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the drinesse of the way, were strong encouragements. We began our march the eight
and twentieth day of April : the presence of God was sought for safe convoy ; and
so terrible was the presence that accompanied our march, (what else can it be imputed



r 4 8 time-honoured Lancaster.



to?) thai our forces passed safely through Wiggan (though the enemy found his former

nest after v\ e had taken it), Fresco/, Ormeskirke (where we marred an intended muster),
and Preston (that recovered Preston). Whence (hearing that our friends in Lan-
cashire were in some danger, though ii was nothing but the Earle's hasting into
Yorkshire and the resl of the forces speeding to Hornby Castle) we stretched our
inarch to LANCASTER. In all this way, as we moved, the enemy removed ; we saw
nothing remarkable in them but cruelty and cowardice; for some troops of horse
meeting a poor boy unharmed, which outwent his company, clave his head and bar-
barously mangled him : also thereabouts the enemy, after a slight skirmish, overcame
by flight.

( >ur arrive at LANCASTER was welcomed with the safety of the Castle, the
food posture of the garrison, their comfortable provision and the well-nigh prepared-
nesse of the carriage; and after vve had refreshed our armie a few days, with the sight
of Tkurland Castle, and the report ol our forraigners against Hornby Castle, we
advanced homeward, the ninth daye of Maye, and under the former gracious conduct,
came safe home, though laden with the weight ol twelve whole pieces and two broken
ones (the rest fortifying the castle), all which we acknowledged in solemne thanksgiving
in Manchester, I he sixteenth of May. Lancashire's Valley of Achor.

From a sermon preached by Nehemiah Barnet, minister at Lancaster. 18th
December. 1645. are the following extracts, from the illustration which they afford as
to the cannon taken at Lancaster mentioned above and of the temporary abandonment
of Lancaster Castle, by Bird), which is. however, slated to have been shortly
repossessed by the Parliament. Several passages of this discourse are borrowed
verbatim from that tract, as noticed in the introduction to ii ;

'" Isaiah wvi. 2. 'Lord, when thy hand . . . shall devoure them .
I shall not now leade you abroad to behold a sight of the lift up hand of God protect-
ing and prospering our armies by sea and land : but I shall keep me within the
confines of ihis county.

[,00k upon their many meanes and advantages : they had man)- roaring,
thundering, terrifying cannons, we but on>: small piece ; one (Mr. Angier) saide well
of them, their's did but playe, but did no worke : whilst the lift up hand of the God
of the seas was working with the windes to bring a Dunkirke ship, a man-of-war,
that came from Spaine. furnished with one and twentie pieces of brasse and iron

• "Cod's Hand lift up for Lancashire, presented in a Sermon preached before
the Honourable Committee of the Count) at Lancaster (constituted under an ordinance
of 26 August, 1645), U P°" the 1 8th daye of December, 1645. Beinge a solemne day
of thanksgiving to Cod. for clearing of the county, in subduing the enemies thereof;
by Nehemiah Barnet, Minister at Lancaster. London : printed by W. Wilson, for
[ohn Williams ; and are to be sold at the Crown, in St. Paul's Church Yard. 1646.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. , 4g



ordinance, tit to supply our present wants and to carry them so neare our strongest
Castle, which had no cannon at all. And shall we not remember the hand of (; ( ,d in
preserving the Castle at Lancaster, after the cannons were hastily conveyed thither:
the en vie of our enemies was presentlie encreased, and therefore with much fury and
all their forces, came against the Towne and Castle, and were so hot thai thev
quickly fired the towne and thought thereby to have fired or frighted u> out of the
castle, and so have gained that which God's hande had lately given unto us. Yet
unwilling to light with our forces that came to relieve us, fearing thereby that the)
should lose their plunder, wherewith they were loaden, retreated and took the
opportunity to prevaile against Preston, which successes surprised the spirites and
discouraged the heartes of the chief commanders in the Castle, that the)- thought
the safest waye for themselves was to march towards Manchester, and quit the
Castle."

In the year 164S the Scotch army, under the command of the Duke of
Hamilton and a body of English, both horse and toot, under Sir Marmaduke Lang-
dale, marched through Lancaster in order to release Charles from his imprisonment.
The English troops formed the advance division of the army, which in the locality of
Preston was confronted by Cromwell's horsemen, who forced it to make a disorderly
march to Uttoxeter, where the Scottish army was totally defeated, and the Duke and
his chief officers taken prisoners. Sir Thomas Tyldesley, a gentleman representing
the ancient family of Tyldesley, of Tyldesley. a staunch supporter of the king, was at
this time blockading Lancaster Castle, which had been previously seized upon by
Cromwell and garrisoned by the Parliamentary army. The garrison was reduced to
great straits when the news arrived from Preston that Cromwell's horse had defeated
the Scots. It was then decided to abandon the design of subjecting Lancaster
Castle, and learning that Major General Munroe, with reinforcements for the Duke's
army from Scotland, had arrived in Lancashire, Sir Thomas Tyldesley joined him,
after having collected many of Sir Marmaduke Langdale's men who had been dis-
persed at Preston. Being joined by others newly brought into service, Sir Thomas
Tyldesley proposed to Ceneral Munroe that their joint forces, together with more
regiments of the Scotch, who were at the period quartered in Kendal, should march
towards Preston and follow Cromwell in the rear as he pursued the Scots; but
Munroe declined and marched through Westmorland and Cumberland to Scotland.
Sir Thomas Tyldesley therefore proceeded to Durham to join the levies being raised
there for the king.

March ol Charles II. through Lancashire towards Worcester August, 1651.
Advance of King Charles from Lancaster to Warrington.

Mercurius Politicus No. 63. August 21. 1651. The following lettei
given having neither address nor signature :



no TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



'•Sir,— This day sen'night (9th) Renegade Wogan came into Kendal with some
troops, and charged the town to provide for 1,000 horse. Upon Monday (nth)
treacherous Boynton came into Lancaster with six troops, to make provision for 1,000
Van-curriers, commanded by the Duke of Buckingham. Upon Tuesday (12th) the
Scots King came hither, and set all the prisoners in the castle at liberty. He was pro-
claimed at the Crosse, and a general pardon to all persons, except some few. That
night he lodged at Ashton Hall, three miles from Lancaster, being Colonel Wainman's
house, where Hamilton lodged two dayes before the baltail of Preston, whose fate, we
hope, attends this young man that traces him in the same steps of invasion. Upon
Wedneday (13th) he lodged at Myerscoe, Sir Thomas Tildesley's house, and from
thence he marched through Preston. Upon Thursday (14th) his foot having the van,
over Ribble Bridge, that night he lodged at Kuston-burgh six miles on this side of
Preston, being Mr. Anderton's house, who was prisoner at Lancaster, but set at liberty
by the Scots. This Anderton is a bloody papist, and one that, when Price Rupert
was at Bolton, boasted much of being in blood to the elbows at that cruell massacre.
The last night (15th) the King lodged at Brine, six miles from Warrington being Sir
William Gerard's house, who is ;i subtle Jesuited Papist. This dissembling Scot trusts
none so well in Lancashire for his hosts as the Papists, which discovers his grosse
hypocrisy in taking the covenant, and may lei our English, as well as our Scotch
Presbyters see how they were deceived with vaine conceits of this man's religion. Most
people of all sorts in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire fled as fast from the
Scots, as their King and themselves did from their beggarly kingdom. 'Tis reported
their King blames Major Ashurst for bringing him into Lancashire, since he finds no
more accesse of forces. I do not hear that any considerable person doth openly own
him since his march into England. Wherefore we doubt not but God hath ordered
his coming hither for the more speed}- antl total! mine of him and his adherents.
Stockden Heath, 16 August."

When looking over the muniments and autograph letters belonging to Mr.
I enwick Pearson, of Storrs Hall, and so excellently arranged by that gentleman, 1 nut
with the following letter, which along with other matter, I was permitted to transcribe.

" My Lord, — I writt the last Fryday to yr lord]) as I understand the drumer
by whom I sent my lettre never went to your lordp neither can we hear what is be-
come of him. In this respect my desire is to communicate the occasione of mv then
writinge to you by myselfe personally to the affectinge of this I must crave your lordp\
assurance for my safe carriage to you and my secure rcturninge back. I shall expect
your lordp's answer by this drumer and shall alwayes be ready to continue your
lordpp's friend and servante, Morley and MONTEAGLE.

November 21st, 1644.

I will bringe along with me only my boy.
To the Hon. Ferdinando, Lorh Fairfax,

General of the Northern Forces, for the King and Parliament."



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 151



The writer of the above letter was evidently the "papist and delinquent" Morley whose
estates were sequestered and whose sun in 1651 petitioned for maintenance out of the
same. See Challoner's "Missionary Priests" [Sequestrations). At the period the
letter was written in. this son (alluded to in the postcript) would be about seven years old.

The Rebellion of 1715.

In 1715 about one thousand four hundred rebels entered Kendal, and pro-
ceeded next day to Kirkby Lonsdale ; they entered Lancaster on the 7th, in the
'ollowing order, viz : — 200 English horse, I lighlanders on foot and 200 Lowland Scotch
with Scotch horse in the rear. They came directly to the market place and drew up
their foot around it, with bagpipes playing. When they were drawn up at this point
a man mounted the cross and after the trumpet had sounded thrice, he proclaimed the
Pretender by the title of James III., alleging that Iris just right had been until then
detained from him by foreigners and usurpers, at the close of which they gave a loud
shout of ' God save the King!' Very few of the inhabitants of Lancaster or the neigh.
bourhood joined them in uncovering or shouting ; most of the rebels had ribands in
their hats, the English red and white :\\h\ the Scotch blue and white. After the
proclamation was read, they repaired to their quarters as billeted ; they all behaved
themselves civilly whilst here: the shops were opened, and whatever they wanted they
paid for ; they also paid oft' their quarters well, except the Highlanders, who paid only
a part. "\Ye learn that the rebels next searched the town for arms and ammunition, but
only got a few pounds of gunpowder, the inhabitants having two days before, publicly
thrown all the powder they could collect (about two barrels), into the well in the mar-
ket place. Mr. Christopher Hopkins, bookseller, is credited with having thrown a
large quantity of gunpowder into the well which once stood in the market place. He
did this in order to prevent the rebels seizing it and doing injur)- with it to the
townspeople. Possibly the suggestion to take the course indicated originated with
him. They got some militia muskets and fowling pieces ; also five pieces of cannon,
from aboard the ship " Robert," lying at Sunderland, from which ship they also took
a few muskets and some swords. Before leaving Lancaster they were joined by some
of the neighbouring Catholic gentry and their dependents, in numberabout onehundred
men. They also secured what public money they could from the Excise Office ; and
from John Powel, the Postmaster, they obtained £42. They likewise seized and took
away with them all the horses they could find. They marched from the town on
Wednesday morning, the 9th inst, the horse proceeded that day to Preston, and the
toot to Garstang. The latter joined the horse next day in the evening at Preston,
where they remained till the I2lh, in order to fix carriages to the guns which they
had seized at Lancaster.

After the surrender of the rebels to the King's forces at Preston, about two
hundred-', and thirty of the common men guarded by Dormer's regiment of Dragoons
were sent to Lancaster castle. Clarke states that the account of the proceedings.- of



152 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



the rebels in our town in 1715. was taken from the manuscript of a tradesman of Lan'
raster, who was an eye-witness of what he described.

From anothei authority we learn that ;

" The protection of Lancaster had been confided to Colonel Hoghton who
was at the head of a body of militia, but his force was in no degree calculated to with-
stand the invading army, and the Colonel and his men retreated before the rebels
arrived. Two days after their arrival they completely evacuated the town, taking the
route of Garstang to Preston, where they weie compelled to capitulate to General
Wills and Ceneral Carpenter."

At Preston this erratic body prepared to march to Manchester, but the
county was getting alive to the serious results their freaks might bring about, and they
were met by an unexpected opposition in the person of the Rev. James Woods, a
dissenting minister, who had been ejected, and his congregation. This little army who
were armed with the implements of husbandry reversing the ancient prediction by
turning their plough-shares into swords and their pruning forks into spears, marched
to Walton-de-Dale, where they were drawn up in battle array to dispute the right o(
passage with the insurgents, but the King's forces were advancing under General
Willis and the) were all speedily defeated and the ringleaders impeached and found
guilty, the Earl of Derwentwater and Viscount Keiimure being beheaded on Tower
Hill, on the 24th of February 1716. Lords Nairn and Carmvath escaped such a fate,
receiving a reprieve, and Earls Wintown and Nithesdale e\aded the axeman's blow
by getting out of the town in some stealthy manner. Nine of the rebel parly were
hanged at Lancaster, sixteen at Preston, five at Manchester, five at Wigan, four at
Liverpool, ami four at Garstang. Mr. Gascoigne, the Rev. Mr. Paul and John
Hall, Esq.. were hanged at Tyburn. General Foster escaped to the continent.

Of rebels executed at Lancaster 1 give the following list from .in old MS.

18th February. 1 716.

Oeorge Mackintosh.
1 lercules Derham.
Donald Robertson.
Robert Crow e.

3rd October. 1 7 16.

Captain Thomas Bruce.
Thomas Shuttleworth.
John Winckley.
William Charnley.
Richard Hodgson.

The number who died in gaol at Lancaster was forty-three. Sen:
Liverpool for transportation, one hundred ; executed at Liverpool, four.






TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 153



Executed at Preston.

1 By sentence of Court Martial).

Major John Nairne.
Captain Phil. Lockhart.
Captain John Shafthoe.
Ensign Erskine.
12 common men (privates).

At Garstang, tour were executed, .it Wigan, liv«.'. and at Manchester, five.

The Second or 1745 Rebellion.

The arguments as to the cashiering of a King dej'ure, and the establishing

of a King de facto were carried on between the Protestants, Catholics, and non-
jurors with great heat, and at last the war dog's were again let loose in 1745, when
the young Pretender and Chevalier. Prince Charles Edward, animated with the hope
of regaining the English Throne, quitted his exile in France on the second of August
in the year named.

On the 22nd of November the rebels constituting the Second Rebellion
advanced to Kendal. Their van marched to Burton the day after and entered Lan-
caster on the 24th. the Pretender, who was in the highland dress marched on foot to
encourage his men, and was proclaimed the same day at Lancaster amidst the accla-
mations of his follow ers, who then seized the public money. On the 25th the main
body entered into the town, and on the 26th the last division arrived in such haste that
they only Stopped to take some refreshment standing in the streets. They plundered the
husbandmen in the neighbourhood of Lancaster of all the horses they could find,
and they took the shoes from the passengers in the high-roads. A young man named
Battersby, of Langthwaite, near Lancaster, was shot by one oi the rebels for refusing
to give up a fowling-piece which he had in his hand and which the Scot had demanded.
On the 27th November they reached Preston : several stragglers, however, who had
loitered behind in the neighbourhood of Lancaster, anil between that Town and
Preston, were seized and conducted to Lancaster Castle.

The Scot> on their retreat towards Scotland were apprehensive of being
surrounded in Lancashire, as was the case with their countrymen in 1648 and 1 7 1 5.
made forced marches and arrived at Preston on the 12th December; the next day
they reached Lancaster and immediately set open the gates of the castle, and released
the rel>el prisoners confined there. The) behaved in a rude and brutal manner to
many of the most respectable inhabitants of the town, who had been most active
against them, plundering from some, extorting money from others. Prom Mr. ( riHison
they obtained about 20 guineas. A party of them was sent to 1 )r. Kenton's (the vicarage).
where they committed great outrages. The Doctor had fortunately fled from his
house, but thev presented several pistols and drawn swords to the servants, and caused



154 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



them to open every room, chest, box, and drawer in the house, out of which,
the Scots took what they pleased ; and then they threatened to burn the house
unless ^20 was instantly given to them. These threats so greatly alarmed the old lady
in the house that she obtained for them that amount of money. On the 14th o(
December these rebellious persons left Lancaster and arrived at Kendal the same day
In the evening of the 14th some troops of the King's horse arrived in the neighbourhood.
Many of the marauders were still in the town, and the officer commanding the light
horse, not' knowing their number, deemed it imprudent to enter in the night. He
therefore halted with his men on Ellel Moor, where the troops rested on their arms al]
night, and early the next morning they entered Lancaster to the great joy of the inhabi-
tants. General Oglethorp and a strong' body of dragoons arrived soon after ; and on
the 16th His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, also arrived in the town.
Great numbers of the rebels were taken in Lancaster and the neighbourhood and
lodged within the castle, and many in their haste to retreat were obliged to leave their
plunder behind them.

What we know as the Battle of Culloden might very easily have been called
the Battle of Scotforth, for page 603 of the " History of the Scottish Highlands,
I [ighland Clans, and 1 [ighland Regiments,"' by Thomas Maclaughlan, L. L.D., F.S.A.
Scot., and Professor John Wilson, edited by John S. Keltic, F.S.A. Scot., Vol. I.
states thai " Prince Charles arrived at Lancaster late in the evening of the 13th Dec-
ember. On reaching his quarters (the Conservative Club, Church Street), Lord
George Murray found that orders had been given out that the army was to halt there
all the next day. On visiting Charles's quarters next morning, Lord George was told
by the Prince that he had resolved to fight the enemy, and desired him to go along
with ( ^Sullivan, and reconnoitre the ground in the neighbourhood for the purpose Of
choosing a field of battle. His Lordship contrary to the expectations of those who
hail advised Charles to fight, and who supposed that Lord George would have opposed
that measure, offered no advice on the subject. He merely proposed that as the
ground suitable for regular troops might not answer the Highlanders, some Highland-
officers should also inspect the ground, and as Lochiel was present, he requested that
he would go along with him, a request with which he at once complied. With an
escort of horse and foot, and accompanied by Lochiel and Sullivan, Lord George
returned about two miles, where he found a very fine field upon a rising ground
sufficiently large for the whole army, and which was so situated that from whatever
quarter the enemy could come, the army would be completely covered till the enemy
were close upon them. After surveying these grounds very narrowly, and taking three
nf the enemy's rangers prisoners, the reconnoitring party returned to Lancaster. From
the prisoners Lord George received information that the corps called the rangers was
at (jarstang, and that a great body of Wade's Dragoons had entered Preston a few
hours after he had left it His Lordship reported to the Prince the result of the survey,
and told him that if the number of his men was sufficient to meet the enemy he could
not wish a better field of battle for the Highlanders ; but Charles informed him that



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



33



he had altered his mind, and that he meant to proceed on his march next day.
Jacobite Memoirs, p 60, and Kirkonnel MS.

I n the revolution of 1688, Lancaster took no distinguished
part, nor is there any prominent event, during - the reign of
William III., 111 the history of this town, except that in the year
1698 a casual lire broke out in one of the principal streets, and
spread with such destructive fury as to almost reduce the town
once more to ashes.



C0



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



CHAPTER VIII



St. Peter's Church— The Architectural Features of the Church— The
Stained Windows- -List of Past Priests- The Organ— The Bells—
The Old Mason Street Chapel -Catholics Martyred in Lancaster.




1 1 E Catholics of Lancaster have a very hierh
reputation both in regard to the character
of their relationships with their Protestant
neighbours, and their co-operation in matters
affecting the well-being of the town. They
have a stately edifice, occupying a large area
of land, on the right-hand side of the East
Road. It is a veritable cathedral in appear-
ance, within especially, and lately several
embellishments have been added in the shape
of stained lights in commemoration of pro-
minent martyrs for the faith. The Church is dedicated to St.
Peter. It was erected in 1859, at a cost of ^.15,000, from designs
of Mr. E. G. Paley. The spire rises to a height of 240 feet, and
I he tower portion of it contains eight exceedingly sonorous bells.
The Church will accommodate 1,000, and so well is it attended
that there has been some talk of enlarging it. On the south side
is a small convent, and on the east side are day schools for bovs
and girls, and a small burial ground. The Very Rev. Provost
Walker is the rector. Until the new Church of St. Peter was
erected, the building now known as the Palatine Hall, situated in
Dalton Square, was the temple wherein the Catholics of Lancaster
assembled for worship. This quondam chapel dates from 1797,
and for a long time its minister was the Rev. Dr. Rigby, who was
succeeded by the Rev. Richard Brown, the immediate predecessor
of Canon Walker.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



.->/



The Rev. Dr. John Rigby, 33 years pastor of the Roman
Catholic Church, Lancaster, died on the toth June, r8i8, at his
house, Dalton Square, in his 64th year.

The new Catholic Church is indeed a contrast to the tirst

place of worship in Mason Street. The following particulars are

quoted from the Tablet and the Catholic News: "St. Peter's

Church was erected during the ministry of the Rev. Dean Brown.

The length of the nave is 1 14 feet, width between the pillars 36 feet.

The side aisles are 90 feet in length, and 12 in breadth ; the

length of the transept is 80 feel, breadth 23 feet. The chancel is

of the same width as the nave and is 41 feet long, and its breadth,

including nave and side aisles, 60 feet. The chancel terminates

with a semi-circular octagonal arrangement, and has a three-light

window on each face. The subject of the centre east window is the

Ascension. In the upper part is a grand figure of our Lord

ascending" in glory, and below, gathered on the mount on which

His blessed footprints may be seen, and looking up towards Him

is the adoring group of the Apostles, with the Holy Virgin in

the midst. The dexter or right-hand window is dedicated to the

patron saint of the Church, St. Peter, who stands in pontifical



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