Confederate States of America. Congress.

Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 (Volume 4) online

. (page 77 of 104)
Online LibraryConfederate States of America. CongressJournal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 (Volume 4) → online text (page 77 of 104)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


tives in the Congress of the Confederate States from the >State of Missouri, approved
January 19, 1864;

S. 20. Joint resolution relating to the manufacture of railroad iron and to new lines
of railroad ;

S. 28. Joint resolution of thanks to the officers and soldiers of Gen. Bushrod
Johnson's old brigade of Tennessee troops and the brigade of the late General
Archer, composed of Tennessee and Maryland troops, now in the Army of Northern
Virginia; and

S. 29. Joint resolution extending the provisions of the joint resolution to allow
sick and wounded officers of the Army transportation to their homes, and hospital
accommodations, approved June 10, 1864.

On the 23d instant the President a]iproved and signed the following acts:

S. 101. An act to authorize the ex(-hange of registered bonds issued under the act
of February 28, 1861, for coupon bonds of like amounts and times of payment;

S. 104. An act to extend the provisions of an act entitled "An act in relation to the
receipt of counterfeit Treasury notes by public officers^" approved May 1, 1863, and
the provisions of the fifth section of the act approved February 17, 1864, entitled
"An act to amend the act for the assessment and collection of taxes, approved May
first, eighteen hundred and sixty-three;"

S. 135. An act to provide for the remission of the penalty for nondelivery of
tithes of bacon due in the year 1864;

S. 146. An act making an appropriation for the removal and erection of the naval
ropewalk; and

S. 151. An act to provide for the canceling of four per cent bonds and certificates
received in payment of taxes and other public dues.

On the 24th instant the President approved and signed a joint resolution (S. 22)
exempting maple sugar from the tithe imposed by the act entitled "An act to amend
an act entitled 'An act to lay taxes for the common defense and carry on the
Government of the Confederate States,' apj)roved April twenty-fourth, eighteen hun-
dred and sixty-three," approved February 17, 1864.

On the-25th instant the President approved and signed the following acts:

S. 84. An act to regulate, for a limited ju-riod, the compensation of the oflScers,
clerks, and employees of the civil departments of the Government in the city of
Richmond; and

8. 94. An act to amend the law in relation to the re(;eipt of counterfeit Treasury
notes by public officers.

Orde?\'<f, That tlic Socretary inform the House of Representatives
thereof.

The followiiio- nios.sage was received from the President of the
Confederate States, h^- Mr, B. N. Harrison, his Secretary:

RicriMONU, Va., February ^.\5, 1865.
To the Senate and Ilnusc of I\eprese))tatives:

1 herewith transmit for your consideration a communication from the Secretary of
War, covering an estimate for an additional appropriation reipiired by the War
Department.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

The messag^e was read.

Ordered^ That it be referred to the Committee on Plnance.

The followiiio- messao-e was received from the Prt>sident of the Con-
federate States, by Mr. B. N. Harrison, his Secretary:

Richmond, Va., Februarif ^7, 1865.
To the Senate and JTonae of Reprei^entatiref<:

I lierewith transmit for your consideration a conmiunication from the Postmaster-
General relative to an act fixing the salaries of certain civil officers in the Trans-
Mississippi Department, and invite your special attention to his suggestions, with a
view to further legislation on the subject if you deem it necessary.

JEFFERS(^N DAVIS.

The message was read.



Feb. 28, 1865.] SENATE. 609

Ordered^ That it be referred to the Committee on Post-OflSces and
Post-Roads.

On motion oy Mr. Johnson of Georgia,

The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the Vf hole, the considera-
tion of the bill (H. R. 2(36) to amend post route No. 1649, in the State
of Georgia.

On motion by Mr. Johnson of Georgia, to amend the bill by striking
out the words "'and Youngsville," line 5,

It was determined in the affirmative.

On motion by Mr. Orr, to amend the bill by striking out all after
the enacting clause and inserting:

That every public highway in tlie Confederate States be, and the same is hereby,
declared a post route,

( Yeas 6

It was determined in the negative, \^ , -, ^

On motion by Mr. Orr,

The yeas and nays being desired by one-fifth of the Senators present,

Those who voted in the affirmative are,

Messrs. Barnwell, Burnett, Maxwell, Orr, Watson, and Wigfall.

Those who voted in the negative are,

Messrs. Brown, Graham, Hunter, Johnson of Georgia, Johnson of
Missouri, Oldham, Semmes, Siuuns, Vest, and Walker.

No further amendment being made, the bill was reported to the
Senate and the amendment was concurred in.

Ordered^ That the amendment be engrossed and the bill read a third
lime.

The said bill as amended was read the third time.

Resolved, That it pass with an amendment.

Ordered, That the Secretary request the concurrence of the House
of Representatives in the amendment.

The Senate j^roceeded, as in Committee of the Whole, to the consid-
eration of the l)ill (S. 2(J3) for the relief of Thomas Lanigan; and

On motion by Mr. Burnett,

Ordered, That it lie upon the table.

On motion by Mr. Orr,

The Senate resolved into secret legislative session.

The doors having been opened,

The following message was received from the House of Representa-
tives, b}" Mr. Dal ton:

Mr. President: The House of Representatives have passed a bill (H. R. 393) to pro-
vide for paying in cotton the annuities due the Seminole, Creek, Choctaw, and
Chickasaw nations of Indians; in which they request the concurrence of the Senate.

The House of Representatives have agreed to the report of the committee of con-
ference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the bill (S. 117) to authorize
the commanders of the reserves in each State to order general courts-martial and to
revise the proceedings of courts-martial and military courts.

Mr. Oldham (b}^ leave) introduced

A bill (S. 211) to confine the outstanding circulation of Treasury
notes within a fixed and limited amount;
which was read and passed to a second reading.

Ordered, That it be printed.

A message from the House of Representatives, by Mr. Dalton:

Mr. President: The House of Representatives have passed the bill of the Senate
(S. 208) to provide for returned prisoners of war, with an amendment; in which they
request the concurrence of the Senate.

c J— VOL 4—04 39



610



JOURNAL OF THE [Feb. 28, 1865.



The benate proceeded to consider the amendment of the House of
Representatives to the bill (S. 208) last mentioned; and

Resolved^ That they concur therein.

Ordered^ That the Secretar}^ inform the House of Representatives
thereof.

The bill (H. R. 393) received this day from the House of Representa-
tives for concurrence was read the first and second times and referred
to the Committee on Indian Affairs.

Mr. Orr submitted the following resolution; which was considered
and agreed to:

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate be authorized to employ such temporary
clerical torce as will he sufficient to keep up the business of the Senate durintr the
remainder of the present session.

On motion by Mr. Caperton,
The Senate adjourned.

SECRET SESSION.

A message from the House of Representatives, by Mr. Dal ton:

Mr Premirnt: Tlio House of Representatives have passed a bill (H. R. ;361) to
provide for the establishment of a bureau of special and secret service; in which thev
request the concurrence of the Senate. ^

The bill (H. R. 361) last mentioned was read the first and second
tunes and referred to the Committee on Military A flairs.

Mr. Semmos, from the Conmiittee on Finance,^ whom was referred
the bdl (8. 20 to authorize the issue of licenses for the sale of tobacco
and cotton, reported it without amendment.

The Senate proceeded, as in Committee of the Whole, to the con-
sideration of the said l)ill; and

On motion by Mr. Oldham, that the further consideration of the bill
be postponed luitil Thursday next,

It was determined in the negative, \ Jj^^^ '^

^ ' ( Na3^s 11

On motion by Mr. Oldham,

The yeas aiufnavs being desired by one-fifth of the Senators present,

Ihose who voted in the affirmative are,

INIessrs. Baker, Burnett, Henry, Johnson of Missouri, Oldham,
Simms, and A\ igfall. '

Those who voted in the negative are,

Messrs. Barnwell, Caperton, Graham, Hunter, Johnson of Georgia,
Maxwell, Orr, Semmes, Vest, A\'alker, and Watson.

After dcl)ate.

On motion by Mr. Simms, that the further consideration of the bill
be postponed until to-morrow.

It was determined in the negative.

No amendment being made, the bill was reported to the Senate.

^I'do'ciL 1 hat it be engrossed and read a third time.

The said bill was read the third time and the title was amended.

On the question,

Shall the bill now pass?

It was determined in the affirmative, \ J^^^ ^^

'(Nays 3

On motion ])v Mr. Oldham,



Feb. 28, 1865.] SENATE. 611

The yeas and nays being desired by one-fifth of the Senators present,

Those who voted in the affirmative are,

Messrs. Baker, Barnwell, Caperton, Graham, Henry, Hunter, Max-
well, Orr, Semmes, Simms, Vest, Walker, Watson, and Wigfall.

Those who voted in the negative are,

Messrs. Johnson of Georgia, Johnson of Missouri, and Oldham.

Sa it was

Resolved^ That this bill pass, and that the title thereof be "An act
to authorize the issue of licenses for the sale of tobacco, cotton, and
naval stores."

Ordered, That the Secretaiy request the concurrence of the House
of Representatives therein.

Mr. Caperton (by leave) introduced

A joint resolution (8. 33) extending the provisions of the act entitled
"An act to provide transportation for Senators, Representatives, and
Delegates in Congress to their respective places of residence, and to
increase, for a limited time, their salaries;"

which was read the first and second times and referred to the Commit-
tee on Finance.

On motion by Mr. Hunter,

The Senate resolved into executive session.

EXECUTIVE SESSION.

•The following messages were received from the President of the
Confederate States, by Mr. B. N. Harrison, his Secretary:

E.YECUTivE Department, Confederate States op America,

Richmond, February 23, 1865.
Tu Ihe Sf'nah' of the Covfederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate the officers
on the accompanying list to the grades affixed to their names, respectively.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 217.] War Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, Fehnmrij 22, 1865.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the following nominations for ijromotion in
the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America:

Colonels.

Lieut. Col. T. H. Herndon, of xVlabama, to be colonel Thirty-sixth Alabama Regi-
ment, vice Colonel Woodruff, retired, to rank from Decern l)er 13, 1864.

Maj. O. M. Messick, of Texas, to be colonel Eleventh Texas Cavalry Regiment,
vice Colonel Burks and Lieutenant-Colonel Bounds, deceased, to rank from October
27, 1863.

Lieutenant-colonels.

Maj. J. C. Timberlake, of Virginia, to be lieutenant-colonel Fifty-third Virginia
Regiment, vice Lieutenant-Colonel Martin, retired, to rank from October 22, 1864.

Maj. G. M. Norment, of North Carolina, to be lieutenant-colonel Thirty-fourth
North Carolina Regiment, vice Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, retired, to rank from
November 25, 1864.

Major.

Capt. D. C. Hatcher, of Virginia, to be major Seventh Virginia Cavalry Regiment,
vice Major Marshall, deceased, to rank from February 4, 1865.
I am. sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.



612 JOURNAL OF THE [Feb. 28, 1865.

Executive Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, Fefiruarij 24, 1865.
To the Senate of the Confederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate the officers
on the accompanying Ustio the grades affixed to their names, respectively.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 209.] War Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, February 21, 1865.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the following nominations for promotion in
the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of. America:

artillery officers, under act approved JANUARY 22, 1862.

Brigadier-general.



)o\. R. L. Walker, of Virginia, to be brigadier-general of artillery, for duty with
ny of Northern Virginia (an original vacancy), to rank from February 18, 1865.



Col. R.
An



Colonels.



Lieut. Col. W. Nelson, of Virginia, to be colonel of artillery, vice Colonel Walker,
promoted, to rank from February IS, 1865.

Lieut. Col. 1). (i. Mclnto.«h, of Soiitli Carolina, to be colonel of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from February IS, 1865.

Lieut. Col. F. lluger, of South Carolina, to be colonel of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from February IS, 1S65.

Lieut. Col. W. J. Pegram, of Virginia, to be colonel of artillery (an original vacancy),
to rank from February 18, 1865.

Lieutenant-colonels.

Maj. John Lane, of Georgia, to l)e lieutenant-colonel of artillery, vice Lieutenant-
Colonel Nelson, ]ironioted, to rank from February IS, 1S65.

I\laj. John C. Haskell, of South Carolina, to be lientiMiant-colonel of artillery, vice
Lieutenant-Colonel Mcintosh, promoted, to rank from Fi-bruary 18, 1865.

Maj. W. M. Owen, of Louisiana, to he lieutenant-colonel of artillery, vice Lieutenant-
Colonel Huger, jiromoted, to rank from February IS, 1865.

Maj. W. E. Cutshaw, of Virginia, to l)e lieutenant-colonel of artillery, vice
Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram, promoted, to rank from February IS, 1865.

l\Iaj. R. M. Strihling, of Virginia, to be lieutenant-colonel of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from February IS, 1865.

Maj. M. Johu.son, of Virginia, to be lieutenant-colonel of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from February 18, 1865.

]\Iaj. R. P. Chew, of Virginia, to be lieutenant-colonel of artillery (an original
vatancy), to rank from February 18, 1865.

Majors.

Capt. H. M. Ross, of Georgia, to be major of artillery, vice Major Lane, promoted,
to rank from February 18, 1865.

Capt. T. J. Kirkpatrick, of Virginia, to be major of artillery, vice Major Haskell,
promoted, to rank from February 18, 1865.

Ca])t. W. .1. l)ance, of Virginia, to lie major of artillery, vice Major Owen, pro-
moted, to rank from February 18, 1865.

Cai)t. W. W. Parker, of Virginia, to be major of artillery, vice Major Cutshaw,
promoted, to rank from Felu'uary 18, 1865.

Cajit. B. C. I\Ianly, of Nortli Carolina, to be major of artillery, vice Major Strih-
ling, promoted, to rank from February 18, 1865.

Capt. T. A. Brander, of Virginia, to l)e major of artillery, vice Major Johnson, pro-
moted, to rank from February 18, 1865.

Capt. S. T. Wright, of Virginia, to be major of artillery, vice Major Chew, promoted,
to rank from February IS, 1S()5.

Capt. N. A. Sturdivant, of Virginia, to be major of artillery (an original vacancy),
to rank from February 18, 1S65.

Capt. J. F. Hart, of South Carolina, to be major of artillery (an original vacancy),
to rank from February 18, 1865.

Capt. P. P. Johnston, of , to be major of artillery (an original vacancy), to

rank from February 18, 1865.



Feb. 28, 1865.] SENATE. 613

Capt. James W. Thomson, of Virginia, to be major of artillery (an original vacanoj'),
to rank from February 18, 1865.

Capt. M. F. McGregor, of Georgia, to be major of artillery (an original vacancy),
to rank from February 18, 1865.

I am, sir, respectfully, your ol)edient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretanj of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.

Executive Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, Fehnutry 34, 1865.
To the Senate of the Confederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate Asst. Surg.
John R. Leigh, of Virginia, to be promoted to surgeon in the Provisional Army of
the Confederate States of America.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 221.] War Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, February 23, 18G5.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the nomination of Asst. Surg. John R. Leigh,
of Virginia, to be promoted to surgeon in the Provisional Army of the Confederate
States of America, to rank from June 1, 1862.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.

Executive Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, Febrvm-ij 24, 1865.
To the Senate of the Confederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate the ofhcers
(in the accompanying list to the grades affixed to their names, respectively.

JEFFERSON^ DAVIS.

No. 216.] War Department, Confederate States op America,

Richmond, February SS, 1865.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the following nominations for appointment
in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America:

Captains.

Lieut. William E. Faison, of North Carolina, to be captain Company D, Thirty-
eighth North Carolina Regiment, vice Captain Darden, deceased (the officers entitled
to promotion waiving (dainis), to rank from February 15, 1865.

Lieut. B. E. Coltrane, of Virginia, to be captain Company C, Twenty-fourth Vir-
ginia Regiment, vice Captain Sutherland, resigned (the officers entitled to promotion
waiving claims), to rank from February 15, 1865.

Lieut. James J. Hatcher, of Alabama, to be captain Company L, Fifteenth Alabama
Regiment, vice Captain Bryan, resigned (tlie officers entitled to promotion waiving
claims), to rank from February 15, 1865.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

. Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.

Executive Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, February 24, 1865.
To the Senate of the Confederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate the officers
on the accompanying list to the grades affixed to their names, respectively.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 212.] War Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, Feltrnary 2'2, 1865.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the following nominations for promotion in
the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America:



614 JOURNAL OF THE [Feb. 28, 1865.

ARTILLERY OFFICERS, FOR ORDNANCE DUTY.

Major.

Capt. Ed. N. Thurston, of Georgia, to be uinjur of artillery (an original vacancy),
to rank from January 17, 1865.

Cajitains.

First Lieut. W. M. Fontaine, of Virginia, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from Januarj^ 7, 1865.

First Lieut. J. L. Scales, of Louisiana, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First JJeut. A. Edwards, of Kentucky, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First Lieut. W. L. Randolph, of Virginia, to be captain of artillerj^ (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First Lieut. W. I\I. Archer, of Virginia, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First Lieut. 8. H. Starr, of Georgia, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First Lieut. James E. Webb, of Alabama, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First Lieut. Louis Zimmer, of Virginia, to be captain of artillery (an original
vacancy), to rank from January 7, 1865.

First lieutenants.

Second Lieut. N. M. Osborne, of Virginia, to be first lieutenant of artillery, vice
Lieutenant Ivlwards, promoted, to rank from January 7, 1865.

Second J^ieut. J. T. AUyn, of Virginia, to be lirst lieutenant of artillery, vice Lieu-
tenant Scales, ])romoted, to rank from January 7, 1865.

Second Lieut. J. Howard Smith, of Virginia, to 1)0 first lieutenant of artillery, vice
Lieutenant Randolph, ]>romotcd, to rank from January 7, 1865.

Second Lieut. A. I\I. Aiken, of South Garolina, to be first lieutenant of artillery,
vice Lieutenant Archer, promoted, to rank from January 7, 1865.

Second Lieut. William (Tlenn, of Kentucky, to be first lieutenant of artillery, vice
Lieutenant Starr, promoted, to rank from January 7, 1865.
I am, sir, respectfuUv, vonr obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.

Executive Department, Confederate States of America,

Riclimond, February ^4, 1865.
To the Seriate of the Confederate States:

Agreeal)ly to the reconnnendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate the officers
on the accompanving list to the grades affixed to their names, respectively.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 215.] War Department, Confederate States op America,

Richmond, February 22, 1S65.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the following nominations for promotion in
the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America:

Commissar ies — m ajors.

Capt. Frank T. Forbes, of Virginia, to be major, for duty in Department of Rich-
mond, to rank from February 15, 1865.

Caj)t. R. Burns, of Texas, "to be major, for duty with the late General Gregg's
brigade, vice IShijor Hamilton, killed, to rank from February 15, 1865.

Capt. Thomas II. McKoy, of North Carolina, for duty with Lane's brigade, vice
Major Carraway, traiisferred, to rank from Kel)ruary 15, 1865.
1 am, sir, respectfuUv, vour obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.



Feb. 28, 1865.] SENATE. 615

Executive Department, Confederate States op America,

Richmond, February 24, 1S65.
To the Senate of the Confederate Statei^:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate Capt.
T. F. Henry, of Tennessee, to be promoted to major in the Adjntant-General's
Department, Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 218.] War Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, February 22, 18G5.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the nomination of Capt. T. F. Henry, of
Tennessee, to be promoted to major in the Adjutant-General's Department, for duty
with Brown's division, Army of Tennessee (an original vacancy), to rank from Feb-
ruary 16, 1865.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.

Executive Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, February 24, 1865.
To the Senate of the Confederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Secretary of War, I nominate the officers
on the accompanying list to the grades affixed to their names, respectively.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

No. 214.] War Department, Confederate States of America,

Richmond, February 22, 1SG5.
Sir: I have the honor to recommend the following nominations for appointment
in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America:

Commissary — major.

F. L. Smith, of South Carolina, to rank from January 6, 1865.

Assistcmt commissaries — captains.

John Denham, of Florida, to rank from February 17, 1865.

G. S. Barthelmess, of Georgia, to rank from February 17, 1865.
B. W. Cooke, of Virginia, to rank from February 15, 1865.

J. W. Primrose, of North Carolina, to rank from February 15, 1865.
E. W. Mikell, of South Carolina, to rank from February 15, 1865.
I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Secretary of War.
To His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President, etc.

The messages were respectively read.

Ordered., That they be referred to the Committee on Military Affairs.
The following messages were received from the President of the
Confederate States, by Mr. B. N. Harrison, his Secretary :

Richmond, Va., February 25, 1865.
To tlie Senate of the Confederate States:

I herewith transmit for your information a communication from the Postmaster-
General relative to the removal of a postmaster from office.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.
Richmond, Va., February 25, 1865.
To the Senate of the Confederate States:

Agreeably to the recommendation of the Postmaster-General, I hereby nominate
Isaac Estell, to be postmaster at Talladega, Ala.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.



616 JOURNAL OF THE [Mar. l, 1865.

Post-Office Department, Rirkmovd, Fehrvary 24, 1865.
To the President.

Sir: I have the honor to recommend, for confirmation by the Senate, the follow-
ing appointment of postmaster, made since the opening of the present adjourned ses-
sion of Congress February 22, 1865, Isaac Estell, Talladega, Talladega County, Ala.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,



Online LibraryConfederate States of America. CongressJournal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 (Volume 4) → online text (page 77 of 104)