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Time-honoured Lancaster ... Historic notes on the ancient borough of Lancaster online

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By Cross Fleury.



Time-Honoured Lancaster



-Richard II. Aci I. Scene i.



HISTORIC NOTES



ON THE



Ancient Borough of Lancaster



WRITTEN, COLLECTED & COMPILED



BY



CROSS FLEURY.



" Two voices are there — one is of the sea,
One of the mountains — each a mighty voice ;
in both from age to age thou didst rejoice."

— Wordsworth.



[Entered vr Stationers' Hall].



LANCASTER :

Eaton tV Bui.fh i d, Printers, Victoria Btildings, King Street.

MDCCCXCI.



I (

IDA



INTRODUCTION



It is thirty-eight years since the last " History of Lancaster "
appeared. That History was written and compiled by the late
Rev. Robert Simpson, M.A., of Queen's College, Cambridge,
sometime incumbent of St. Luke's Church, Skerton. Two other
Histories of the Borough were published before Mr. Simpson's- —
one by Mr. J. Hall, in 1801, and the other by Mr. C. Clark, in
1807. Many things have happened since 1852, the year when the
last History was published, and the ancient " City of the Lune "
has once more, phcenix-like, risen from its ashes, and within it a
spirit of life and activity prevails, such as our fore-fathers could
scarcely have dreamed probable or possible. So many changes have
occurred during the last thirty years that it seems unnecessary to
offer any apology for venturing to issue a work of the character now
presented to the public, — a work presented not without feelings of
diffidence — I had almost said of fear and trembling. That it may
not prove altogether useless or an abortive effort, is the earnest
hope of the writer who has spared neither time nor pains to arrive
at facts, and to clothe the same in a phraseology acceptable at least,
to homely folk. In this production the idea has been to assume

518399



vi . IN TROD UCTION.



more of an epistolary style than the tediously historic ; and if the
author has succeeded in evoking a greater degree of interest in the
time-honoured borough he treats of, and likewise a warmer respect
for its venerable memorials and associations he will consider his
remuneration ample. Long prefaces are a weariness to the flesh. It
only remains, therefore, to add that the compiler is indebted to
many local gentlemen for the encouragement they have given him in
the way of placing before him the hitherto ungarnered items of
valuable information they possessed. Special thanks are due to
several clergymen, three of whom have promptly aided me in regard
to institutions with which they have been, or are still, officially
connected. I refer more particularly to the Rev. Dr. Allen, the Rev.
W. E. Pryke, M.A., the Rev. J. Bone, M.A., the Very Rev. Provost
Walker, Colonel Marton, J. P., Colonel Lawson Whalley, J. P., and
Colonel Middleton. I am also greatly indebted to the following
gentlemen : James Williamson, Esq., M.P., W. O. Roper, Esq.,
E. G. Paley, Esq., James Diggens, Esq., W. G. Welch, Esq., Thomas
Barrow, Esq., N. Molyneux, Esq., B. P. Gregson, Esq., J. P.,
William Tilly, Esq., Edmund Jackson, Esq., W. Housman, Esq.,
and J. R. Ford, Esq.

One matter I am obliged to call attention to. It is the

probability of many readers expressing disappointment with the

work before them, because it does not deal with outside places and
incidents which have occurred therein connected with events happen-



INTRODUCTION. vn



ing in Lancaster. "There is nothing- about Roman Roads in Lunes-
dale," I imagine one to remark. " Nothing about St. Patrick and
Slyne," says another; and, adds a third, "Nothing concerning
Morecambe." Perfectly correct. It has been intended that such
remarks should be possible in order to state that the villages and
hamlets outside Lancaster are treated of in the series of articles
which have appeared from time to time under the heading of "Round
Lancaster Castle," and it is the hope of the author, after due re-
vision, to publish these articles in book-form as soon as the same are
completed. "Time-Honoured Lancaster" deals designedly with
Lancaster only.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

Lancaster — Origin of the Name — Roman Remains Discovered.

CHAPTER II.

St. Mary's Church — Mural inscriptions within the Church — Transcrip-
tions OF BRASSES ANCIENT AND MODERN — STAINED WINDOWS — TlIE OLD

Register Books — Extracts from thesame — Listsof Priors and Vicars
— The Tower— Churchwardens in 1671 — Old Parish Clerks— Memo
rials in the Churchyard — Privilege of Sanctuary at St. Mary's
Church — Extent of Parish in former times — Religious Houses in
Lancaster — The Gardyner Chantry — Penny's and Gillison's Chari-
ties — Names of those resident in the Almshouses early in 1890.

CHAPTER III.

Lancaster Castle — A tour through it — Recent Improvements and

Discoveries.

CHAPTER IV.

The Royal Grammar School — Some Past Masters and Ushers of the
School — Educational Charities.

CHAPTER V.

Celebrities of the past connected with Lancaster — The Great Duke
of Lancaster — Odd Bequests — Traditions ascribed to the Duke.

CHAPTER VI.

Ecclesiastic Characteristics — Lancaster Chancery Court — The Wapen-
take of Lonsdale — Charters granted to Lancaster — Thomas
Covell — The Town Council of Lancaster — The Aqueduct — Source
of the Lune — Lancaster and Kendal Canal — Travelling on the
Canal in the old days — Custom House of the Port of Lancaster
— Employers of Labour — The Old Quay — Lancaster Wagon Works
— The London and North Western and Midland Railways.

CHAPTER VII.

Lancaster Thoroughfares — Origins of Names of Several — Ancient
Structures— The Consecrated Well — Lambert Simnel — Lancaster
and the Knights Hospitallers — Wars of the Roses.



x. CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VIII.

St. Peter's Church— The Architectural Features of the Church— The
Stained Windows— List of Past Priests— The Organ— The Bells—
The Old Mason Street Chapel— Catholics Martyred in Lancaster.

CHAPTER IX.

The Town Hall— The Mayor's Parlour— Paintings therein and in the
Corridor— The Mace of the Borough— Municipal Area — The Old
Market Cross— The Stocks— Ancient Wine and Beer Measures-
List of Past Mayors of Lancaster— Recorders of Lancaster-
Past Town Clerks and Chief Constables— Freemanship of the
Borough— An old Certificate ani. Oath of a Free Burgess of
Lancaster Corporation — Abstract of Charters granted to Lan-
caster — Extracts from the old "Constitutions and Orders" —
The Market Hall— Williamson Park— Introduction of Gas into
Lancaster.

CHAPTER X.

Lancashire Witches— Trials of some of them— Debtors in Lanca

Castle — How they Fared and Passed their Time — Presentations
a \de by Debtors in 1837 — The Amicable Library — Assembly Room
— The Storey Art Institute — The Theatre— Persons of Eminence
wild have appeared therein — lancaster banks.

CHAPTER XI.

Lancaster Worthies.

Eminent Divines born in Lancaster.

\ Taylor, D.D.— Thomas Ashton, D.D. — Robert Housman, B.A.— Pro-
fessor William Whewell — Thomas Hathornthwaite, LL. D.
J. C. M. Bellew, M.A.

Eminent Divines closely identified with Lancaster.

Seth Bushell, D.D. — William John Knox-Little, M.A. — Colin Campbell,
M.A.

Eminent Laymen born in Lancaster.

Sir John Harrison — Henry Bracken, M.D. — John Heysham, M.D.— Wm.
Penny — William Hadwen— William Sanderson — James Lonsdale—
Cornelius Henderson — Sir Richard Owen — Sir William Turner —
Professor Edward Atkinson— W. H. Higgin, Q.C. — Col. Richard
Wadeson, V.C — George Danson — Thomas Edmondson — William
Shaw Simpson — James Brunton — James Tomlinson.

Eminent Laymen closely identified with Lancaster.

Professor Frankland — Professor Galloway — Sir Robert Rawlinson —
Sir A. J. Loftus— William Linton— Jonathan Binns — Edward Denis
de Vitre — Stephen Ross — Sir Thomas Storey — Benjamin Robinson
— H. Gilbert.

Eminent Catholic Divines and Laymen closely identified with

Lancaster.

Edward Hawarden, D.D. — Nicholas Skelton — Charles Viscount Fau-
conberg, D.D. — John Rigby, D.D. — Provost William Walker,
M.R.V.F. — Richard Gillow.



CONTENTS. xi.



CHAPTER XII.

Churches of St. John— St. Anne — Christ Church — St. Luke, Skerton—
Past Incumbents of each — Value of the Respective Livings
Churches — Congregationalism and Wesleyanism in Lancaster
St. Nicholas's Chapel — Various Denominations — Friends' Meeting
House — Moorside Burial Ground.

CHAPTER XIII.

The Lancaster Dispensary and Infirmary — List of Surgeons and Apothe-
caries CONNECTED THEREWITH — COUNTY ASYLUM — LlST OF PAST

Medical Superintendents, Chaplains, and Stewards— The Royal
Albert Asylum — The Ripley Hospital — Tfie Workhouse — The
Cemetery — The Lune Fishery— Seats Round Lancaster — Ashtok
Hall — The Local Press — The Green Lane Murder— Local Cen
tenarians — curious names of persons in lancaster — lo'
Improvements.

CHAPTER XIV.

The Bowerham Barracks — The First Royal Lancashire Regiment of
Militia — "King's Own" — Lancaster Kings of Arms and Lancaster
Heralds — List of Past Kings-of-arms and Heralds — Lancaster
Coins and Tokens — Lancaster Probate Court — Lancaster Posi
Office — Borough Waits — Bellman's Parrock — Our Old Houses
— Castle Hill House — Fenton-Cawthorne House — An Old Tower
— Old Wells — Hotels.

CHAPTER XV.

John o'Gaunt's Bowmen — Masonry and Oddfellowship in Lancaster —
Lancaster Benevolent Burial Friendly Society — The Philippi
Club— John o'Gaunt's Club, London — Lancaster and its Political
Representation — List of Past Members for the Borough.

CHAPTER XVI.

Further Discoveries at the Castle — George Marsh — Executions at
Lancaster Castle of persons said to have been innocent —
Last Execution in England by Strangulation — Imprisonment of
an infant — Lune Shipbuilding Company — The Coffee House
Movement — Borough Perambulations — Proclamation of Queen
Victoria — Is Her Majesty Duke or Duchess of Lancaster?
"Mayors of the Horse Shoe "—Old Esculapians — Epidemics in
Lancaster — List of Constables of Lancaster Castle — Govern
or Keepers of the Castle — Castle Chaplains and Surgeons —
Coroners for Lancaster and District of the Century — Old
Officials — Ages of and Years of Service — Ancient Tenures in
Lancaster.

FRAGMENTS THAT REMAIN.

The Lancaster Waterworks — Discovery of an Old Bayonet — Past
Organists of St. Mary's Church — St. Mary's Church Bells
Weight <m each Bell — List of Ringers at the Churches of Si
Mary, St. Thomas, and St. Peter— Blue Coat and National
Schools — Duchy of Lancaster Receipts 1890— Value of Duchy
Livings — Old Books referring to the County — Note on the
" Black Hole "-—Pasi Master Mariners of the Pori oi Lancaster.

CHRONOLOGY.

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Time- Honoured Lancaster.



CHAPTER I.



Lancaster — Origin of the Name — Roman Remains Discovered.



PROPOSE to allude first of all to the place-
name ; secondly, to the spacious Priory
Church ; thirdly, to its ominously towering
pile, the Castle ; and afterwards to deal with
the various events that have occurred in the
Borough from the earliest periods, dealing
also with many of the old characters to whom
the place has given birth, and with the
quaint building's in the neighbourhood which
still remain.




Lancaster, the Aluna or Ad Alauna of the Romans, is a name
the origin of which takes us far back into the night of ages ; but
with the lamp of enquiry and careful analysis we may illume the
same, and probably bring out a few important items likely to make
an old story new, and so clothe each figure with a suit that shall
neither shame nor belie its natural features. Let us analyse the
terms, Aluna, Ad Alauna, or Alaunum. Whittaker, in his "History
of Richmondshire," traces this name to the early British deity,
Elaunae, the goddess of rivers, and make the uneuphonius Celto-
British name Longovicum, deduceable from the same source. But
more critical indagation leads us to what may probably be the root-
source of both Alauna and Elaunae. In Celtic we have all white,
and aon river, aon and avon being synonymous. From this derivation



B



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



the question naturally arises, Why should the Lune be called white ?
The answer is not difficult. The ancient British were a poetical race ;
what they lacked in science they made up for in poetry, associat-
ing their descriptions with their fancies. As the broad river, famed
in many parts of its course for its white rocky cliffs, reflected
the vapours of the neighbouring- hills and the sunny bright-
ness of the fleecy clouds, they would reasonably, when viewing
it from some distance, call it the white river, owing to the peculiar
or ideal brightness that pervaded it. We next meet with the
transformations Lugaun, and Lug-avon, ancient British for " stream
of water." As for the term Longovicum, it bespeaks a trans-
ition period, and is more strictly Roman, for wic or vie is the
same as the Latin virus ; thus /auu, Ion, and lug, meaning water in
Celtic, bring us to " City by the water." As time rolled on and
races became mixed the pronunciation of place-names, and, as a
result, their orthography, became less pure, and so in Saxon times we
arrived at Loyn-castre, Loncastre Lune-castre, and finally Lancaster.
In Lancashire oa and on are frequently pronounced as if oi, hence
in many parts to this day, we have coals constantly called roils.
Loyn-castre and Lune-castre are therefore Saxon renderings of the
Celtic British. Concerning the term Caer Weridd, from which
Green Ayre and Green Area are said to be deduced, I shall note this
in due course at a more appropriate point.

The History of Lancaster may rightly enough be said to re-
present not just the History of a province or part of the old kingdom
of Deira, but the History of England. However far-fetched may be
the declaration made in the " Cambria Triumphans '' of one Percy
Enderbie, published in the year 1661, that Lancaster was first founded
by Gurguintus, or Guintrius Brabtree, the son of Bellinus, in the
year of creation 4,834, who is credited with also founding Warwick
and Porchester, we may rest assured that the old city, for city it
truly is and ought to be called, has traditions and elements connected
with it and its people which only few boroughs can reveal or boast of.
There can be little doubt that Lancaster represents the Longovicum
of the " Notitia " and the Setantiorum Portus of Ptolemy ; and there



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



is no doubt that the stern-looking fortress of this place is the repre-
sentative of a camp or fort dating- from the days of Aelius, Hadri-
anus, and Augustus Caesar. The town was a Roman station of the
first order, as has been long ago proved by the altars, statues, urns,
and coins found from time to time in its leading thorougfares. The
altar to the memory of Flavius Ammausius, the prefect of an ala of
the Gallic horse ; the altar to the deity of the Lune, inscribed " Deo
Ialono ; " and the beautiful memorial erected to Cocidius, which
latter was discovered in the old wall of the castle, between Hadrian's
round tower and the great square tower of Saxon character, in 1797,
all testify to the sublime antiquity of Lancaster. Milliary stones of
Hadrian and Philip's period, sculptured heads and sea lions, and
various other relics have been unearthed, including Roman Disci
and Sympuvia ; and cups used in sacrifire, together with half-burnt
fragments of wood, bones, and ashes, and broken patera;, Roman
bricks, horns of animals, earthen lamps and jars have also been
turned up and might have formed the basis of a good museum, in
which one department could have been called the Roman and Saxon
store-room of Lancaster Antiquities. Remnants of the hypocaust,
or Roman pottery, of the tile with elevated edges, inscribed "Ala
Sebusia " designating a wing of Roman cavalry of the time of the
Emperor Severus, a.d. 207, ought never to have been distributed
amongst private individuals, but should have been held as the pro-
perty of the borough in trust for the people thereof. I have no
doubt that more remains will yet be found, and I can only wish that
Sir Thomas Storey, Mr. James Williamson, M.P., or some other
magnanimous patron of the town, will yet lead the way to the erec-
tion of an appropriate structure wherein the native and the stranger
alike may " see the past.' and learn something of the original schools
of art which produced works capable of comparing most favourably
from an artistic point of view with anything wrought out in modern
times.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



CHAPTER II.

St. Mary's Church — Mural inscriptions within the Church — Transcrip-
tions OF BRASSES ANCIENT AND MODERN— STAINED WINDOWS — THE OLD

Register Books — Extracts from the same -Lists of Priors and Vicars
-The Tower— Churchwardens in 1671— Old Parish Clerks— Memo-
rials in the Churchyard— Privilege of Sanctuary at St. Mary's
Church — Extent of Parish in former times — Religious Houses in
Lancaster — The Gardyner Chantry— Penny's and Gillison's Chari-
ties—Names of those residing in tde Almshouses early in 1890.

HE Church of St Mary's, Lancaster, was
formerly a priory, for we find that Earl
g Roger, of Poictiers, gave, a.d. 1094, the
Church of St. Mary with other lands here, to
the Abbey of St Mary de Sagio, or Sees, in
Normandy, whereupon a Prior and five Bene-
dictine monks were placed here, who, with
three priests, two clerks, and servants made
up a small monastery, subordinate to the
foreign house, which was endowed with the
yearly revenue of about ^80. After the disso-
lution of the alien priories, this, with the land thereunto belonging,
was annexed by King Henry V., or his feoffees, to the Abbey of Syon
in Middlesex.




tWM^hlU.jl/.Hl'. Jl t ," 4£.«tl^ttf/ltj



The Church, as at present, stands on the site of an earlier
Saxon church, erected, probably, on some of the Roman earthwork.
The interior is very beautiful, some of the stained windows being
remarkably artistic in many instances. There are a nave and
two side aisles, a long and commanding chancel, in which are
fourteen excellently-carved stalls, said to have been brought from the
Abbey of Cockersand in the year 1543. These stalls date probably
from the end of the fourteenth century. There is no proof of their
having been brought from France, as some have supposed, nor yet



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



of their having been appurtenances of Cockersand Abbey. Much
of the ornamentation is decidedly English. The seats arc move-
able and have figures of animals beneath them. A technical
description of the Church may be quoted : — " One half of the entire
length is appropriated to the chancel, and the other to the nave,
the division being marked by three transverse arches across the
central portion and the two side aisles, of which mediaeval churches
usually consist. Nave and chancel are again longitudinally
separated from the aisles, which run the entire length of the Church,
by an arcade of eight finely proportioned arches on each side,
carrying the clerestory walls, the four arches on each side in the
chancel being distinguished by greater richness of detail. The
roofs are flat, partly ancient, of oak, and partly modern, and all
covered with lead. The windows lighting the aisles and clerestory
are all of three lights, and four centred, with tracery of simple
design." The registry for the Lancaster division of Richmond and
the Commissary's Court were for years held within this Church.
They were screened off by ten of the ancient stalls alluded to, while
six others of these richly ornamented specimens of antiquity were
ranged on each side of the organ. The restoration (removal of the
pews, galleries, &c.) was accomplished, says Mr. Paley (1888), about
thirty years ago, and the re-seating of the chancel, which is half
the measure of the church, was finished about twenty years back.
The organ was removed to the chancel in the year 1873. The same
gentleman also states that during the excavations for the purpose of
erecting the new vestry two stone coffins were found in very good
condition. One was proved to be that of a crusader, and on its lid
are a sword and shield. The other coffin is that of a child, judging
from its small size. Both have been inserted in the vestry wall in a
very commendable manner.

The present Tower was erected in 1759. On the north-side
of the Church there are seen several old stones believed to have formed
part of the Saxon Church that existed about the sixth century on this
spot. According to Whitaker's " Richmondshire " the Prior}- of
Lancaster had a claim of two shillings and a pound of wax from



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



twelve acres of land held by Adam, son of Orm de Kellet, in the 25th
year of Edward I. Adam and Ralf de Kellet were witnesses to the
foundation deed of Cockersand Abbey, which is about six miles from
Lancaster, and their family was also identified with the Abbey of
Furness. The visitor will be interested in the chaste and comely
chair for the use of the bishop of the diocese when attending this
church ; it is a neat piece of furniture, so, too, is that ornamental
and most essential adjunct, the pulpit, which bears the date 1619 in
front. Within this shrine of penitence and prayer there is no
lack of mural literature of the classical order. Amongst the interior
mementos to departed worth are a marble tablet and bust to the
memory of Sir Samuel Eyre, a judge of the King's Bench, in the
reign of William III., whose remains were originally interred here,
but afterwards removed to Salisbury, on the 12th of September,
1698 ; the text of the epitaph is as follows : —

. MEMORISE SACRUM
SAMUELIS EYRE EQUUS ALRATI

REGNANTE WILHELMO

LEGUM ET LIBERTATEM VINDICE

UNIUS JUSTICIARIORUM DE BANCO REGIS VIRI

QUI IN OMNI OFEICIORUM GENERE

QU^E VEL UTILEM SOLENT VEL AMABILEM CONSTITUERE

FELICITER EMICUIT

IN COLLOQUIJS COMIS ET URBANUS

IN AURICITIJS STRENUUS ET FIDELIS

IN CAUSIS DECERNENDIS

GRAVIS PERSPICAX INTERGERRIMUS

HINC OPERI INTENTUS

ITER BOREALE SUSCEPIT

QUO MUNERE DEO FAVENTE

SUMMA CUM JUSTITIA PERACTO

DIEM CLAUSIT EXTREMUM

XII" SEPTEMBRIS A.D. MDCLXXXXVIII

CORPUS EJUS IN HAC ECCLESIA PAULUBUM

TEMPORIS DEPOSITUM POSTEA AD CIVTTATEM



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



NOVA SARUM TRANSLATUM FLIT HAC IBIDEM

IN ECCLESIA ST THOM.-K MARTYRIS INHUMATUM

INTER ANTECESSORES

REQUIESCAT.

There is next to be seen an ulto relievo in white marble, by
Roubiliac, to the memory of William Stratford, L.L.D., commissary
of the Archdeaconry of Richmond, who died in 1752, at the age of
75. In this monument, as in the character of the deceased, charity
is the prominent figure, and she is seen displaying her bounty to an
aged woman and two children. This public benefactor bequeathed
^3,000 to particular charities enumerated in his will, and the residue
of his personal property, amounting to ,£9,390, he directed to be
applied to charitable purposes by his executors by means of which
58 small livings in the counties of Lancaster, York, and Chester, as
well as in Westmoreland and Cumberland, were augmented, most of
them with the sum of ^100, on condition that the inhabitants,
incumbent or others would contribute ^100 in order to obtain the
augmentation of Queen Anne's Bounty, by which accumulative



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