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Theories of chemistry


I





Chm. 103-104


Organic chemistry


3





Chm. 106


Analytical chemistry (advanced


volu-






metric, pharmacopoeial testing


and






urine analysis)





i6t


MM 1 01-10 2


Materia medica


3





MM 103-104


Toxicology


I





MM 111-112


Microscopic pharmacognosy


K


iK


Phr. 101-102


Theoretical pharmacy


2





Phr. log-iio


Pharmaceutical jurisprudence


and






business pharmacy


3





Phr. Ill


Manufacturing pharmacy





14?


Phr. 113


Practical dispensing pharmacy





3ll


Coll. 101-102


Mathematics

Fourth Year


3





Chm. 151-152


Inorganic quantitative analysis


I


2911


Chm. 153-154


Food analysis and toxicology


I


29^


Chm. 155-156


Biological chemistry


I





Chm. 157-158


Chemical bibliography


I





MM 152


Applied pharmacognosy


2


2l1[


MM 154


Botanical taxonomy





61[


MM 155-156


Human physiology


I





Phr. 151-152


Advanced pharmacy


I





Phr. 153-154


Pharmaceutical assaying





711



X During 19 weeks.
§ During 12 weeks.
II During 10 weeks.
1 During 8 weeks.



4



6 J4



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

CHEMISTRY

Chemistry 1-2— General physics (for University freshmen and first-year
College Students). Lectures and recitations 2 hours, 4 points. Professor
A. Taub and instructors.

This course is so arranged as to emphasize those phases which have a direct bearing upon chem-
istry and pharmacy. After a consideration of the general properties of matter and the elements of
mechanics a number of lectures are devoted to the discussion of the kinetic molecular theory and to
wave motion. This is then followed by the consideration of chapters on sound and heat.

The lectures are abundantly illustrated with experiments, the College possessing a fine set of
physical apparatus.

Textbook: Stewart, College Physics.

Cheinistry 3-4 — General inorganic chemistry (for University freshmen
and first-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3>^ hours, 7 points.
Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, the beginning of consecutive instruction in chemistry covering three years, is given
to the first- year students of both the College and the University Classes. It opens with a careful
consideration of the fundamental principles of chemistry, special attention being given to the modern
theories concerning valence, chemical equilibrium, oxidation and reduction and atomic structure.

Exercises in writing and calculating chemical equations and work on problems in chemcal
arithmetic are given in special quiz periods devoted exclusively to these important subjects.

On the side of descriptive chemistry, the non-metals and their compounds are discussed from
their cultural, technical, and pharmaceutical viewpoints.

Textbooks: Deming, General Chemistry, second edition; U . S. Pharmacopceia.

Chemistry 5-6 — Analytical chemistry (first-year College Students).
Recitations }{ and laboratory 3 hours, 4 points. Professors Macsata, Schaefer
and instructors.

The course in analytical chemistry consists of laboratory instruction and is attended by the class
in sections. Each student is provided with the necessary equipment, and is required to perform
all the operations involved in qualitative chemical analysis. The uses of apparatus, the actions
of reagents, and the proper manner of bringing about chemical reactions are illustrated and ex-
plained. On account of the fundamental importance to the true understanding of the subject
the simple laws governing chemical action in solution and the formation of precipitates, the na-
ture of solution, etc., are explained to the student. At first, and under the guidance of the teacher,
the characteristic reactions of the basic components are studied in solution, or in the solid at a high
temperature. The phenomena observed are interpreted and discussed, and the conclusions re-
corded. Later, the reactions are represented by equations. The value of grouping is utilized
and separations and identifications of group members are performed. Finally, all facts required
by direct observation are brought together in the systematic procedure for analysis of mixtures.
In this recapitulation, individual effort is stimulated by independent work on unknown samples.

Textbook: Schaefer & Bliss, Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 7-8 — Analytical chemistry (for University freshmen). Recita-
tions X hour and laboratory 3 hours, 4 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

The student will first be made familiar with laboratory processes by means of a course of experi-
ments in general chemistry, involving the isolation of certain elements, a study of their physical
and chemical properties, and of their principal compounds. Simple laws and phenomena will be

31



32 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

explained to the student in the course of this work. In this way, experience in manipulation
and a true understanding of the subject will be obtained.

This preliminary course leads to a systematic course in qualitative analysis and during the first
year the reactions of the basic ions are studied. The student is taught the separation and identifica-
tion of these, and finally is required to analyze systematically solutions containing two or more
basic ions.

Textbook: Scott, Elements of Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 51-52 — General physics (for University sophomores and second-
year College Students). Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professors
ScHAEFER and A. Taub.

This course is a continuation of Chemistry 1-2 (general physics) and embraces the subjects of
magnetism, electricity, and light. Special consideration is given to ionization, electrolysis, the
electron hypothesis, vacuum tubes, the spectroscope, spectrum analysis, double refraction, and the
polariscope.

The lectures will be accompanied and made more interesting by many exhibitions and experi-
ments.

Textbook: Stewart, College Physics.

Chemistry 54 — Practical physics (for University sophomores). Laboratory
course 4 hours, 2 points. Professor A. Taub and instructors.

The course consists of sixteen half-day periods of four hours each, given during the second half
of the year.

This work consists of experiments in fundamental physical measurements followed by special
work in mechanics, heat, light, sound and electricity. The laboratory is equipped not only with
apparatus for routine exercises, but has the appliances necessary for work in colorimetry, spectros-
copy, spectrophotometry, refraction, calorimetry, and electrochemistry.

Chemtistry 55-56 — Inorganic chemistry (for University sophomores,
and second-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3 hours, 6 points.
Professors Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, a continuation of Chemistry 3-4 will be devoted to a consideration of the metallic
elements and their compounds. It will open with a discussion of ionization and throughout the
course, all of the more important principles of theoretical inorganic chemistry will be discussed.
In descriptive chemistry, the course will consider all of the more important metallic elements. These
will be discussed from the standpoint of modern industrial chemistry.

Textbook: Sadtler-Coblentz-Hostmann, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, sixth edition.

Chemistry 57-58 — Analytical chemistry (for University sophomores).
Laboratory course 3 hours, 3 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

The course in qualitative analysis begun in the first year is continued through the first half of
the second year. The sequence of work is as follows: — (i) the study of the acidic-ions according
to an analytical scheme of separation; (2) a systematic method of preliminary testing of unknown
compounds; (3) the preparation for analysis of water-insoluble substances; and (4) the complete
qualitative analyses of unknown solutions or powders containing two or more compounds.

The second half of the year's work is devoted to a course in volumetric analysis. This begins with
the study of general principles and theoretical considerations, the theory of indicators, pH values
and the use of the analytical balance. It continues with the preparation of certain volumetric
solutions and their uses in quantitative analysis by (i) neutralization (2) precipitation, (3) oxida-
tion and reduction, and (4) iodometry.

Textbooks: Scott, Elements of Qualitative Chemical Analysis; U. S. Pharmacopoeia.

Chemistry 59-60 — Analytical chemistry (second-year College Students).
Laboratory course 3 hours, 3 points. Professors Schaefer and Macsata and
instructors.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 33

The first half of the second-year course is devoted to completing the instruction in qualitative
analysis. The discussion of the simpler fundamental laws governing chemical and physical changes
in solution, begun in the first year, are followed to conclusion. The preliminary testing and prep-
aration of a sample for analysis, involving solution in solvents other than water, and the pro-
cedure for analysis of substances insoluble in water and acids, are studied and practiced. The
greater part of the time is devoted to the study of the acidic components.

The second half of the school year is devoted to the theory and practice of volumetric analysis.
The proper preparation of volumetric solutions is given consideration and all types of U. S. P.
volumetric assays are conducted. The theories of indicators are presented and considerable time
is devoted to the calculations involving a knowledge of volumetric analysis.

Textbooks: Schaefer and Bliss, Qualitative Chemical Analysis; U . S. Pharmacopeia,

Chemistry 101-102 — Theories of chemistry (for University juniors). Lec-
tures and recitations i hour, 2 points. Professor Schaefer.

The object of this course is to bring together, to correlate and to elaborate somewhat the various
theories presented to the student in the regular chemistry and physics lectures. Consideration is
given to the kinetic theory, the gas laws, the laws governing change of state, the quantitative laws of
chemical combination, the atomic hypothesis, the laws of valence, the periodic system, radioac-
tivity, atomic disintegration, atomic structure, solubility, ionization, indicators, equilibrium,
electrochemistry and colloids.

Special importance is placed upon the practical application of modern theories of physical
chemistry to analytical processes and methods.

Textbook: Chapin, College Chemistry.

Chemistry 103-104 — Organic chemistry (for University juniors and third-
year College Students). Lectures and recitations 3 hours, 6 points. Professors
Arny and A. Taub and instructors.

This course, a continuation of Chemistry 3-4 and 55-36, will be devoted to a comprehensive
study of the carbon compounds, special care being taken to keep the course abreast the new ap-
plications of organic chemistry in pharmacy and medicine. The preparation of the more common
organic chemicals is given careful consideration and advances under modern methods of research
are presented to the class as they are reported.

All the official and the more important unofficial organic pharmaceutical chemicals and medicinal
products, notably the newer synthetic remedies, are taken up and classified according to their
position in the various organic groups. By this method of classification the subject of organic
pharmaceutical chemistry is presented in the same sequence as that of general organic chemistry.

Textbook: Sadtler-Coblentz-Hostmann, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, sixth edition; U. S. Phar-
macopceia.

Chemistry 107-108 — Newer remedies (third-year College Students).
Lecture and recitations 2 hours, 4 points. Professor Schaefer and instructors.

The aim of this course is to make the students familiar with the many preparations generally
classified as "synthetics" which are prescribed by physicians but which are not official. Most of
these preparations are rather recent additions to our materia medica and many of them are covered
by patents. The products are not selected because of their medicinal merit but rather because of
the frequency with which they are prescribed. Not only will the chemistry of these preparations
be considered, but whenever possible, original packages will be shown to the students and the names
of their manufacturers given.

Textbooks: New and Non-official Remedies.

Chemistry 109— Analytical chemistry (third-year College Students).
Laboratory 6 hours for ^ year, 3 points. Professors Schaefer, Macsata and
instructors.

This course will be given in six-hour periods to one section during the first half year and to the
other section during the second half. This will enable the student to perform operations which
require more time than is available in the usual three-hour period. The course will be devoted



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

entirely to pharmaceutical testing and assaying. Some of the more important operations to be
carried out are: — The preparation and standardization of volumetric solutions, testing the purity
and strength of official chemicals and galenicals, selected gravimetric determinations, iodine values,
saponification values, examination of oils, identification of alkaloids. The assay of crude drugs
will be given special attention by dividing the section into still smaller groups for this work thu3
insuring better and more careful supervision. Practice wiU of course be given in the use of the
analytical balance.

Textbooks: United Stales Pharmacopceia and National Formulary.

Chemistry 110 — Same as Chemistry log, but given during the second half of
year.

Chemistry 106 — Analytical chemistry and urine analysis (for Uni-
versity juniors). Laboratory, i6 hours for 19 weeks, beginning December 15, 1930,
10 points. Professor Kassner and instructors.

During the first part of the course, the student is supplied with pure and adulterated samples of
official organic chemicals and is required to test them for identity and purity to determine whether
they conform to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia, each sample studied representing a typical
class of organic compound. This work also involves the determination of congealing, boiling and
melting points, fractionations, alcoholometric estimations and other determinations of like character.

The second section of the course is devoted to volumetric analysis, the solutions used being
prepared and standardized by the student. The substances assayed include antiseptics, disin-
fectants, ointments, volatile oils, etc.

The third part of the year's work deals with the assaying of vegetable drugs, including the
determination of alkaloids in crude drugs and their pharmaceutical products, crude fiber, soluble
extractive, etc.

The above course is concluded with certain miscellaneous assays. The final period is devoted to
the analysis of urine.

Textbooks: U . S. Pharmacopmia; Weston, Carbon Compounds.

Chemistry 151-152 — Inorganic quantitative analysis (for University
seniors). Lectures i hour a week for 32 weeks, laboratory, 29 hours a week for
8 weeks, beginning September 22, 1930, 10 points. Professor Kassner and in-
structors.

The aim of this course is to train the student to carry out with precision many of the more diflicult
analyses of chemical and pharmaceutical products.

The laboratory work of the course consists, in the main, of a series of selected gravimetric deter-
minations covering a wide field of substances, chosen to illustrate typical methods of procedure.
This work is supplemented by operations involving the use of the viscosimeter, bomb calorimeter,
etc.

In the lecture course, methods of quantitative analysis, gravimetric, volumetric, colorimetric,
etc., are discussed at length and compared.

Reference books: Clowes and Coleman, Quantitative Analysis; Scott, Standard Methods of
Chemical Analysis.

Chemistry 153-154 — Food analysis and toxicology (for University sen-
iors). Lectures i hour a week for 32 weeks, laboratory 29 hours a week for 8
weeks, beginning November 17, 1930, 10 points. Professors Arny and Kassner
and instructor.

In order to give every advantage to the instruction in this department during the fourth year,
the College has provided very complete apparatus, which supplies the very best facilities that mod-
ern science affords.

The work in this department will cover the following courses:

1. Analysis of various foodstuffs, including milk, butter, flavoring extracts, etc.

2. Chemical and sanitairy examination of water.

3. Isolation and detection of organic and inorganic poisons.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 35

In addition to the laboratory work just outlined there will be a lecture course describing the
various chemical and physical methods of food examination.

Textbooks: Leach, Food Analysis; Mason, Examination oj Water.

Reference Books: Allen, Commercial Analysis; Autenrieth- Warren, Detection of Poisons.

Chemistry 155-156 — Biological chemistry (for University seniors). Lec-
tures I hour, 2 points. Dr. Karshan.

The instruction in inorganic and organic analysis relates to the examination of substances dis-
connected from the living body, but the competent analyst must be prepared to consider and
act upon a knowledge of the natural changes which substances undergo when absorbed into the
living body, as well as the natural products there originating.

Chemistry 157-158 — Chemical and general bibliography (for Univer-
sity seniors). Lectures and conferences i hour, 2 points. Professors Arny and
Kassner.

This course will consist of lectures on the source books of chemistry, pharmacy, botany and
cognate sciences and on the periodical literature on the same subjects. At the conferences, special
themes will be assigned to each student for research during spare hours.

MATERIA MEDICA

Materia Medica 1-2 — Botany (for University freshmen and first-year College
Students). Lectures and recitations 2 hours, 4 points. Professor Hart and
instructors.

The object of this course is to prepare the student for an understanding of that part of materia
medica which relates to vegetable drugs. In the limited time allotted to this study, it is impossible
to pursue it in all its departments, and attention is concentrated upon such instruction as will
fit the student for professional work in pharmacy. The instruction includes a brief consideration
of plant life in general and the evolution of the higher plants from those of a simpler nature. The
major portion of the time available is devoted to the morphology of the higher plants from which
nearly all of our vegetable drugs are derived, the terms used in official descriptions, systems of
classification, and botanical nomenclature.

The lectures are illustrated by large colored charts, and in some cases, with cards in the hands
of the students.

For the use of the instructor in the quiz room, the Alumni Association has provided an elabo-
rate series of papier-mache models arranged to illustrate structure and dissection.

Textbook: Rusby, Mamial of Botany.

Materia Medica 3-4 — Botany laboratory (first-year College Students).
Lectures and recitations i hour, laboratory 4 hours, 6 points. Professors Bal-
lard, Hart and Taub and instructors.

Morphology. — Pharmacognosy, while itself not a science, may be regarded as the art of ap-
plying scientific knowledge to the examination of drugs. The theoretical and practical training
of the lecture and recitation room is designed to fit the student for such botanical observations
as can ordinarily be made with the naked eye.

To enable him to extend these observations by the use of the simple or dissecting and the com-
pound microscope, in preparation for the study of pharmacognosy in the following year, a course
of laboratory instruction is provided. This portion of the work is under the direction of Pro-
fessor Hart, and consists in thoroughly training the students in the use of the simple microscope,
and in teaching the structure of all parts of the plant which can be studied \vith that instrument.
In this laboratory instruction a developmental sequence of plant life is followed, beginning with
the single-celled forms and terminating with a detailed study of the various organs of the seed-
bearing plants.

The material for these studies is collected during the summer season, and carefully selected
with a view to best illustrating the points brought out in the lecture room.



36 COLUMBIA U N I VERS IT Y

Histologj'. — As ability to use a microscope properly is the foundation of success in all branches
of microscopy, first attention is given to a consideration of the parts of the instrument. The uses
of the various types of objectives, oculars, illuminating apparatus and mechanical accessories
are explained and demonstrated. The details of sectioning, embedding, staining and mounting
specimens are illustrated by demonstrations, and at least part of the work is performed by the
student.

The course under the direction of Professor Ballard includes the studj' of plant tissues and the
various tjT^es of cell contents. A physiological grouping of the tissues is followed by detailed study
of the forms, modifications, locations, functions and diSerences in chemical constitution of the
cellular elements concerned in protection, support, absorption, transportation, sjiithesis and stor-
age. The organic and inorganic cell contents are classified; details of their sj-nthesis are considered
and the more commonly used microchemical tests are demonstrated. This work is followed by a
detailed study of the arrangement of cells and disposition of cell contents in the various parts and
organs of the plant. Each student prepares a set of specimens for use in the course and is required
to follow the lecture explanations by personal observation and drawings illustrating the topics
considered at each session.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetahle Histology, 2nd Edit.; Ballard and Hart, Labaraiory
Manual.

Materia Medica 5-6— Posology (first-year College Students). Lectures
and recitations i hour, 2 points. Professor H. Taub.

The average dosage of U. S. P. and N. F. drugs is considered with the object of teaching the
student to recognize an overdose in actual prescription practice. The course covers the recognition
of safe and dangerous prescriptions, approximate equivalents and conversion methods from one
system into the other, and dosage of non-official but commonly prescribed synthetic remedies.

Materia Medica 7-8 — Posology (for Universit5- freshmen). Lectures and
recitations }4 hour, i point. Professor H. Taub.

The relationship in dosage of chemically similar substances and botanically related drugs is
considered during the first portion of the course; the material of the College Course is given in
brief in the latter half.

Materia Medica 9-10 — Plant morphology and histology (for L'niversit>'

freshmen). Lectures i hour, laboratory- 47^ hours, 6}4 points. Professors
Ballard, Hart, Taub and instructors.

Morphology. — The laboratory course in morphology is designed to supplement the lectures in
pharmaceutical botany {Materia Medica 1-2). It affords practical training in simple plant dis-
section, both with and without the dissecting microscope, thereby illustrating the topics considered
in the above lecture course and fitting students for the advanced studies of pharmacognosj' and
taxonomy.

Histologj'. — This section of the course includes a systematic review of one or more representative
orders of the Thallophyta, Bri'ophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophj-ta. The chief object is
the tracing of the origin and development of the various tissues and organs occurring in the higher
plants. This is followed by a detailed study of the various cellular elements, considered both as
individual tissues and as integral parts of plant organs.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology, 2nd Edit.; Ballard and Hart, Laboratory
Manual; Rusby, Manual of Botany; Curtis, Nature and Development of Plants.

Materia Medica 53-54 — Pharmacognosy, macroscopic and microscopic
(second-year College Students). Laborator>^ 3 hours, 3 points. Professors
Ballard, Taub and instructors.

Macroscopic. — This part of the course comprises laboratory instruction in the classification,
identification and description of the vegetable drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopceia and National
Formulary. The drugs and medicinal products of vegetable origin are grouped according to the
parts of the plant from which they are derived and further classified on the basis of medicinal
constituents. Each drug receives separate attention m the laboratory and the following details



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