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FROM THE LIBRARY OF
REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON, D. D.

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO

THE LIBRARY OF

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY










MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA:



OR, THE



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY

OF

NEW-ENGLAND,

FROM ITS FIRST PLANTING

IN THE YEAR 1620, UNTO THE YEAR OF OUR LORD, 109%.
IN SEVEN BOOKS.



By the Reverend and Learned COTTON MATHER, D. D.— F. R. S,

AND PASTOR OF THE NORTH CHURCH IN BOSTON, NEW-KNGL ANU.



IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. IL

imSt AMERICAN EDITION PROM THE LONDON EDITION OP l^O?.

HARTFORD :

PUBLISHED BY SILAS ANDRUS.



PRINTED BY S. CONVERSE NEW-HAVEN,



1820.



GCNERAL CONTENTS OF THE SEVERAL BOOKS.



VOL. II.



IV . Au accouot of the (University of
Cambridge in New-England ; in
Two Parts. The first contains the
Laws, the Benefactors, and Vi-
cissitndes of Harvard College ;
with remarks upon it. The sec-
ond part contains the Lives of
some eminent persons educated
in it.
v. Acts and monuments of the faith
and Order in the Churches of
N3*»-England, passed in their Sy-
nods ; with Historical Remarks
upon those venerable assemblies ;
and a great variety of Church-ca-
ses occurring, and resolved by the
Synods of those Churches. In
four Parts.



VL A Faithful Record of many il-
lustrious, wonderful Providences,
both of mercies and judgments,
on divers persons in New-Eng-
Jand. In eight Chapters.
YII. The Wars of the Lord. Being
an History of the manifold Af-
flictions and Disturbances of the
Churches in New-England, from
their various adversaries, and the
wonderful methods and mercies
of God in their deliverance. In
six Chapters. To which is sub-
joined, an Appendix of Remark-
able Occurrences which New-
England had in the wars with
the Indian savages, from the
year 1088, to the year 169?.



SAL GENTIUM.



THE



FOURTH BOOK



OF THE



CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF THE

FROH WHENCE THE CHURCHES OF NEW-ENGLAND, (aND MANY OTHER
churches) HAVE BEEN ILLUMINATED.

ITS LAWS, ITS BENEFACTORS, ITS VICISSITUDES, AND A CATALOGUE OF SUCH
AS HAVE BEEN THEREIN EDUCATED AND GRADUATED.

WHERETO ARE ADDED,

THE LIVES OF SOME EMINENT PERSONS, WHO WERE PLANTS
OF RENOWN GROWING IN THAT NURSERY



OFFERED UNTO THE PUBLICK

BY COTTON MATHER.



>



Here, as in furnaces of boiling Gold

Stars dipt, come back, full as their orbs can hold

Of glitt'ring light!



AB. COULiEUS, de AMERICA.

Ingeniiwi, Pietas, Artes, ac Bellica Virtus,
Hue profugie venient, et Regna Illustria condent ;
Fa Domina his Virtus erit, et Fortuna Ministra.

Plantar. Lib. 5.

NEW-HAVEN:

PRINTED FOR SILAS ANDRUS

1820-



THE FOURTH BOOK.



THE

HISTORY

OF

HARVARD^COLLEDGE



INTRODUCTION.

If there have been Universities in the world, ivhich a Beza would call Fla-
bella Satanae, and a Luther would call Cathedras Pestilentise, and antichristi
luminaria, and a third ventures to style Synagogas perditionis and puteos
Abyssi ; the excellent Arrowsmith has truly observed, that it is no more to
be inferred from hence that all are so, than that all books arc to be burnt,
because the Christians did burn the magical ones at Ephesus. The New-
Englanders have not been Weigelians : or the disciples of the furious fanat-
ick, tclu) held forth [^Reader, let it never be translated into English !] Nullam
^'sse in universo Terrarum Orbe Academiam, in qua Christus inveniatur ; in
Academijs ne tantillam quidem Christi cognitionem reperiri posse : Noluisse
Christum Evangelium praedicari per Diabolos ; ergo non per Academicos.
Lest all the Hellebore of New-England (a. coimt?-cy abounding with Helle-
bore) shoidd 7iot suffice to restore such dreamers unto their 7oits, it hath pro-
duced an University also, for their better information, their utter confuta'
lion. Behold, an American University, presenting herself, with her sons,
before Iter Europaean mothers for their blessing. An University which hath
been to these plantations, as Livy saith of Greece, for the good literature
there cultivated, Sal Gentium; an University, which may make her boast
unto the circumjacent regions, like that of the orator on the behalf of the
English Cambridge, Fecimus (absit verbo invidia, cui abest Falsitas) ne in
Demagorijs lapis sederet super lapidem, ne deessent id templis theologi, in
Foris Jurispcriti, in oppidis medici ; rempublicam, ecclesiam, sedatum, ex-
«5rcitum, viris doctis replevimus, eoq ; melius bono publico inservire com-
paratis, quo magis eruditi fuerint : Finally, an University which has been
what Stangius made his abbey, when he tmmed it into a protestant Colledge :
Trii ®uyvuT!x(i Trxi^evrrpiov x.«i -^uxaiv ^iBci<rKx>iUov Aoyijcav. And a river, ivith-
out the streams whereof these regions would have been meer unwateved pla-
ces, ybr the devil !



6 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv.

PART I.

Its Laws, Benefactors, Vicessitudes, and its graduates.

<^ 1. The nations of mankind, that have shaken oflF harharity, have not
more differed in the languages, than they have agreed in this one principle,
that schools, for the institution of young men, in all other liberal sciences,
as well as that of languages, are necessary to procure, and preserve, that
learning amongst them, wliich

Emollii inores, nee sinit esse for os.

To relate the thousandth part of the brave things, which have been done
by the nations of Asia, in former, or the nations of Europe, in later ages,
pursuant to this principle, would be to fill huge folio volumes, with trans-
cribing from Hospinian or Middendorpiiis, from Alsted, from Junius, and
from Leigh, and from very many other authors. America is the part of the
world whereto our history is (Confined; and one little part o( America, where
the first academy that ever adorned any English plantation in America was
erected ; and an academy, which if majores nostri academias signato voca-
ifido appeUavere Universitates, 5?iorfUniversarum Divinarum Humanarumq ;
Rerum. Cognitio, in ijs, ul Thesaro conservata apcriatur, it may, though it
have otherwise wanted many priviledges, from the very foundation of it pre-
tend unto the name of an University. The primitive Christians Avere not
more prudently careful, to settle schools for the education of persons, to suc-
ceed the more immediately inspired ministry of the apostles, and such as had
been ordained by the apostles ; (and the apostate Julian, truly imagined,
that he could not sooner undo Christianity, than by putting of them down !)
than the Christians in the most early times o( ISew-England were to form a
CoLLEDGE, wherein a succession of a learned and able ministry might be ed-
ucated. And, indeed, they foresaw, that without such a provision for a
siiff,cie7it ministry, the churches of New-England must have been less than a
business of one age, and soon have come to nothing: the other he^nisphere
of the world, would never have sent us over Men enough to have answered
our necessities ; but without a nursery for such Men among ourselves dark-
ness must have soon covered the land, and gross darkness the people. For
some little while, indeed, there very hopeful effects of the pains taken by
certain particular men of great worth and skill, to bring up some in their
own private families, for public services ; but much of uncertainty and of
inconveniency in this way, was in that little while discovered ; and when
wise men considered the question handled by Quintilian, Utilius ne sit domi,
atq; intra privafos Parietes studentem continere, an frcqumtia>. scholarum,
ct velut publiris prceceptoribus tradero? they soon determined it as he did,
that set-schools are so necessary, there is no doing without them. Where-
fore a CoLLEDGK must now be thought upon : a Collcdge, the best thing that
ever Nev)-England thought upon ! As the admirable Voctius could happily
boast of it, that whereas there are no less than ten provinces in the Popish
Belgium, and there are uo more than two Universities in them, there are but
seven provinces in the reformed Bclgivm, and there are fve Universities
therein, besides other academical soaeties; thus the first Possessors of this
protest.ant and puritan country, were zealous for an University, that should
be more significant than the Seminaries of Canada and Mexico; New-Eng-
land comnared ^itln oilier pla.r«s. m'liht lay claim to the character that Stra-



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. j.

ho gives of Tarsus, the city of our apostle Paul's first education ; thei/ had so
great a love to philosophy, [rotrxuriq o-Ts-aK Trfoi re <i>i>.otro<pUv^ and all the
liberal sciences, that they excelled Athens, Alexandria, and if there icere
any other place worth naming where the schools, and disputes rjf phi-
losophy, and all humane arts maintained. And although this country did
chiefly consist of such as by the difficulties of subduing a wretched wilder-
ness, were brought into such a condition of ^oper^y, that they might have
gone by the title, by which the modestly-clad noblemen and gentlemen, that
first petitioned against the Inquisition in the loio countries, were distinguish-
ed, namely, a troop of beggars, yet these Gueux were willing to let the
richer colonies, which retained ihe ways of the Church o( Englayid, see how
much true religion was a friend unto good literature. The reader knows
that in every town among the Jews, there was a school, whereat childreu
were taught the reading of the law ; and if there were any town destitute of a
school, the men of the place did stand excommunicate, until one were erect-
ed : besides and beyond which they had midrashoth, or divinity-sc/wo^^, in
which they expounded the law to their disciples. Whether the churches of
Neio-England have been duely careful or no, about their other schools, they
have not been altogether careless about their midrashoth ; and it is well for
them that they have not.

§2. A general Court held at Boston, Sept. 8, 1 630, advanced a smaH
sum (and it was then a day of small things,) namely, four hundred pounds,
by way o{ essay towards the building of something to begin a Colledgc ; and
Ne2v-Tow7i being the Kiriath Sepher appointed for the seat of it, the name of
the town, was for the sake of somewhat now founding here, which might here-
after grow into an University, changed into Cambridge. 'Tis true, the
University of Upsal in Sueden, hath ordinarily about seven or eight hundred
students belonging to it, which do none of them live collegiately, but board
all of them here and there at private houses ; nevertheless, the government of
Neio-England, was for having their students brought up in a more collegiate
way of living. But that which laid the most significant stone in the founda-
tion, was the last will of Mr. John Harvard, a reverend, and excellent
minister of the gospel, who dying at Charlstoion, of a consumption, quicklj'
after his arrival here, bequeathed the sum of seven hundred, seventi/ nine
pounds, seventeen shillings and two pence, towards the pious work of buil-
ding a CoUedge, which was now set a foot. A committee then being chosen,
to prosecute an aflair, so happily commenced, it soon found encouragement
from several other benefactors: the other colonies sent some small help to
the undertaking, and several particular gentlemen did more, than whole colo-
7iies to support and forward it : but because the memorable Mr. John Har-
vard, led the way by a generosity exceeding the most of them, that followed
his name was justly a.'ternized, by its having the name of Harvard Col-
ledge imposed upon it. While these things were a doing, a society of
scholars, to lodge in the neto iicsts, v.ere forming under the conduct of one
Mr. Nathaniel Eaton [or, if thou wilt, reader, Orbilius Eaton'] a blade, who
marvellously deceived the expectations of good men concerning him ; for he
was one fitter to be master of a Bridewel than a CoUedge : and though his
avarice was notorious enough to get the name of a Fhilargyrius fixed upon
him, yet his cruelty was more scandalous than his avarice. He was a rare
scholar himself, and he made many more such ; but tlieir education truly Avas
in the school of Tyrannus. Among many other instances of his cruelty, he
gave one in causing two men to hold a young gentleman, while he so unmer-
cifully beat him with a cudgel, that upon complaint of it, unto the court in
Septeynber^ l639j he was fined an hundred marks, besides a convenient sura



8 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv.

tu be paid unto the young gentleman, that had suflered by his unmeicifuhiess ;
and for his inhumane severities towards the scholars, he was removed from
his trust. After this, being first excommunicated by the church of Cam-
Iriclgc, he did himself excommunicate all our churches, going first into Vir-
ginia, then into England, where he lived privately until the restauration of
King Charles II. Then conforming to the ceremonies of the church of Eng-
land, he was fixed at Biddiford, where he became (as Apostata est Osor sui
Ordinis,) a hitter persecutor of the christians, that kept faithful to the way
of iporship, from which he was himself an apostate', until he who had cast
so many into ^;r/so?i for conscience, \\Q.s. himself cast mio prison for debt;
where he did, at length, pay one debt, namely, that unto nature, by death.

§ 3. On August 27, 1640, the magistrates, with the ministers, of the col-
ony, chose Mr. Henri/ Dunstar, to be the President of their new Warvard-
Colledge. And in time convenient, the General Court endued the Colledge
with a charter, which made it a corporation, consisting of a President, two
Fellows, and a Treasurer to all proper intents and purposes : only with
powers reservefl unto the Governour, Deput i/-Governoi(r, and all the magis-
trates of the colony, and the ininistcrs of the six next towns for the tinse
being, to act as overseers, or visitors of the society. The tongues and arts
were now taught in the Colledge, and pieti/ was maintained with so laudable
a discipline, that many eminent persons went (brth from hence, adorned with
accomplishments, that rendered them formidable to other parts of the world,
as well as to this country, and persons of good quahty sent their sons from
other parts of the world, for such an education, as this country could give
unto them. The number of benefactors to the Colledge, did herewithal in-
crease to such a degree of benefits, that although the Praesident were support-
ed still by a salary from the Treasury of the colony, yet the Treasury of the
Colledge itself was able to pay many of its expences ; especially after the
incomes of Charlestown ferry, were by an act of the General Court settled
thereupon. To enumerate these benefactors would be a piece of justice to
their memory, and the catalogue of their names, and icorks preserved in the
Colledge, has done them th^X justice. But as I find one article in that cata-
logue to lun thus, a gentleman not willing his name should be put upon
record, gave fffy pounds ; thus I am so willing to believe, that most of
tViOse good 7ne?i that are mentioned were content with a ?e cord of their good
deeds in the booJc of God'' s remembrance, that I shall excuse this book of
our church histon/ from swelling with a particular mention of them : albeit
for us to leave unmentioned in this place MOULSON, a SALTONSTAL,
an ASHURST, a PENNOYER, a DODDRIDGE, an HOPKINS, a
irEB, an USHER, an HULL, a RICHARDS, an HULTON, a GUN-
STON, would hardly be excusable. And while these made their liberal
contributions, either to the edifice or to the revenue of the Colledge, there
were other that enriched its library by presenting of choice books with
mathematical instruments, thereunto, among whom Sir Kenehn Digby, Sir
John Maynard, Mr. Richard Baxter and Mr. Joseph Hill, ought always to
be remembered. But the most considerable accession to this library was,
when the Reverend Mr. Theophilus Gale, a well known writer of many
books, and owner of more, bequeathed what he had, unto this New-English
treasury of learning ; whereof I find in an Oration of Mr. Increase Mather,

at the commencement in the year IC8I, this commemoration, Librie

quam plurimis iisg ; Lectu dignissimis Bibliotheca Ilarvardina Locupleta-
tur, quos THEOPHILUS GALEUS, (0 y^ccKxpiihy) Thcologus nnnqnam
satis Laudatus legavit ; quosq; Novanglorum Moses, Dominum Gulielmura
Stoughtonum volo, procuravitf eoq \ «e primarivm Hujue Acadcmicp. Cvm-



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. p

toreyn prcebiiit, afq', Uarv a.v6inos omnes sibiin perpelunm Devinctos hahet.

Indeed this lihrarxj is at this day, far from a Vatican, or a Bodleian

dimension, and sufficiently short of that, made by Ptolomy at Alexandria, in
which yizme hath placed seven hundred thousand volumes, and of tliat made
by Theodosius at Constantinople, in which a more certain fame hath told us
of ten myriads : nevertheless, 'tis I suppose the best furnished that can be
shown any where, in all the American regions; and when I have the honour
to walk in it, I cannot but think on the satisfaction, which Heinsius re-
ports iiimself to be filled withal, when shut up in the library at Leyden ;
Pleruniq ; in ea simulac pedem posui, foribus Pessuhem obdo, et in ipso
jEiernitatis Grernio, inter tot illustres Animar sedem miJii Sumo : cum in-
Senti quidem Animo, ut subinde Magnatum vie misereat, qui Fcelicitatem
hanc ignorant.

§ 4. When scholars had so far profited at the grammar schools, that they
could read any classical author into English, and readily make and speak
true Latin, and write it in verse as well as prose; and perfectly decline the
paradigms of nouns and verbs in the Greek tongue, they were judged capa-
ble of admission in Harvard-CoUedge ; and upon the examination, were
accordhigly admitted by the President and Fellows; who, in testimony
thereof signed a copy of the Colledge laws, which the scholars were each of
them to transcribe and preserve, as the continual remembrancers of the du-
ties, whereto their priviledges obliged them. Wliiie the Prcesident inspected
the manners of the students thus entertained in the Colledge, and unto his
morning and evening prayers in the hall, joined an exposition u|)on the
chapters; which they read out of Hebreic into Greeic, from the Old Testa-
ment in the morning, and out of English into Greek, from the Neiv Testa-
ment in the evening ; besides what Sermons he saw cause to preach in
publick assemblies on the Lord's day at Cambridge where the students have
a particular ^a//fry allotted unto theiVi ; the Fetlows resident on the place,
became Tutors, to the several classes, and alter they had instructed them in
the Hebrew language, led them through all the liberal arts, e're their first
four years expired. And in this time, tliey had their weekly declamations,
on Fridays in the Colledge-hall, besides publick disputations, which either
the Praisident or the Felloics moderated. Those who tlien stood candidates
to be (OT«r/«a/ra, were to attend in the kail {ov certain hours, on Mondays,
and on Tuesdays, three weeks together towards tlie middle of June, which
were cMed weeks of visitation ; so that all comers that pleased, might exa-
mine their skill in the languages and sciences, which they now pretended
unto ; and usually, some or other of the overseers of the Colledge, would on
purpose visit them, whilst they were thus doing what they callell, sitting of
solstices: \\\\Qni\w, commencement avv'waA, which was formerly the second
Tuesday in August, but since, the first Wednesday in July\ thev that were
to proceed BwcAe/y/-*, held their «c« publickly in Cambridge, whither the
magistrates and ministers, and other gentlemen then came, to put respect
upon their exercises : and these exercises were besides an oration usually
made by the President, orations both salutatory and valedictory, made by
some or other of the commencers, wherein all persons nwl orders oi -.mv fash-
ion then present, were addressed with proper complements, and reflections
were made on the most remarkable occurrents of the praicoding year ; and
these orations were made not only in Latin, but sometimes in Greek and in
Hebrew also; and some of them were in verse, and even in Greek verse, as
well as others in prose. But the main exercises were disputations upon
questions, wherein the respondents first made their theses: for according to
Vossius, the \ory essence of the Baccakwrent seems to lyc in the thing :



vol,. II. o



19 MAGNALIA CHRISTI A3IERICANA : [Book iv.

Baccalaureus bciiio' but a name corruptt^d o( Baf/ialius, which Bati<alius
(as well as the Freiicii Batailr) comes a Balutndo, a business that vanies
beating \n\\ : So that, l?iitualii/«enmi I'ycafj, (juia jam quasi Catiiisseiit
cum advcrsario, ac Manns conserinstient ; hoc est, Publice Dispiitassent,
afqi'e ita Peritke sux spcciniea (h'dissent. In the cu)se oC the day, the
Praesidenf, ui.h tiie formahty of delivering a hook into their hands, gave
them their ^r5i degree ; but such oJ' them as had studied three years after
xh^hjimt degree, to answer tl.'e Huration churactei of an artist,

Qui Studiis Annas Scptera dcdit insenuilque Libris ct cur is.

And besides tlieir exhibiting s^/^o^wf? of the liberal arts., by themselves
com|)Osed, now again publickly disputed on some qncs/iovs, of perhaps a
little higher elevation; these mnv, with a like formality, received their
f.econd degree, {iroceeding Masters of Art. — Quis cn>m dottrinvm amplcc-
tiiur ipsam, pra:mia si follas? The words used i)y the Fraesident, in this
action, were :

FOR THE BATCHELOURS.

Admitto te ad Primimi Gradum in Artibus, scilicet, ad respondendum
questioni, pro more Acadcjuiarum in Angliri.

Tibiq ; Trndo hunc Li brum, una cum prof est ate publice prcelegendi, in
aliquii ariiwn (quant projiteris) quoiicscunq ; ad hoc munus evocatus
facris.

FOR, THE MASTERS.

Admitto te ad Secundum Gradum in Artibus, pro 7nore Academiarum in
Anglia.

Tradoque tibi hunc Librura, una cum potestate projitendi, ubicunqiic ad
hoc munus publice evocatus fueris.

§ 5. Mr. Henrxj Dunstcr, continued tlie Prsesident of Harvard-Colledge,
until his unhappy entanglement in the snares of Anabaptism, filFd the
overseers with uneasie fears, lest the students by his means, should come to
be ensnared : Which uneasiness was at lencth so signified unto him, that
on October 24, l654, he presented unto the overseers, an instrument under
his hands ; wherein he resigned his Presidentship, and tiiey accepted his
resignation. That brave old man Johannes Amos Comtnenius, the fame of
whose worth hath been trumpctted ns far as more than three languages
(whereof every one is eiidebted unto his Janua) could carry it was indeed
agreed wiih;dl, by oin- Mr. Winthrop in his travels through the low countries,
to come over into Ncw-Angland, and iliumiiiate this CoUedge and country,
in the quality of a President : liut tiie solicitations of the Swedish Ambas-
sador, diverting him another way, that incomparable Moravian became not
an American. On Norember 2, 16j4, Mr. Richard Mather and Mr. Nor-
ton, were employod by tiie overseers, to tender unto Mr. Charles Chancey
the place oi F resident, which was now become vacant; who on the twent}'-
seventh da\' of that m(»nli«, had a solenm hiaagurntion thereunto. A per-
son he was, of whom 'tis not easie to say too much ; but let it here be
ciinugh, to ncite the words of Mi: Increase Mather (who now succeeds
him) in one of his orations.

Gl. J//e Chaacicus. Y«t7« CAROI.IJr«I magnum, jure optima nominare



BooKiv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAiND. u

possumus : Fuit ille senex veiterandus, linguarum i^' artinm prcesidiis in-
structissimus, gymnasiarcha prccdare doctns ; qui in jiliis prophetarum
erudiendis jidelem navavit operam omnemqiie diUgentiam adldbuit. .ihitus
Sf obitus tanti viri, CoUegium quasi truncatum, w: tantuui non enecatum
reliqmrunt. Alter tlse death of Mr. Chancey^ which was at the latter end
of the year 1701, the Abna JMater Academia, mtist look among her own
sons, to find a President for the rest of her children ; and accordingly the
Fellows of the Colledge, with tiie approbation of the overseers, July 13,
1672, elected Mr. Leonard Hoar, unto that office; whereto, on the tenth of
September following he was inaugurated.

This gentleman, after his education in Harvard-Colkdge, travelled over
into England; where he was not only a preacher of the gospel in divers
places, but also received from the University in Cambridge, the degree of
a Docioi^ of Physick. The Doctor, upon some invitations, relating to a
settlement, in the pastoral charge with the South Church at Boston, returned
into New-England; liaving first married a virtuous daughter of the Lord



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