College of Pharmacy of the City of New York.

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by the student.

The course under the direction of Professor Ballard includes the study of plant tissues and the
various types of cell contents. A physiological grouping of the tissues is followed by detailed study
of the forms, modifications, locations, functions and differences in chemical constitution of the
cellular elements concerned in protection, support, absorption, transportation, synthesis and stor-
age. The organic and inorganic cell contents are classified ; details of their synthesis are considered
and the more commonly used microchemical tests are demonstrated. This work is followed by a
detailed study of the arrangement of cells and disposition of cell contents in the various parts and
organs of the plant. Each student prepares a set of specimens for use in the course and is required
to follow the lecture explanations by personal observation and drawings illustrating the topics
considered at each session.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 5-6 — Posology (first-year College Students). Lectures
and recitations i hour, 2 points. Professor H. Taub.

The average dosage of U. S. P. and N. F. drugs is considered with the object of teaching the
student to recognize an overdose in actual prescription practice. The course covers the analysis

30



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY



31



of safe and dangerous prescriptions, approximate equivalents and conversion methods from one
system into tlie other, and dosage of non-official but commonly prescribed synthetic remedies.

Materia Medica 7-8— Posology (for University Freshmen). Lectures and
recitations j^ hour, i point. Professor H. Taub.

The relationship in dosage of chemically similar substances and botanically related drugs is
considered during the first portion of the course; the material of the College Course is given in
brief in the latter half.

Materia Medica 9-10 — Plant morphology and histology (for University
Freshmen). Lectures r hour, laboratory /\.}4 hours, 6}4 points. Professors
Ballard, Hart, Taub and instructors.

Morphology. — The laboratory course in morphology is designed to supplement the lectures in
pharmaceutical botany {MM. 1-2). It affords practical training in simple plant dissection, both
with and without the dissecting microscope, thereby illustrating the topics considered in the above
lecture course and fitting students for the advanced studies of pharmacognosy and taxonomy.

Histology. — This section of the course includes a detailed study of the various cellular elements
considered both as individual tissues and as integral parts of plant organs. This is followed by a
systematic review of the derivation of these tissues and organs in the evolution of the higher forms
of plant life from the lower. One or more representative orders of the Thallophyta, Bryophyta,
Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta will be studied in detail.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology, 2nd Edit.; Ballard and Hart, Laboratory
Manual; Rusby, Manual of Botany; Curtis, Nature and Development of Plants.

Materia Medica 53-54 — Pharmacognosy, macroscopic and microscopic

(second-year College Students). Laboratory 3 hours, 3 points. Professors
Ballard, Taub and instructors.

Macroscopic. — This part of the course comprises laboratory instruction in the classification, identi-
fication and description of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary.
The drugs and medicinal products of vegetable origin are grouped according to the parts of the
plant from which they are derived and further classified on the basis of medicinal constituents.
Each drug receives separate attention in the laboratory and the following details are considered —
titles under which the drug is known; botanical, geographical and commercial sources; official
description, definition and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration or substitution; prepara-
tion for market and proper means of preservation or storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and must retain the
same for future reference. At the completion of the course each student possesses a collection of
the official crude drugs as his personal property. Proficiency in the identification of the drugs
studied is determined by practical examinations at short intervals during the term. Botany
(Courses MM. 1-2, 3-4 or equivalent) are prerequisite to a proper understanding of the work in this
course.

Textbooks: Ballard, Laboratory Manual; Mansfield, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy.

Microscopic. — The preliminary work of this part of the course will consist of a brief review of
the cellular elements and cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this manner
the work in vegetable histology of the first year (Course MM. 3-4) is coordinated to the more
detailed study of microscopical pharmacognosy. Powders prepared from drugs representing
different parts of the plant will be used as material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared
in the first year it will be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with
the powder and thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the changes in
appearance incidental to powdering. The number of specimens studied is necessarily limited by the
amount of time which can be given to the work but the subject matter of the course is so arranged
that representative rather than extraordinary types are considered. The student is expected to
constructand useanalytical keysin the identification of the powdered materials examined. Progress
in course is determined by a series of practical examinations at short intervals throughout the year
and the student must record his observations by drawings made from his specimens.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology; Ballard & Hart, Laboratory Manual.



32 COL U MB I A U N I VERS IT Y

Materia Medica 55-56 — Macroscopic pharmacognosy (for University
Sophomores). Laboratory' 2 hours, 2 points. Professors Ballard and Taub.

This course includes all of the instruction offered in Macroscopic PharTnacognosy MM. SJ-S4. but
in addition many non-ofScial articles of commercial and technical importance are studied. Expe-
rience in manufacturing fields has shown that these non-official drugs and drug materials are in
frequent use and famiUarity with them is especially important in view of their non-inclusion in
the Pharmacopceia and National Formulary.

Textbooks: Ballard, Lahora'.cry Manual; Mansfield, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy;
Youngken, Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 57-58 — Human physiology and hygiene (for University
Sophomores and second-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 2
hours each, 4 points. Professor RrsBY and instructors.

In addition to the skill in Pharmacognosy required for the selection of drugs, the educated
pharmacist is required to possess some general information concerning the properties and uses of
the materials which he is engaged in handling and dispensing; that is, of the general classification
of medicines. As such classification depends directly upon their physiological properties, a limited
and specialized course of instruction in human physiology' is pro\-ided.

The method consists in so arranging the order of subjects that the student shall be led from the
verj- first lesson to see the manner in which disordered bodily functions may be restored to a healthy
condition by the action of medicines, and leads to the immediate classification of the more impor-
tant remedies, in connection with the study of the organs or systems to the functions of which they
apply. While this method gives an accurate knowledge of the facts involved, it permits of the
exclusion of a large portion of the subject of physiolog\% and reduces to a minimum the amount
of time expended in acquiring such a knowledge of this department of materia medica as is properly
required of the practicing pharmacist.

Textbook: Bachman and Bliss, Essentials of Physiology.

Materia Medica 59-60 — Microbiology (second-year College Students).
Lectures and recitations i hour, laboraton,- and demonstrations i hour, 3 points.
Professor Hart and instructors.

This subject constitutes an introduction to the nature, beha\'ior and effects of microorganisms,
especially of bacteria. Without entering upon the subject of practical laboratory' bacteriologj', as
is done in the University Course, it discusses the life history of bacteria, and the part that they
play in fermentation and decomposition, as well as in disease, and indicates the general nature of
the means employed in combatting them, and treats of biological products. The subject of steriliza-
tion, as employed in the pharmacy, and the principles of antisepsis and immunization cire studied.

The study of yeasts, molds and blood smears is included in this course.

Materia Medica 61-62 — Bacteriology (for University Sophomores). Lec-
tures I hour, laboratory 2 hours, 4 points. Professor Hart and instructors.

The bacteriological laboratory' in our new building has been fully equipped, and practical
work in this important field is taken up. The general principles of the science are taught, and the
students cultivate, stain, and study the more important microorganisms. Laboratory' methods
in the bacterial examination of •^"ater, air, milk, ice, sputum and excreta are given, and methods of
disinfection and sterilization are practically demonstrated.

Park and Williams, Pathogenic Microorganisms.

Materia Medica 101-102 — Materia medica (for University Juniors and
third-3'ear College Students). Lectures and recitations, 3 hours, 6 points. Pro-
fessors RusBY, Taub and instructors.

This coiu'se includes instruction in both the inorganic and organic di\-isions of drugs. In con-
nection with the extension of our course to three years, the instruction in materia medica has been
completely reorganized and a new textbook has been written for the students. In the new arrange-



COLLEGE F PH ARM AC Y 33

merit, the drugs have been classified in accordance with their medicinal uses. Discussion of the
individual drugs covers the official titles, abbreviations, definitions and standards, origin, prepara-
tion, preservation, variations in quality and causes of such variation, constituents, properties and
uses, preparations and doses. All instruction in description, structure and identification, and the
detection of adulterants and impurities is referred to the extensive course in pharmacognosy.
Textbook: Rusby, Bliss and Ballard, Properties and Uses of Drugs.

Materia Medica 103-104 — Toxicology (third-year College and University
Classes). Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professors Rusby and
Taub and instructors.

The classification of poisons is based upon the physiological action of medicines, taught in the
preceding year, and is synoptically presented at the beginning of the course in materia medica.
The toxicology of the individual drugs is then taken up in detail in connection with their physio-
logical action and medicinal uses. Experience has shown that by this method the modes of occur-
rence of poisoning accidents, the poisonous doses, the action of poisons and their rational treat-
ment, are all made more intelligible to the student, and are better impressed upon his memory,
than by treating the subject as entirely disconnected from that of materia medica.

Textbook: Rusby, Bliss and Ballard, Properties and Uses of Drugs.

Materia Medica 109-110 — Pharmacal sundries (third-year College Stu-
dents). Lectures i hour, 2 points. Professor Ballard.

This course includes a systematic presentation of the facts of interest to the retail pharmacist
in the use and sale of the ordinary sick-room sundries. The course is thus linked with materia medica
on the one hand and commercial pharmacy on the other. Among the topics considered are — bandag-
ing and dressing materials, rubber sundries, glass and metal appliances, ligatures and first-aid
apparatus.

Materia Medica 111-112 — Microscopic pharmacognosy (for University
Juniors). Lectures yi hour, laboratory lyi hours, 2j4 points. Professors
Ballard, Taub and instructors.

This course consists in a detailed study of the histological structure of the several plant organs,
followed by a consideration of the characters and adulterants of the commonly used powdered drugs.
It includes the preparation of specimens both in sectioned and powdered forms and the application
of stains and microchemical tests to the materials so prepared.

Textbook: Ballard, Laboratory Manual.

Materia Medica 152— Applied pharmacognosy (for University Seniors).
2 hours lecture, 20 hours laboratory for eight weeks beginning March 24, 1930.
6}4 points. Professors Ballard and Hart.

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the principles of micros-
copy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average commercial laboratory. The
introductory work will consist of a consideration of the general methods employed in microanalysis
and the uses of the more common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. Each student is required to prepare
sections of the various types of vegetable materials, using these sections for the demonstration of
staining procedures and microchemical reactions. This will be followed by practical and indi-
vidual work in the qualitative determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalytical
methods are applicable. During this work, it is expected that the student will avail himself of the
library facihties of the College and freely use the economic drug and food collections of the laboratory
for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is to duplicate actual commercial laboratory
conditions and to train the worker to depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching pur-
poses will, so far as possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopical
methods.

References: Winton, Microscopy of Vegetable Foods; Youngken, Pharmacognosy.



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Materia Medica 154 — Botanical taxonomy (for University Seniors).
6 hours laboratory for eight weeks beginning March 24, 1930. iK points.
Professor Rusby.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by
a study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering plants, and of
their classification and determination by the use of descriptive works. The work consists of the
laboratory study of types of the principal families, especially those rich in medicinal and poisonous
species.

Textbook: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

References: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien.

Materia Medica 155-156 — Human physiology (for University Seniors).
Textbook and conferences i hour, 2 points. Miss Hopping.

This course consists of a series of discussions, based on assigned reading, occupying i hour
weekly throughout the term.
Textbook: Howell, Physiology.

Chemistry 1-2 — General physics (for University Freshmen and first-year
College Students). Lectures and recitations 2 hours, 4 points. Professor
A. Taub and instructors.

This course is so arranged as to emphasize those phases which have a direct bearing upon chem-
istry and pharmacy. After a consideration of the general properties of matter and the elements of
mechanics a number of lectures are devoted to the discussion of the kinetic molecular theorj' and to
wave motion. This is then followed by the consideration of chapters on sound and heat.

The lectures are abundantly illustrated with experiments, the College possessing a fine set of
physical apparatus.

Textbook: Stewart, College Physics.

Chemistry 3-4 — General inorganic chemistry (for University Freshmen
and first-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3^^ hours, 7 points.
Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, the beginning of consecutive instruction in chemistry covering three years, is given
to the first-year students of both the College and the University Classes. It opens with a careful
consideration of the fundamental principles of chemistry, special attention being given to the modern
theories concerning valence, chemical equilibrium, oxidation and reduction and atomic structure.

Exercises in writing and calculating chemical equations and work on problems in chemical
arithmetic are given in special quiz periods devoted exclusively to these important subjects.

On the side of descriptive chemistry, the non-metals and their compounds are discussed from
their cultural, technical and pharmaceutical viewpoints.

Textbooks: Deming, General Chemistry, second edition; U . S. Pharmacopceia.

Chemistry 5-6 — Analytical chemistry (first-year College Students).
Recitations }4 and laboratory 3 hours, 4 points. Professors Schaefer and Mac-
SATA and instructors.

The course in analytical chemistry consists of laboratory instruction and is attended by the class
in sections. Each student is provided with the necessary equipment, and is required to perform
all the operations involved in qualitative chemical analysis. The uses of apparatus, the actions
of reagents, and the proper manner of bringing about chemical reactions are illustrated and ex-
plained. On account of the fundamental importance to the true understanding of the subject
the simple laws governing chemical action in solution and the formation of precipitates, the na-
ture of solution, etc., are explained to the student. At first, and under the guidance of the teacher,
the characteristic reactions of the basic components are studied in solution, or in the solid at a high
temperature. The phenomena observed are interpreted and discussed, and the conclusions re-
corded. Later, the reactions are represented by equations. The value of grouping is utilized



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 35

and separations and identifications of group members are performed. Finally, all facts required
by direct observation are brought together in the systematic procedure for analysis of mLxtures.
In this recapitulation, individual effort is stimulated by independent work on unknown samples.
Textbook: Schaefer & Bliss, Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 7-8— Analytical chemistry (for University Freshmen). Recita-
tions J4 and Laboratory 3 hours, 4 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

The student will first be made familiar with laboratory processes by means of a course of experi-
ments in general chemistry, involving the isolation of certain elements, a study of their physical
and chemical properties, and of their principal compounds. Simple laws and phenomena will be
explained to the student in the course of this work. In this way, experience in manipulation,
and a true understanding of the subject will be obtained.

This preliminary course leads to a systematic course in qualitative analysis and during the first
year the reactions of the basic ions are studied. The student is taught the separation and identifica-
tion of these, and finally is required to analyze systematically solutions containing two or more
basic ions.

Chemistry 51-52 — General physics (for University Sophomores and second-
year College Students). Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professors
Schaefer and A. Taub.

This course is a continuation of Chemistry 1-2 (General Physics) and embraces the subjects of
magnetism, electricity and light. Special consideration is given to ionization, electrolysis, the
electron hypothesis, vacuum tubes, the spectroscope, spectrum analysis, double refraction and the
polariscope.

The lectures will be accompanied and made more interesting by many exhibitions and experi-
ments.

Textbook: Stewart, College Physics.

Chemistry 54— Practical physics (for University Sophomores). Laboratory
course 4 hours, 2 points. Professor A. Taub and instructors.

The course consists of sixteen half-day periods of four hours each, given during the second half
of the year.

This work consists of experiments in fundamental physical measurements followed by special
work in mechanics, heat, light, sound and electricity. The laboratory is equipped not only with
apparatus for routine exercises, but has the appliances necessary for work in colorimetry, spectros-
copy, spectrophotometry, refraction, calorimetry and electro-chemistry.

Chemistry 55-56 — Inorganic chemistry (for University Sophomores,
and second- year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3 hours, 6 points.
Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, a continuation of Chemistry 3-4 will be devoted to a consideration of the metallic
elements and their compounds. It will open with a discussion of ionization and throughout the
course, all of the more important principles of theoretical inorganic chemistry will be discussed.
In descriptive chemistry, the course will consider all of the more important metallic elements. These
will be discussed from the standpoint of modern industrial chemistry.

Textbook: Sadtler-Coblentz-Hostmann, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, sixth edition.

Chemistry 57-58 — Analytical chemistry (for University Sophomores).
Laboratory course 3 hours, 3 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

The course in qualitative analysis begun in the first year is continued through the first half of
the second year. The sequence of work is as follows: — (i) the study of the acidic-ions according
to an analytical scheme of separation; (2) a systematic method of preliminary testing of unknown
compounds; (3) the preparation for analysis of water-insoluble substances; and (4) the complete
qualitative analyses of unknown solutions or powders containing two or more compounds.

The second half of the year's work is devoted to a course in volumetric analysis. This begins with
the study of general principles and theoretical considerations, the theory of indicators, pH values



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

and the use of the analytical balance. It continues with the preparation of certain volumetric
solutions and their uses in quantitative analysis by (i) neutralization (2) precipitation, (3) oxida-
tion and reduction, and (4) iodimetry.

Chemistry 59-60 — Analytical chemistry (second-year College Students).
Laboratory course 3 hours, 3 points. Professors Schaefer and Macsata and
instructors.

The first half of the second-year course is devoted to completing the instruction in qualitative
analysis. The discussion of the simpler fundamental laws governing chemical and physical changes
in solution, begun in the first year, are followed to conclusion. The preliminary testing and pre-
paration of a sample for analysis, involving solution in solvents other than water, and the pro-
cedure for analysis of substances insoluble in water and acids, are studied and practiced. The
greater part of the time is devoted to the study of the acidic components.

The second half of the school year is devoted to the theory and practice of volumetric analysis.
The proper preparation of volumetric solutions is given consideration and all types of N. S. P.
volumetric assays are conducted. The theories of indicators are presented and considerable time
is devoted to the calculations involving a knowledge of volumetric analysis.

Textbooks: U. S. Pharmacopceia, Schaefer and Bliss, Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 101-102 — Theories of chemistry (for University Juniors). Lec-
tures and recitations i hour, 2 points. Professor Schaefer.

The object of this course is to bring together, to correlate and to elaborate somewhat the various
theories presented to the student in the regular chemistry and physics lectures. Consideration is
given to the kinetic theory, the gas laws, the laws governing change of state, the quantitative laws of
chemical combination, the atomic hypothesis, the laws of valence, the periodic system, radioac-
tivity, atomic disintegration, atomic structure, solubility, ionization, indicators, equilibrium,
electrochemistry and colloids.

Special importance is placed upon the practical application of modern theories of physical
chemistry to analytical processes and methods.

Textbook: Chapin, College Chemistry.

Chemistry 103-104 — Organic chemistry (for University Juniors and third-
year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3^-^ hours, 7 points. Professors
Arny and A. Taub and instructors.



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