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a deceased monk to Abbot Paslew, announcing to the Abbot the
date of his death. The monk was Edward Howarth (Haward or
Howard), who had filled the office of Sub-cellarer to the fraternity.
The translation of this curious note is as follows: "a.d. 1520, May
9th, died Edmund Howard, Monk of Whalley ; the same after his
death appeared a certain night to Master John Paslew, Abbot of the
Monastery, and foretold to him that he had 16 years and not more
to live." The supernatural forewarning was verified sixteen years
after. On March 12th, 1537, Abbot Paslew was hanged at Whalley
for high treason.

To punish people whose only fault was their belief, which, if
worth the name, could not be identified with the coercion of the
consciences of their fellow-creatures, proves two facts ; first, that
the punishers were fools for their pains, and that force on the part
of man is opposed to God's law. The manner in which many of
these Catholic martyrs deported themselves must evoke the highest
praise.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 191



List of Catholic Martyrs, Seminary Priests, and others who
Suffered at Lancaster.

1537 William Trafford, Abbot of Sawley.

April 20th, 1584 James Bell, of Warrington.

April 20th, 1584 John Finch, of Eccleston.

1584 James Laybourne.

|uly 26th, 1600 Robert Nutter, of Burnley.

luly 26th, 1600 Edward Thwing, of Herst.

March, 1601 Thurston Hunt, of Carleton, Leeds.

Aug. 16th, or

Sept. 16th, 1604 Lawrence Bailey.

Spring, 1616 Roger Wrenno, alias Warren.

Spring, 1616 John Thulis, of Upholland.

Aug. 28th 1628 Edmund Arrowsmith, of Haydock,

Warrington.

Aug. 29th 1628 Richard Herst.

Sept. 10th, 1641 Edward Barlow, of Barlow Hall.

Aug. 7th ,1646 John Woodcock, of Clayton,

and Woodcock Hall Preston.

Aug. 7th 1646 Thomas Whitaker, of Burnley.

Aug. 7th 1646 Edward Bamber, alias Leading, of Moor,

Poulton-le-Fylde.

Some Lancashire Catholics no'] Executed at Lam aster.

1 537 John Paslew, Abbot of Whalley, At Whalley.

May 30th, 1582 Thomas Cottarn, of Cottam Hall, Preston, Tyburn.

May 30th, 1582 Lawrence Richardson, Tyburn.

Feb. 1 2th, 1584 George Haydock, Tyburn.

April 25th, 1586 Robert Anderton, of Euxton, Isle of Wight.

April 25th, 1586 William Marsden, of Goosenargh, Isle of Wight.

Spring of 1588 Richard Symson, Derby.

April 30th, 1590 Miles Gerard, Rochester.

June 23rd, 1592 Robert Ashton, of Croston, Tyburn.

Nov. 16th, 1594 Edward Osbakleston, York.

June 21st, 1600 John Rigbye, of Harrock (30th year), St. Thomas' Watering

July 13th, 1616 Thomas Tunstall, alias Helmes, Norwich.

Dec. 12th, 1642 Thomas Holland (aged 42). Tyburn.

June, 1654 John Southworth, of Samlesbury Hall,

(born 1592), Tyburn.

June 13th, 1679 William Barrow (known by the names of

Waring and Harcourt), Rector of
London when apprehended, Tyburn.

July 19th, 1679 John Wall, alias Webb, Worcester.



i 9 2 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



So far as can be ascertained it is 338 years since the mace
was last borne before a Catholic Mayor to a Catholic Church. The
Mavor on that occasion would be Richard Gardyner, and the Church
St. Mary's Church. When Alderman Thomas Preston was Mayor
of Lancaster for the first time, namely in 1875, an illiberal demon-
stration was manifested, when it was proposed by His Worship
that he should pay a state visit to his own Church, indeed, so strong-
was the feeling that His Worship felt for the sake of preventing a
breach of the peace, the idea had better be abandoned. Happily in
1890 no such ebullition of ill-feeling prevailed, and the same
gentleman, Mayor of the Borough for the second time,, visited St.
Peter's Church accompanied by members of the Town Council and
others, even persons of puritanical tendencies. The mace was no
worse for being carried along East Road, the coronation oath was
not endangered, the Union Jack was not split up, and neither one
religion nor another was disparaged or ruined by the event. Let
the same liberality mark Catholics and Protestants whenever the
occasion demands it.

There are some beautiful carved memorial stones in the
cemetery attached to St. Peter's Church. The tomb of the late
Dean Brown, those of the Smith and Coulston families, and last
but not least, the Irish cross erected to the Leemings, may fittingly
be mentioned as artistic specimens of sepulchral work. The cross
alluded to consists of Carrara marble. Round the head of it are
the words " De profundis clamavi," and below " Ad Te Domine."
The plait of thorns, the nails and the passion flowers are exquisitely
chiselled. The sculptors were Messrs. Gaffin & Co., of 63, Regent
Street, London, W. The cemetery represents about an acre of
land, and its consecration dates from 1850. It may be added that
there is a convent adjoining the Church, with usually nine Sisters
of Mercy in residence, whose labours among the young connected
with the school and also among the poor are carried on with an
unobtrusiveness no less marked by observers than their untiring-
energy.






TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



i9:



CHAPTER IX."

The Town Hall— The Mayor's Parlour— Paintings Therein and in the
Corridor — The Mack of the Borough —Municipal Area— The Old
Market Cross — The Stocks — Ancient Wine and Beer Measures-
List oe Past Mayors of Lancaster — Recorders of Lancaster-
Past Town Clerks and Chief Constables— Freemanshif of the
Borough — An old Certificate and Oath oe a Free Burgess oi
Lancaster Corporation — Abstract of Charters granted to Lan-
caster — Extracts from the old "Constitutions and Orders"
The Market Hall — Williamson Park — Introduction of ('.as into
Lancaster.

HE exterior of the Town Hall, which stands
on the site of the old one, is not very imposing,
and it is to be hoped we shall in due course
behold a new hall erected worthy alike of the
traditions of the borough and of an architec-
tural design in keeping with that oi' most
other Lancashire Town Halls. The present
structure was commenced in 1781, the founda-
tion stone having' been laid in the March oi
that year. Several coins placed in a copper
box were deposited under the foundation
stone at the south-east corner. The Hall was comp'eted in May,
1783, during the mayoralty of Robert Foxcroft, at a cost of £^1,300.
It was built by Mr. Robert Dickinson, of Lancaster, from a design
of Major Jarrett, and the Corporation presented the latter gentle-
man with the freedom of the borough in a silver box. The Hall
has a portico supported by four Tuscan columns ; the entablature
is Doric, with a plain pediment and a cupola. The additions made
within recent years, consisting of offices and cells, have cost the
town more than double the sum spent upon the original building.

In the Mayor's Parlour are some well executed oil paintings
of local public men. First I observe one oi' the late Alderman




o



i 9 4 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Greg thus inscribed :-—" Alderman Greg - , for forty years and
still a member of the Corporation ; presented to the town of
Lancaster by members and ex-members of the Council, 6th Jul)-,
1881." Next is seen that of Colonel Thomas Greene, in Court
dress, "thirty years M.P., for Lancaster." Then there are the
portraits of "Samuel Gregson, Esq., fourteen years M.P. for
Lancaster ; presented to the town of Lancaster by his daughter,
November 3rd, 1882." " Thomas Swainson, Esq., town clerk, pre-
sented to the town of Lancaster by his many friends, May 28th,
1884." "Alderman Williamson, J. P., Mayor 1864-5 ; presented to
the town of Lancaster by his fellow townsmen, November 8th, 1882 ;
William Storey, Esq., J. P., Mayor 1872-3; presented to the town of
Lancaster by his brothers."

There was a representation of the Town Hall of Lancaster as it
appeared in the year 1700, and there are likewise two portraits of
Sir Richard Owen, one in oil and the other a photograph.

On a stone shield carved about 1667-8 the arms of Lancaster
appear. The arms are azure and gules, in chief a fleur de lys ; and
in the base a lion passant, guardant, or, the azure is elevated in
relief above the level of the gules.

In the corridor are two tine portraits of George IV. and
H.R.H. the Duke of York, one, if not both being the work of
Cornelius Henderson, a local painter. Near to is a portrait of the
King of Siam, presented by Captain Sir Alfred Loftus, F.R.G.S.,
M.T.G.S., &c, Hydrographer to the King of Siam. In a wall on
the ground floor facing the west is a board on which are the Royal
Arms. Above the arms you read " Win, Bryer, Esq., Mayor,
1736;" below are the names of the bailiffs thus — " Jno. Gunson,
Wm. Stout, bailiffs." In the Court are the County and Borough
Arms, and on the right as you descend the public staircase is a
model of Nelson's ship the " Victory." In the entrance on the west
or New Street side and on the left is this Latin adage : —



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 195



E X E C V T I O

I V R I S . X V L L I
F A C I T . INI V

R I A M . 1669.
" The execution of tlie law doeth injury to none."

Here we are in the neighbourhood of what was once known as the
" Black Hole," to which reference will be made in due course.

The Mace of the Borough of Lancaster is one of the neatest
specimens of Corporation insignia extant. It is chastely engraved
the shield being divided fesse, and in chief a Castle with four towers,
base, a lion passant, guardant. It dates from the reign of Queen
Anne, and bears the letters "A.R.," the inscription is as follows : —
" The gift of Robert Heysham, Esq., to ye Corporation of Lancaster,
December, 1702." Mr. Llewellyn Jewett speaks very highly of this
Lancaster emblem of authority. In the Council Chamber are
paintings of William Pitt and Lord Nelson, by Lonsdale, a Lan-
caster artist.*

The municipal area consists of 1,680 acres of land and the
rateable value is ^,119,417 10s.

The old Market Cross stood between the east end of the
Town Hall portico and the old Fish Stones and was ascended by
several steps. What became of it 1 have not been able to find out.

The Arcade and portico of the Town Hall were formerly used
as a grain market, but on the enlargement of the market house, the
farmers having better accommodation provided for them, ceased to
meet here.



The stocks which formerly stood in the Market Place are still
preserved in the Town Hall in an upper chamber ; they are in an

* Some authorities state that Lonsdale was born at Garstang. Local
works call him " a Lancaster artist.'' I think the elder Lonsdale would be born at

Garstang.



196 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



excellent state of preservation. They used to stand near to the old
Corn Market. I must not forget the ancient wine and beer
measures, said to have been made of gun-metal from the guns
captured at the battle of the Spanish Armada. A large bowl is
inscribed " Elizabeth Dei Gracia Angliae Franciae et Hiberniae,
Regina." The letters " E.R." and the crown also appear. A " Corn
Gallon" is lettered "Elizabeth Regina, E.R., 1601." An "Ale
Quart," 1601, and an "Ale Pint," 1709, are likewise to be seen in a
room below. On another vessel is engraved "Corporation of
Lancaster, W.G. "

Past Mayors of Lancaster.

1416, Richard de Elslake (first mayor on record); 1504,
Robert Herdman ; 1512, Richard Nelson; Temp. Henry VIII.,
Lawrence Starkey (Ducat Lane, vol. 1, p. 192); 1552, Richard
Gardner ; 1553, William Colteman, ; 1570, Nicholas Olivers; 1574,
John Hewetson ; 1377, James Brown; 1595, Thomas Southworthe ;
1628, Thomas Covelle ; 1629, Galfridus de Heesham ; 1630, George
Toulnson ; 1631, Edmund Covelle; 1632, William Sands; 1633,
William Shaw ; 1638, Richard Sands ; 1639, W'illiam Shaw ; 1645,
William Shaw ; 1650, George Toulnson ; 1652, Major Riparn (see
George Fox's Journal, p. 90) ; 1653, Thomas Riparn (parish
reg'ister); 1654, Thomas Riparn; 1655, John Bateman ; 1661, Henrv
Porter ; 1663, Thomas Southworthe ; 1664, Thomas Johnes ; 1665,
Sir Robert Bindloss, Bart. ; 1666, William Parkinson ; 1667,
Francis Hunter ; 1668, William West ; 1669, Thomas Southworth;
1670, William Waller; 1671, John Greenwood; 1672, Sir Robert
Bindloss, Bart.; 1673, William Parkinson; 1673, Edward Newton;
1674, Thomas Corles ; 1675, Christopher Procter ; 1676, William
Toulnson ; 1077, William Waller; 1678. John Greenwood; 1679,
Francis Hunter; 1680, Francis Metcalfe; 1681, Henry Johnes;
1682, Joshua Partington; 1683, Randolph Hunter; 1684, John
Hodgson; 1685, Robert Stirzaker ; 1686, John Foster; 1687 and
1688, Thomas Sherson and John Greenwood ; 1688 and 1689, John
Hodgson and Christopher Sherson ; 1689, John Foster ; 1690,



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER [97



Thomas Baines ; i6yi, Henry Johnes ; 1692, Joshua Partington;
1693, John Hodgson ; 1694, William Penny (founder of Penny's
Hospital) ; 1695, Thomas Metcalfe ; 1696, George Foxcroft ; 1697,
Thomas Walker ; 1698, Robert Parkinson ; 1699, Robert Carter ;
1700, Thomas Sherson ; 1701, John Hodgson ; 1702, William
Penny ; 1703, Thomas Simpson ; 1704, Thomas Medcalfe ; 1705,
Thomas Waller; 1706, Robert Parkinson; 1707, Robert Carter;
1708, Thomas Westmore ; 1709, Thomas Sherson ; 17 10, Thomas
Gardner; 1 7 1 1 , William Penny; 1712, Richard Simpson; 1713,
John Bryer ; 1714, Thomas Waller ; 17 15, Robert Parkinson ; 1716,
Edward Cole ; 1717, Robert Carter ; 17 18, Thomas Westmore ;
1719, Richard Simpson ; 1720, John Bryer ; 1721, Thomas Waller;
1722, Christopher Butterfield ; 1723, Thomas Croft ; 1724, James
Tomlinson ; 1725, Edmund Cole; 1726, Robert Winder; 1727,
Thomas Westmore; 1728, John Coward; 1729, Thomas Postle-
thwaite ; 1730, John Casson ; 1 73 1 , Christopher Butterfield ; 1732,
James Smethurst ; 1733, Jsunes Tomlinson ; 1734, John Bowes ;
1735, W f illiam Bryer ; 1736, Edmund Cole ; 1737 Robert Winder ;
1738, Thomas Postlethwaite ; 1739, Thomas Sinoult ; 1740, John
Gunson; 1 741 , John Casson; 1742, John Bowes; 1743, William
Bryer; 1744, Robert Winder; 1745, Thomas Gibson ; 1746, James
Holmes; 1747, Henry Bracken; 1748, James Rigmaiden : 1749,
Miles Barber ; 1750, Thomas Postlethwaite; 175 1, John Gunson;
1752, Joshua Bryer ; 1753, Gwalter Borranskill ; 1754, Robert
Winder; 1755, John McMillan; 1756, William Butterfield; 1757,
Henry Bracken; 1758, Miles Barker; 1759, Joshua Bryer; 1760,
Robert Foxcroft; 1762, Gwalter Borranskill: 1762, Robert Winder,
1763, John Stout ; 1764, Roger Walshman ; 1765, Edward Snarl;
1766, James Hinde; 1767, John Bowes ; 1768, James Barrow; 1769,
Thomas Hinde ; 1770, William Butterfield; 1 77 1 , Robert Foxcroft;
1772, John Stout ; 1773, Edward Suart ; 1774, James Hinde ; 1775,
John Bowes ; 1776, Henry Hargreaves ; 1777, James Harrow ;
1778, Thomas Hinde; 1779, William Butterfield; 1780, Robert
Foxcroft; 1781, Edward Suart; 1782, James Hinde; 1783, John
Bowes ; 1784, Henry Hargreaves ; 1785, Miles Mason ; 1786,
William Watson ; 1787, John Housman ; 1788, Samuel Simpson ;



1 98 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



1789, John Watson; 1790, Anthony Atkinson; 1791, Edward

Suart ; 1792, James Hinde ; 1793, John Tallon ; 1794, Robert

Addison; 1795, Richard Johnson; 1796, David Campbell; 1797,

Thomas Harris ; 1798, James Moore ; 1799, Richard Postlethwaite,

1800, Richard Atkinson ; 1801, James Parkinson ; 1802, Thomas

Shepherd ; 1803, Robert Addison ; 1804, Jackson Mason ; 1805,

Richard Johnson ; 1806, Thomas Burrow ; 1807, John Taylor

Wilson ; 1808, Thomas Moore (James Moore resigned) ; 1809,

Richard Atkinson; 1810, Thomas Moore; 181 1, John Baldwin;

181 2, Thomas Giles ; 1813, Richard Johnson ; 1814, John Park ;

1815, Thomas Burrow ; 1816, John Taylor Wilson ; 1817, Samuel

Gregson; 1818, Thomas Walling Salisbury; 1819, John Bond;

1820, James Atkinson ; 1821, Thomas Bowes ; 1822, James Barton

Nottage ; 1823, Thomas Giles ; 1824, Leonard Redmayne ; 1825,

Samuel Gregson ; 1826, John Taylor Wilson ; 1827, Thomas

Walling Salisbury ; 1828, George Burrow; 1829, John Bond ; 1830,

James Atkinson ; 1831, Thomas Giles ; 1832, Christopher Johnson ;

1833, George Burrow ; 1834, J onn Brockbank. Since the passing

of the Municipal Reform Act : — 1835, G. Burrow ; 1836, T. H.

Higgin ; 1S37, John Greg ; 1838, J. Armstrong ; 1839, J. Dockray ;

1840, W. Robinson ; 1841, J. Dunn; 1842, J. Dunn; 1843, E. D.

de Vitre ; 1844, E. D. Salisbury ; 1845, J- Giles ; 1846, John Sharp;

1847, T. Howitt ; 1848, E. Sharpe ; 1849, J. Sow ray ; 1850, H.

Gregson; 185 1 , J. H. Sherson ; 1852, John Hall; 1853, J. S.

Burrell; 1854, J. Brockbank; 1855, E. D. DeVitre ; 1856, R.

Hindle ; 1857, C. Johnson, jun.; 1858, W. Jackson ; 1859, W.

Whelon ; i860, J. Greg; 1861, H. Gregson; 1862, J. Greg; 1863,

G. Jackson ; 1864, J. Williamson ; 1865, R. Eawcett ; 1866, W. J.

Wane; 1867, T. Storey; 1868, R. Coupland ; 1869, William

Roper; 1870, William Bradshaw ; 1871, C. Blades; 1872, W.

Storey; 1873, T. Storey ; 1874, T. Storey; 1875, T. Preston ; 1876,

H. Welch ; 1877, A. Seward ; 1878, W. Hall ; 1879, G - Cleminson;

1880, E. Clark ; 1881, S. J. Harris; 1882, J. Fenton ; 1883, S. J.

Harris: 1884, E. Clark; 1885, J. Hatch; 1886, T. Storey; 1887,

Charles Blades ; 1888, Charles Blades: 1889-90, Thomas Preston;

1890-91, Charles Blades.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 199



Sir Thomas Storey is the first of Mayors of Lancaster who
lias been honoured with a knighthood, for the Sir Robert Bindloss,
mentioned in 1665 and 1672, was a baronet. Sir Thomas has been
named rather humourously, "The Knight of the White Cross."
owing" to the principal works of the firm, of which he is chief repre-
sentative, being known as the White Cross Works.

The last time the ancient Corporation of Lancaster visited
the Parish Church was on the 20th December, 1835. It may be
somewhat amusing to inform readers that the officials in the old
Corporation were numerous and comprised besides the mayor,
recorder, town clerk, and treasurer, a bailiff" of the brethren, a
bailiff of the commons, mayor's sergeant, town's sergeant, beadle
and bellman, two chamberlains, four pecksealers, two street super-
visors, three waits or musicians, two hedge lookers, and two ale
tasters.

Some Recorders of Lancaster.

Robert Gibson, Esq., Recorder 25 years. Tyldesley Diary, Page 18.
James Fenton, Esq., died in December, 1797, aged 79. The Fentons
and the Rawlinsons of Cark Hall were near relations.
Hubberstey Esq.
Thomas Hudson Bateman, Esq.

Mr. Gibson of the firm of Maxsted and Gibson, Solicitors,
kindly forwards the following information concerning Mr. Recorder
Gibson, one of his ancestors: — "Edmund Gibson, of Stank-in-
Furness and Moore Coate in the Parish of Dalton, Statesman, is
the first traceable ancestor of the family of Gibson. Edmund had
by his second marriage two sons Robert and Charles. The former
was Recorder of Lancaster, the latter Deputy Prothonotary of the
Common Pleas in the County of Lancaster. Robert, the Recorder,
was born 1676, and died 1 73 1 . He is mentioned in William Stout's
Diary as dying very suddenly at Appleby, when on a commission
there. Stout savs : — 'He was Recorder of Lancaster 25 years, and



2oo TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



was a lawyer of the most repute in Lancashire, Westmoreland, or
Cumberland, and had great business, and was faithful to his clients
of all religious persuasions or parties." The Recorder married
Sarah daughter of Dr. Cox, Prebendary of Durham.

Lancaster, being a Borough from the time of Richard L, had
a Court of Pleas of debts contracted within it ; and by the Charters
of Charles II. (1665 and 1689,) a recorder could be appointed, with
the approbation of the crown. The Charter of 1 S19, which con-
tinued in force till it was snuffed out by the Municipal Corporation's
Act, made it competent to the Borough to have a recorder. After
the passing of the last mentioned Act, Lancaster not being (any
longer) a Quarter Sessions Borough, lost the right to appoint,
unless the Court of Pleas survived. The Preston recordership exists
by virtue of its Court for the recovery of small debts. The recorder-
ship of Lancaster is of very old date. In 1389 part of the town was
burned down and the records consumed, not for the first time."

Of past town clerks I am able to give only a few names.
The first is that of Thomas Shepherd, who resigned October 8th,
1793, an( -l was succeeded by Thomas Edelston, who died on the 27th
of August, 1802, aged 41. His successor was John Lewthwaite,
September 23rd, 1802, followed by John Higgin, who was asked to
resign because " the Council could not get along comfortably with
him," and accordingly did as requested on the 25th of April, 1837.
1 next meet with the name of Henry Gregson, who resigned on
account of professional duties on the 26th September, 1840. He
was succeeded by William Dunn, on the 19th October, of the same
year. William Dunn was followed by Thomas Swainson, the
present holder of the office.

The police arrangements are good, and the force is char-
acterized by courtesy and smartness. It consists at present of
one chief constable, one inspector, three street sergeants, one
detective sergeant, and 21 constables. Total 27.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 201



Of past chief constables I can only gather the names of those
who have filled the post during- the present century. They are
Richard Hoggarth, resigned 1835, Malcolm Wright, appointed 21st
February, 1835 > J orm Allanson, Thomas Pye, resigned 1866, and
Mr. Webb ; after whom came the present chief constable, Mr. F
Ward, a gentleman much esteemed in the borough for his genial
nature and disposition to clemency. On the 19th April, 1843, Mr.
Wright was presented with a piece of plate, value ^61, by several
of the inhabitants of Lancaster and neighbourhood, as a token of
their regard.

The Black Hole.

Before the erection of cells in connection with the police office, the place ot
detention in Lancaster was known as the " Black Hole," and it well deserved the
appellation. In ' Neild's State of the prisons of England, Scotland, and Wales * the
' Town Gaol " is thus described : — " This temporary place of confinement is a room
under the staircase of the Town Hall, in size 15ft. Sin. , by 1 ift. 5m. , and Sft. ioin. high.
It has a tire place with a window about 3ft. square, and contains two barrack bed-
steads. The door has an aperture 12m. square, and over it on a stone tablet is
inscribed Executio Juris uiilli facit injuriam, i66g. Prisoners are sent here
before examination. The keeper is the Town Sergeant. When a debtor is taken into
custody on a borough process, the officer is under the necessity of keeping his prisoner
in the Town Sergeant's house until the business is settled. Light was only admitted
into this dungeon from the window which looked into a narrow yard abutting upon
the business premises, which formerly occupied the site of the Town Hall Offices. In
this dismal hole several prisoners were frequently confined at the same time."

The old Town Hall is said to have once been at the corner
of China Lane, a building or site subsequently occupied by Messrs.
Shrigley, a firm known at one time as Shrigley and Williamson,
then Shrigley and Hodgson, and afterwards as Shrigley and Hunt.
Mr. Thomas Shrigley, founder of the firm, died April 9th, 1821,
aged 67.

The lamp in the centre of the Town Hall Square bears this
inscription: — "Presented by the Shareholders of the Lancaster Gas
Company, 1880, in memory of Edward Denis de Vitro, M.D., 40
years chairman of the Company "



202 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



The question has been asked " Is Lancaster a city ?" Is it
improper to style it a city ? From competent authorities as to
what constitutes a city readers may judge for themselves. "The
term ' City ' was introduced in the time of the Norman Conquest.
The derivation is from the Latin Civ/tas, and it is not restricted to
episcopal towns. It applies to those subject to municipal government.
The term is synonymous with burgh. At the great council
assembled in 1072, to settle the claims of two Archbishops, it was
decreed that Bishops' sees should be transferred from towns to
cities ; these latter existing before the sees were transferred to them.
Incorporated towns governed by a Mayor and Aldermen, are cities ;
and these are sufficiently important, as a rule, to possess a cathedral
or abbey church." Lancaster possesses a priory church and the
remains of an abbey only a few miles out in the country. It is
certainly never spoken of as a city in ancient documents, though from
the above statement it would be a challengeable remark to say that
it was not entitled to the term.

Freedom of the Borough.

The freedom of the borough is acquired by birth, apprentice-



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