College of Pharmacy of the City of New York.

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are considered — titles under which the drug is known; botanical, geographical and commercial



COLLEGE F P HARM ACY 37

sources; official description, definition and prevailing standards; liability to adulteration or
substitution; preparation for market and proper means of preservation or storage.

Each student receives a typical specimen of the drug under consideration and must retain the
same for future reference. At the completion of the course each student possesses a collection of
the official crude drugs as his personal property. Proficiency in the identification of the drugs
studied is determined by practical examinations at short intervals during the term. Botany
(courses Materia Medica 1-2, 3-4 or equivalent) are prerequisite to a proper understanding of the
work in this course.

Textbooks: Ballard, Laboratory Manual; Mansfield, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy.

Microscopic. — The preliminary work of this part of the course will consist of a brief review of
the cellular elements and cell contents in the parts of plants used as drugs or foods. In this manner
the work in vegetable histology of the first year (course Materia Medica 3-4) is coordinated to the
more detailed study of microscopical pharmacognosy. Powders prepared from drugs representing
different parts of the plant will be used as material for study. By utilization of the sections prepared
in the first year it will be possible, in many instances, for the student to compare the section with
the powder and thus observe the disposition of the cellular elements in situ and the changes in
appearance incidental to powdering. The number of specimens studied is necessarily limited by the
amount of time which can be given to the work but the subject matter of the course is so arranged
that representative rather than extraordinary types are considered. The student is expected to
construct and use analytical keys in the identification of the powdered materials examined. Progress
in course is determined by a series of practical examinations at short intervals throughout the year
and the student must record his observations by drawings made from his specimens.

Textbooks: Ballard, Elements of Vegetable Histology, 2nd Edit.; Ballard and Hart, Laboratory
Manual.

Materia Medica 55-56 — Macroscopic pharmacognosy (for University
sophomores). Laboratory 2 hours, 2 points. Professors Ballard and Taub.

This course includes all of the instruction offered in macroscopic pharmacognosy, Materia Medica
53-54, but in addition many non-official articles of commercial and technical importance are studied.
Experience in manufacturing fields has shown that these non-official drugs and drug materials are in
frequent use and familiarity with them is especially important in view of their non-inclusion in
the PharmacopcEia and National Formulary.

Textbooks: Ballard, Laboratory Manual; Mansfield, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy;
Youngken, Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 57-58 — Human physiology and hygiene (for University
sophomores and second-year College Students). Lectures and recitations 2
hours each, 4 points. Professor Rusby aijd instructors.

In addition to the skill in pharmacognosy required for the selection of drugs, the educated
pharmacist is required to possess some general information concerning the properties and uses of
the materials which he is engaged in handling and dispensing; that is, of the general classification
of medicines. As such classification depends directly upon their physiological properties, a limited
and specialized course of instruction in human physiology is provided.

The method consists in so arranging the order of subjects that the student shall be led from the
very first lesson to see the manner in which disordered bodily functions may be restored to a healthy
condition by the action of medicines, and leads to the immediate classification of the more impor-
tant remedies, in connection with the study of the organs or systems to the functions of which they
apply. While this method gives an accurate knowledge of the facts involved, it permits of the
exclusion of a large portion of the subject of physiology, and reduces to a minimum the amount
of time expended in acquiring such a knowledge of this department of materia medica as is properly
required of the practicing pharmacist.

Textbook: Bachman and Bliss, Essentials of Physiology.

Materia Medica 59-60 — Microbiology (second-year College Students).
Lectures and recitations I hour, laboratory and demonstrations I hour, 3 points.
Professor Hart and instructors.

This subject constitutes an introduction to the nature, behavior and effects of microorganisms,
especially of bacteria. Without entering upon the subject of practical laboratory bacteriology, as



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

is done in the University Course, it discusses the life history of bacteria, and the part that they
play in fermentation and decomposition, as well as in disease, and indicates the general nature of
the means employed in combating them, and treats of biological products. The subject of steriliza-
tion, as employed in the pharmacy, and the principles of antisepsis and immunization are studied.
The study of yeasts, molds and blood smears is included in this course.

Materia Medica 61-62 — Bacteriology (for University sophomores). Lec-
tures I hour, laboratory 2 hours, 4 points. Professor Hart and instructors.

The bacteriological laboratory in our new building has been fully equipped, and practical
work in this important field is taken up. The general principles of the science are taught, and the
students cultivate, stain, and study the more important microorganisms. Laboratory methods
in the bacterial examination of water, air, milk, ice, sputum and excreta are given, and methods of
disinfection and sterilization are practically demonstrated.

Textbook: Park and Williams, Pathogenic Microorganisms.

Materia Medica 101-102 — Materia medica (for University juniors and
third-year College Students). Lectures and recitations, 3 hours, 6 points. Pro-
fessors RusBY, Taub and instructors.

This course includes instruction in both the inorganic and organic divisions of drugs. In con-
nection with the extension of oiu- course to three years, the instruction in materia medica has been
completely reorganized and a new textbook has been written for the students. In the new arrange-
ment, the drugs have been classif ed in accordance with their medicinal uses. Discussion of the
individual drugs covers the official titles, abbreviations, definitions and standards, origin, prepzira-
tion, preservation, variations in quality and causes of such variation, constituents, properties and
uses, preparations and doses. All instruction in description, structure and identification, and the
detection of adulterants and impurities is referred to the extensive course in pharmacognosy.

Textbook: Rusby, Bliss and Ballard, Properties and Uses of Drugs.

Materia Medica 103-104 — Toxicology (third-year College and University
Classes). Lectures and recitations, i hour, 2 points. Professors Rusby and
Taub and instructors.

The classification of poisons is based upon the physiological action of medicines, taught in the
preceding year, and is synoptically presented at the beginning of the course in materia medica.
The toxicology of the individual drugs is then taken up in detail in connection %vith their physio-
logical action and medicinal uses. Experience has shown that by this method the modes of occur-
rence of poisoning accidents, the poisonous doses, the action of poisons and their rational treat-
ment, are all made more intelligible to the student, and are better impressed upon his memory,
than by treating the subject as entirely disconnected from that of materia medica.

Textbook: Rusby, Bliss and Ballard, Properties and Uses of Drugs.

Materia Medica 109-110— Pharmacal sundries (third-year College Stu-
dents). Lectures i hour, 2 points. Professor Ballard.

This course includes a systematic presentation of the facts of interest to the retail pharmacist
in the use and sale of the ordinary sick-room sundries. The course is thus linked with materia medica
on the one hand and commercial pharmacy on the other. Among the topics considered are: bandag-
ing and dressing materials, rubber sundries, glass and metal appliances, ligatures and first-aid
apparatus.

Materia Medica 111-112 — Microscopic pharmacognosy (for University
juniors). Lectures }4 hour, laboratory i}4 hours, 2K points. Professors
Ballard, Taub and instructors.

This course consists in a detailed study of the histological structure of the several plant organs,
followed by a consideration of the characters and adulterants of the commonly used powdered drugs.
It includes the preparation of specimens both in sectioned and powdered forms and the application
of stains and microchemical tests to the materials so prepared.

Textbook: Ballard, Laboratory Manual.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 39

Materia Medica 152 — Applied pharmacognosy (for University seniors).
2 hours lecture, 21 hours laboratory for eight weeks beginning March 23, 1931,
6}4 points. Professors Ballard and Taub.

The object of this course is instruction in the methods of applying the principles of micros-
copy to practical problems apt to be encountered in the average commercial laboratory. The
introductory work will consist of a consideration of the general methods employed in microanalysis
and the uses of the more common accessories, including polarizing apparatus, measuring apparatus,
counting chambers, dark field and vertical illumination. E^ch student is required to prepare
sections of the various types of vegetable materials, using these sections for the demonstration of
staining procedures and microchemical reactions. This will be followed by practical and indi-
vidual work in the qualitative determination of typical drugs and mixtures to which microanalytical
methods are applicable. During this work, it is expected that the student will avail himself of the
library facilities of the College and freely use the economic drug and food collections of the laboratory
for reference and comparison purposes. The aim is to duplicate actual commercial laboratory
conditions and to train the worker to depend upon himself. The materials used for teaching pur-
poses will, so far as possible, be commercial products which have been analyzed by microscopical
methods.

References: Youngken, Pharmacognosy.

Materia Medica 154 — Botanical taxonomy (for University seniors).
6 hours laboratory for eight weeks beginning March 23, 1931. lyi points. Pro-
fessor RUSBY.

A good working knowledge of the terms used in descriptive botany, such as can be gained by
a study of Rusby, Manual of Botany, will be found a sufficient preparation for this course.

The object of this course is to present a general idea of the system of flowering plants, and of
their classification and determination by the use of descriptive works. The work consists of the
laboratory study of types of the principal families, especially those rich in medicinal and poisonous
species.

Textbook: Rusby, Manual of Botany.

References: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum; Engler and Prantl, PJlanzenfamilien.

Materia Medica 155-156 — Human physiology (for University seniors).
Textbook and conferences i hour, 2 points. Dr. Hopping.

This course consists of a series of discussions, based on assigned reading, occupying i hour
weekly throughout the term.
Textbook: Howell, Physiology.

PHARMACY

Pharmacy 1-2 — Theory of pharmacy including metrology and opera-
tive pharmacy (first-year College and University Classes). Lectures 2 hours,
recitation i hour. Professors Wimmer, Brown, Carter and instructors. 6
points.

The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamentals of pharmaceutical
science. It comprises the study of elementary pharmaceutical operations, such as heating, evap-
oration, sublimation, distillation, solution, crystallization, precipitation, filtration, etc. It also
includes the study of the general principles involved in the manufacture of the various classes of
pharmaceutical compounds, such as the fluid extracts, tinctures, syrups, ehxirs, etc.

A series of lectures is devoted to a brief study of the historical development of pharmacy,
beginning with the Egyptian age and tracing it through the Greek, Roman, Arabic, and European
periods up to the present time. Special stress is laid upon the development of pharmacy in the
United States, upon its position in the economic life of the nation; its organization; the accom-
plishments, aims and purposes of the various pharmaceutical associations; the pharmaceutical
code of ethics.



40 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

The lectures on metrology comprise the study of the various systems of weights and measures
and of their relationships to each other; specific gravity and its uses in pharmacy; thermometric
scales, etc.

Textbooks: U. S. PharmacopCEia X; Arny, Principles of Pharmacy; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical
ArilhtJielic.

Pharmacy 3-4 — Manufacturing pharmacy laboratory (first-year College
and University Classes). Laboratory course 3 hours, recitation i hour. Pro-
fessors Brown, Carter, Dorfman and instructors. 5 points.

The work of this course affords students the opportunity to apply practically their theoretical
knowledge of the processes of calcination, distillation, sublimation, crystalhzation, purification
and granulation of salts, and the determinations of specific gravity, solubility of salts and alcoholic
content of liquids. It also includes the manufacture of tinctures, fluid extracts, and extracts by
percolation, and the preparation of various classes of galenicals and the more simple types of
chemical preparations.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes and U. S.
Pharmacopoeia.

Pharmacy 5-6 — Dispensing pharmacy laboratory (freshman University
Class). Laboratory course 2 hours, recitation }4 hour. Professor Carter and
instructors. 3 points.

The work of this course is similar in scope, covering laboratory work and instruction, as outlined
under Pharmacy 55-56.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes; U. S. Pharma-
copoeia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 51-52 — Theoretical pharmacy including pharmaceutical
arithmetic (second year College and University Classes). Lecture i hour,
recitation K hour. Professors Wimmer, Brown and instructors. 3 points.

This course is devoted to the study of pharmaceutical arithmetic in its various aspects. It
comprises the study of proportions, percentage, alligation, reducing and enlarging formulae etc.,
as used in both manufacturing and dispensing pharmacy.

During the second semester the study of the oflficial preparations is begun and carried along
through the fluid extracts, extracts, tinctures and other preparations made directly from vegetable
drugs.

Textbooks: Sturmer, Pharmaceutical Arithemtic; U. S. Pharmacopoeia; National Formulary.

Pharmacy 53-54 — Pharmaceutical Latin (second-year College and
University Classes). Lecture i hour, recitation K hour. Professor Dorfman
and instructors. 3 points.

This course is devoted to the study of pharmaceutical Latin. The work is divided as follows:
(A) Study of the principles of etymology and syntax; (B) systematic study of Latin vocabulary
including official Latin titles, botanical nomenclature and abbreviations with special reference to
the formation of words and their relative importance to pharmacy; and (C) practice in prescription
writing, necessary to an intelligent understanding of Latin used in prescriptions.

Textbooks: Sturmer, Pharmaceutical Latin; U. S. Phannacopceia; National Formulary.

Pharmacy 55-56 — Dispensing pharmacy laboratory (second-year College
Class). Laboratory course 3 hours, recitation i hour. Professors Brown,
Dorfman and instructors. 5 points.

The first semester embraces general methods of compounding pills, troches, bacilli, emulsions,
ointments and suppositories. It includes theoretical instruction and training in practical work
emphasizing the habits of accuracy and neatness.

The second semester deals more especially with prescriptions and includes the compounding
and dispensing of the various types requiring technical knowledge and skill. Consideration is



COLLEGE F P HARM ACY 41

given to tablet triturates, mucilages, mixtures, and filling of capsules, cachets, collapsible tubes,
etc. General instruction is given in the reading and interpretation of prescriptions, the recognition
of the various constituents of their ingredients together with the proper methods and manner of
dispensing them.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes; Scoville, The Art
of Compounding; U. S. Pharmacopxia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 57-58 — Dispensing pharmacy laboratory (sophomore Uni-
versity Class). Laboratory course 3 hours, recitation i hour. Professor Carter
and instructors. 5 points.

This course is a continuation of the work in the dispensing laboratory of the first year involving
thorough laboratory work and instruction in the preparation and dispensing of mixtures, adjusted
solutions, pastilles, lamels, compressed tablets, powders, crayons, medicated gauzes, cottons,
etc. During the second semester the laboratory practice deals particularly with the various phases
of prescription dispensing, such as prescription writing and checking, labeling, wrapping, pricing
and delivery, etc.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Dispensing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes; Scoville, The Art
of Compounding; U . S. Pharmacoposia and National Formulary.

Pharmacy 59 — Manufacturing pharmacy laboratory (sophomore
University Class). Laboratory course 2H hours, recitation }4 hour, 16 weeks
beginning September 24, 1930. Professor Carter and instructors. 2}^ points.

This course deals with the manufacture of the more important pharmaceutical preparations of
inorganic and organic nature thus giving laboratory practice and technique preliminary to the
work of the manufacturing laboratory in the third year.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Laboratory Notes; U. S. Phar-
macopceia.

Pharmacy 61-62 — Commercial pharmacy (second-year College and
University Classes). Lecture i hour, recitations 2 hours. Professor Lascoff.
6 points.

This course in commercial pharmacy is designed to give the student a practical knowledge of the
basic principles that underlie the successful management of a business. Owing to a lack of knowl-
edge of these principles, many pharmacists have failed to achieve the degree of success to which
their professional knowledge and training entitle them.

The course consists of all the activities incidental to the opening and operation of a retail drug
store, including the choice of location, the elements of business administration and store manage-
ment, insurance, problems of retail merchandising, including the value of discounts, banking,
principles of advertising and salesmanship, business correspondence as well as the elements of
systematic bookkeeping.

The accounting records are the basic source of data for business management. Accordingly,
the course in commercial pharmacy will partially be devoted to the principles underlying the
making and interpretation of these records.

Pharmacy 101-102 — Theoretical pharmacy (third-year College Class).
Lectures 2 hours, recitation i hour. Professor Wimmer and instructors. 6
points.

During the first semester, the study of the U. S. Pharmacopceia and National Formulary galenical
preparations is continued and completed. Their methods of preparation are individually studied
and the reasons for each step taken in their preparation are given. The second semester is devoted
to the study of non-official important galenical, cosmetic and toilet preparations, as well as to the
study of the pharmacy of individual substances used in prescriptions.

Textbooks: U. S. Pharmacopeia; National Formulary V; American Pharmaceutical Association
Recipe Book.



42 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Pharmacy 103-104 — Theoretical dispensing pharmacy (third-year College
Class). Lectures i hour, recitation i hour. Professor Wimmer and instructors.
4 points.

Thia course is devoted in the main to the study of the problems encountered by the pharmacist
in his prescription work. Prescriptions of all kinds, especially such as present some difficulties, are
studied with the aid of lantern slides. The numerous incompatibilities of present-day prescription
work are discussed, as well as ways of avoiding or overcoming them. The subject of homeopathy
receives the attention it deserves.

Textbooks: Scoville, The Art of Compounding; Ruddiman, Incompatibilities.

Pharmacy 105 — Manufacturing pharmacy laboratory (third-year College
Class). Laboratory course, i6 weeks (two sections alternating). 6 hours.
Professors Brown, Dorfman and instructors. 3 points.

The work of this course is a continuation of the first year. Many inorganic and organic phar-
maceutical preparations and salts are manufactured. In addition, galenicals, toilet preparations
and hospital formulae are compounded. Especial attention is given systematic training in the
identification of many chemicals and galenicals official in the United States Pharmacopoeia and
National Formulary.

Textbooks: U. S. Pharmacopaia; National Formulary; National Dispensatory; The Phar-
maceutical Recipe Book; Diekman and Wimmer, Pharmacy Notes.

Pharmacy 107-108 — Dispensing pharmacy laboratory (third-year College
Class). Laboratory course, 4 hours. Professors Brown, Dorfman and instruc-
tors. 4 points.

The work in the dispensing pharmacy laboratory deals particularly with the various phases
of prescription dispensing, such as checking, labeling, pricing and delivery, etc. The all-important
subject of chemical, pharmaceutical and therapeutical incompatibilities is thoroughly studied.
The continual introduction of new remedies renders the subject of prescription incompatibilities a
never-ending study, and it is the aim of this course to qualify its graduates to keep pace with
discovery.

Textbooks: Ruddiman, Incompatibles in Prescriptions; Diekman and Wimmer, Pharmacy
Notes.

Pharmacy 109-110 — Pharmaceutical jurisprudence and business
pharmacy (third-year College and University Classes). Lectures 2 hours,
recitation i hour. Professor Lascoff, Mr. Neustaedter and visiting lecturers
and instructors. 6 points.

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the fundamentals underlying all law
and also with the general provisions of Federal and state laws governing the practice of pharmacy.
The various ordinances and regulations having local application will also be studied. Special
attention is given to prohibition and anti-narcotic laws and regulations.

Lectures by practical business men will be a feature of the course. This series of lectures will
give the student the principles of merchandizing from a business man's viewpoint rather than from
that of the pedagogue. These lectures, as well as those of the regular course, are aimed to give
the student a better understanding of contemporary business problems.

Pharmacy 111 — Practical pharmacy — manufacturing pharmacy lab-
oratory (third-year University Class). Laboratory 16 hours per week for 12
weeks beginning September 22, 1930. Professor Carter and instructors. 5
points.

This course includes the manufacture of a number of the more difficult Pharmacopoeial and Na-
tional Formulary preparations, as well as of inorganic and organic medicinal remedies. The work
is intended to qualify students for positions in pharmaceutical manufacturing establishments.

Textbook: Wimmer, Manufacturing Pharmacy Notes.



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 43

Pharmacy 113 — Practical dispensing pharmacy (third-year University
Class). Laboratory 3 hours per week for 10 weeks beginning September 22, 1930.
Professor Carter and instructors. 2 points.

This course embraces a thorough study of the various types of incompatibilities. A large number
of prescriptions are compounded which illustrate how some incompatibilities may be avoided or
overcome.

Textbooks: Diekman and Wimmer, Incompatibilities; Ruddiman, Incompatibilities in Pre-
scriptions.

Pharmacy 115-116 — Theoretical pharmacy (second-year University Class).
Lectures 2 hours, Professor Wimmer. 4 points.

This is the same lecture course as Pharmacy 101-102, but no formal recitations are provided.

Pharmacy 151-152 — Advanced pharmacy (fourth-year University Class).
Lecture i hour. Professor Wimmer. 2 points.



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