmacy will be devoted largely to the
principles underlying the making and interpretation of these records.

The course develops the subject rapidly, devoting its time and emphasis to
the foundational problems of accounting. It is built up along the lines and
methods of modern accounting practice. The subject matter includes: theories
of debit and credit; classification of accounts; underlying principles of various
accounting records; business papers and documents used as the basis for first
entry; simple problems of the balance sheet and income statement; single entry;
controlling accounts; handling sales and purchases; safeguarding the cash; con-
signments, and related topics. Ample practice for students Is provided. The
work will, so far as possible, be related to the modern pharmacy. Its chief prob-
lems of organization and management will be considered.

A portion of the course will be devoted to general business and pharmaceutical
law.

Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the general provisions
of State and Federal Laws governing the practice of pharmacy. Ordinances and
regulations having local application only will likewise be studied.

Special attention will be given to the prohibition and anti-narcotic laws and
regulations.

A knowledge of these laws and regulations Is essential to the proper and safe
conduct of a drug store or pharmacy.



40 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

JUNIOR YEAR

University Class
(N. B. — The work of this year occupies four days weekly)

PROGRAM OF STUDIES

(Forty points)
Chm. 103-104. Industrial Chemistry

(Four points)

Lectures and recitations, 2 hours Professors Arny and Schaefer

Text-book: Thorpe's Industrial Chemistry, third edition.

Chm. 104-106. Chemical and General Bibliography

(Two points)
Lectures and conferences, i hour Professors Arny and Schaefer

Chm. 107-108. Analytical Chemistry and Urine Analysis

(Eleven points)

Laboratory, 9 hours Professors Hostmann, McAdams and

Messrs. Macsata and A. Taub

Lectures, i hour Professor Hostmann

Text-books: Hawk's Physiological Chemistry; U. S. Pharmacopoeia, ninth
revision; Qualitative Chemical Analysis, Stieglitz.

Phr. 109-110. Higher Pharmacy

(Eight points)

Lectures, i hour Professor Diekman

Laboratory, 4 hours Professors Wimmer and Brown

Recitation, i hour Professor Diekman

Phr. 111-112. Dispensing Pharmacy

(Two points)

Laboratory, 2 hours Professors Wimmer and Brown

Text-books: U. S. Pharmacopoeia, ninth revision; National Standard Dispen-
satory, latest edition; National Formulary, fourth edition.

MM. 113-114. Applied Pharmacognosy

(Seven points)

Lecture and recitation, 2 hours Professor Ballard

Laboratory, 2 J^ hours Professors Ballard and Hart



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 41

MM. 115-116. Botanical Taxonomy

{Three points)
Laboratory, 1 3^ hours Professors Rusby and Hart

MM. 117-118. Bacteriology

{Three points)
Laboratory, 1J/2 hours Professors Jessup and Hart and Mr. H. Taub

SCHEME OF ATTENDANCE

Lecture and Recitation Courses, Extending Throughout the Term

Tuesday, 9-10 Industrial Chemistry

10-12 Pharmacy
12- I Library Conference
2- 3 Analytical Chemistry
Wednesday, 9-10 Industrial Chemistry

(All other hours, from 9-1 and from 2-5 on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
and Friday, are devoted to laboratory exercises.)

Laboratory Periods

First period, September 15 to November 7, Department of Materia Medica

Monday, 9-10 Applied Pharmacognosy

10- I Taxonomy

2- 3 Applied Pharmacognosy

3- 5 Bacteriology
Tuesday, 3- 5 Applied Pharmacognosy
Wednesday, 10- i Taxonomy

2- 5 Applied Pharmacognosy
Friday, 9- i Bacteriology

2- 5 Applied Pharmacognosy

Second period, November 10 to January 30, Department of Pharmacy.
Third period, February 2 to May 15, Department of Chemistry.

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION
Technical Organic Chemistry (68 hours)

This course, supplementing the lectures on inorganic and organic chemistry
of the first and second year, considers such inorganic industries as acid, alkali,
cement, fertilizer and glass manufacture and such industries based on organic
chemistry as fermentation and alcoholic products, wood distillation, fats and
soap making, petroleum, sugar and starch products.

During the course, industrial excursions are taken to the various plants in and
around New York.



42 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Chemical and General Bibliography (34 hours)

This course will consist of lectures on the source books of chemistry, pharmacy,
botany and cognate sciences and on the periodical literature on the same sub-
jects. At the conferences, special themes will be assigned to each student for
research during spare hours.

Analytical Chemistry (364 hours)

Lectures — 34 hours. During part of the time there will be discussed the "gen-
eral tests" of the Pharmacopoeia, viz. "Determination of Ash and Non- Volatile
Matter," "Iodine Absorption Value," "Saponification Value," "Acid Number
of Resins," "Ether Soluble Matter," "Proximate Assays," "Melting Points,"
"Boiling Points," "Congealing Points," "Solubilities" and "Gasometric Esti-
mations."

The greater part of the time will be devoted to the discussion of the practical
application of the modern theories of physical chemistry to analytical processes
and methods.

Laboratory Instruction — 330 hours. The first period, comprising 100 hours,
will be devoted principally to qualitative work. Students will be supplied with
pure and adulterated chemicals. Tests of purity and identity will be performed
upon the following; chloroform, ether, ethyl acetate, phenol, glycerol, alcohol,
amyl alcohol, cresol, creosote, acetanilid, chloral, paraldehyde, formaldehyde,
acetphenetidin, salicylic acid, acetosalicylic acid and such others as time will
permit.

During the second period of 100 hours, gravimetric and volumetric methods
will be studied.

The student will prepare normal acid and alkali solutions. The former will be
standardized with barium chloride and silver nitrate, the latter with potassium
bitartrate, etc. The finished solutions will then be run against each other. Fol-
lowing upon this, the student will prepare iodine, potassium permanganate,
sodium, thiosulphate, etc., volumetric solutions. After standardizing same, he
will use them In volumetric assays not covered during the second year. The
gasometric assays of ethyl nitrite and amyl nitrite as well as the assay of volatile
oils will then be taken up and will extend Into the third period of 100 hours which
will be principally devoted to the proximate assays of the U.S. P. and of galenicals.

The final period of 30 hours will be devoted to the analysis of urine. In addi-
tion to the routine qualitative and quantitative tests, the student will receive
Instruction In the principles and use of colorimeters and polarlmeters.



Higher Pharmacy (288 hours)

The course In this department consists of a series of lectures, laboratory
exercises and recitation. The scope of this work comprises the manufacture and



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 43

study of a number of the more difficult Pharmacopceial and National Formulary
preparations, as well as of synthetic remedies. In the manufacture of the latter
class of preparations, especial emphasis will be laid upon the proper assemblage,
arrangement and use of apparatus.

The entire time assigned for work in the dispensing laboratory will be devoted
to a comprehensive study of the subject of prescription incompatibilities. The
large number of new remedies which are constantly being employed make the
work in this field attractive and valuable.



Botanical Taxonomy — Phanerogamic Types (48 hours)

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as
can be gained by a study of Rusby's Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient
preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering
plants, and of their classification and determination by the use of descriptive
works. The work consists of the laboratory study of types of the principal
families, especially those rich in medicinal and poisonous species.

Text-book: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

References: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum; Engler and Prantl,
Pflanzenfamilien.

Applied Pharmacognosy (80 hours)

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the prin-
ciples of microscopy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average
commercial laboratory. The introductory work will consist of a consideration
of the general methods employed in microanalysis and the uses of the more,
common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. Each student is re-
quired to prepare sections of the various types of vegetable materials using these
sections for the demonstration of staining procedures and microchemical reac-
tions. This will be followed by practical and individual work in the qualitative
determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalytical methods
are applicable. During this work it is expected that the student will avail himself
of the library facilities of the School and freely use the economic drug and food
collections of the laboratory for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is
to duplicate actual commercial laboratory conditions and to train the worker to
depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching purposes will, as far as
possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopical
methods.

The preliminary requirements essential to a proper understanding of the work
of this course are botany (Course 15-16), vegetable histology (Course I7~i8)
and pharmacognosy (Course 61-62) or satisfactory equivalents of the courses
indicated.

References: Kraemer, Scientific and Applied Pharmacognosy; Winton, Micro-
scopy of Vegetable Foods.



44 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Bacteriology (48 hours)

The Bacteriological Laboratory has been fully equipped, and practical work
in this important field is taken up. The general principles of the science are
taught, and the students cultivate, stain, and study the more important micro-
organisms. Laboratory methods in the bacterial examination of water, air,



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