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literature that has ever appeared in England.

Sir William Turner holds the honourable posts of President
of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh ; Dean of the Faculty
of Medicine of Edinburgh University, and is a member of the
Medical Acts Commission. He is F.R.S. and F.R.S.E., Hon.
L.L.D. of Glasgow, and D.C.L. of Durham and Oxford Universities.
In addition to being Professor of Anatomy in Edinburgh University,
Sir William fills the professional chair in the same science to the
Royal Scottish Academy, and is a member of the Medical Council.
He is honorary Lieutenant-Colonel of the Queen's Rifle Volunteer
Brigade. In 1863, Sir William married x\gnes, daughter of
Abraham Logan, Esq., of Burnhouses, Berwickshire. He was
created a K.B. in 1886.

Anthropology has evidently no more earnest student than
Sir William Turner, whose life journey from the old house opposite


St. Anne's Chapel, in Moor-lane, to a medical professorship at
Edinburgh must call forth the delightful feeling that the ancient
town is famous for more than Roman and Saxon remains and an
impregnable fortress ; that it is famous for mind as well as matter.
Sir William Turner's address, in 1889, as president of the
Anthropological section ol the British Association was listened to
by an immense number of intelligent hearers, the lecture hall of the
library, in which the proceedings took place, being crowded to the
doors. The address, which dealt chiefly with man as the principal
of living organisms, contained one or two sentences reproduced
from the reports of the Newcastle Chronicle. They are as follow : -

" Man is a living organism, and the study of his physical
frame cannot be separated from that of other living organisms.
But whatever may have been the origin of his frame, whether by
evolution from some animal form or otherwise, we can scarcely
expect it ever to attain any greater perfection than it at present
possesses. The kind of evolution which we are to hope and
strive for in him is the perfecting of his spiritual nature, so that the
standard of the whole human race may be elevated and brought
into more harmonious relation with that which is holy and divine."

These three sentences are a lecture in themselves, and are
worthy of all acceptation. The address consisted of a review of
" the transmission of malformations, colour blindness, and disease
from generation to generation," and diagrams were freely used to
illustrate the more complex portions of subjects based upon a
practical study of heredity. Sir Francis Galton and Professor
Flower paid high tributes to Professor Turner's skilful treatment
of a grave and critical question or series of questions.

Professor Edmund Atkinson, Ph.D., F.C.S.

This gentleman was born in 1831. He is the only son
of the late Mr. Thomas Atkinson, who married Miss Ellen
Heaton, daughter of Mr. Richard Heaton, corn merchant. He was


educated at the private school of Mr. James Willacey, and after-
wards at the Lancaster Grammar School. He received his scientific
education at Owen's College, Manchester, mainly under Professor
Frankland, and then proceeded to Germany spending three years
at the Universities of Marburg, Heidelberg, and Gottingen. On
returning to England Dr. Atkinson became assistant to Sir B.
C. Brodie, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Oxford.
Subsequently he was appointed Lecturer on Chemistry and Physics
at Cheltenham College, and ranks as one of the earliest systematic
teachers in a large public school on these subjects. He was next
appointed Professor of Experimental Sciences in the Staff College
at Sandhurst, where he remained for a period of twenty-six years.
Professor Atkinson has translated several important foreign publica-
tions among them being " Ganot's Elementary Treatise of Physics,"
one of the best books on the subject.

Mr. William Housman Higgin, Q.C.

The name of Higgin is well known in Lancaster. It is a
distinguished name in divinity, literature, and law, and is insepar-
ably connected with the history of our ancient Castle, Corporation,
and all general public movements. It would be entirely out of place
to make mention in any elaborate manner of the various repre-
sentatives of this honourable family. The Church of St. Mary,
treated of in a former chapter, bears upon its walls and stained
lights abiding proofs of the foregoing remarks. Mr. William
Housman Higgin, Q.C, late of Springfield Hall, and now of
Cloverley House, Timperley, Cheshire, was born on the 28th of
February, 1820, at Acrelands, Skerton, his father being the late
John Higgin, Esq. Mr. Higgin was called to the bar on the 28th
of January, 1848, became Queen's Counsel for the County Palatine
of Lancaster, in December, 1867, made one of Her Majesty's
Counsel, 1868, having become a Bencher of the Middle Temple
on the 28th of May, 1868. On the 23rd of August, 1869, he
accepted the chairmanship of Quarter Sessions for the Hundred
of Salford. On February 16th, 1876, he became Deputy-Lieu-


tenant of the County of Lancaster, and on July 1st, 1879,
he was appointed chairman of the Quarter Sessions at Preston.
Mr. Higgin has held the honourable position of treasurer of the
Middle Temple, 1885. On the 10th of July, 1890, he succeeded
Mr. John Addison, Q.C., in the Recordship of Preston, and every
one felt that the Borough which had selected him for such an
exalted office reflected honour alike upon itself as upon him. Mr.
Higgin is a magistrate for the City of Manchester, for the Boroughs
of Lancaster and Salford, and is also a Justice of the Peace for the
County of Chester.

Colonel Wadeson.

To the military world Lancaster has given a devoted son in
the person of the late Colonel Richard Wadeson, who rose from the
ranks and became Governor of Chelsea Hospital. Richard Wade-
son is said to have been born at the Black Bull Inn, Church Street,
of which inn his father, John Wadeson, was proprietor. He served
an apprenticeship in Lancaster with Mr. Welch, tallow chandler,
prior to entering the army. But little is known of this gallant
officer's antecedents, who are said to have hailed originally from
the neighbourhood of Bolton-le-Sands. Richard enlisted at Lan-
caster in 1848-9 and rose to the following ranks: — Ensign 75th
Regiment, June 2nd, 1857 ; lieutenant, September 19th, 1857 ;
captain, December 9th, 1864; major, July 17th, 1872; lieutenant-
colonel, December 18th, 1875 > colonel, December 18th, 1880 ;
placed on half-pay, December 18th, 1880; major and lieutenant,
governor of Chelsea Hospital, March 26th, 1881 ; died, 1885. It
is most creditable of the officers of the 75th Regiment that when
Lieut. Wadeson was senior lieutenant there were several officers
junior to him in rank whose names were down to purchase their
companies, and who would in due course have been able to
purchase over his head, as he could not afford to purchase. This
they refused to do, and consequently, on the next vacancy occuring,
he was promoted captain. Wadeson served in the Indian cam-
paign of 1857 from the outbreak on the 12th of May, including the


battle of Budleekaserai, siege operations before Delhi, and repulse
of sorties on the 12th and 15th of June, and of night attacks on the
camp on 19th and 23rd June, and 14th and 18th July, storming
(severely wounded) and capture of Delhi (medal and clasp).

At the time he received the Victoria Cross he was sergeant-
major. The official chronicle, called the Victoria Cross, published
in 1865, kindly lent me by an able military authority, contains the
following account of Colonel Wadeson's exploits, resulting in his
securing the distinguished honour of the Maltese Cross of Bronze : —

" He received the Victoria Cross for conspicuous bravery at Delhi, on the
iSth of July, 1857, when the regiment was engaged in the Subjee Mundee, in having
saved the life of Private Michael Farrell when attacked by a Sowar of the enemy's
cavalry, and killed the Sowar. Also, on the same day, for rescuing" Private John
Barry, of the same regiment, when, wounded and helpless, he was attacked by a
Cavalry Sowar whom Lieut. Wadeson killed.

A brass memorial is placed in the piazza of the Royal
Hospital, Chelsea.

"To the memory of Colonel Richard Wadeson, V.C., Major
and Lieutenant Governor of this Hospital from 1881 to 1885.
Previously for 35 years in Her Majesty's 75th (Stirlingshire)
Regiment (now the First Battalion of the Gordon Highlanders),
passing through all ranks to the command of the regiment. Died in
the Hospital, 24th January, 1885, aged 58 years. This tablet is
erected by the Board of Commissioners of the Hospital on behalf
of the In-pensioners, as a record of their affection and respect."
Colonel Wadeson had a brother William who was Town Sergeant
many years.

George Dansox.

This well-known scenic painter was the son of George
Danson, merchant, of Lancaster and Liverpool. He was born in
Lancaster, on the 4th of June, 1799. Having a decided taste for
painting, he worked his way steadily from the period of his


apprenticeship with Mr. Shrigley, and after completing- his term
with that gentleman, he went to London. In due course he was
engaged at the Coberg (now Victoria) Theatre, at Astley's (in
Ducrow's time), at Covent Garden, Surrey Gardens, and at Dairy
Lane (in Macready's time). He was also at the Colosseum, Regent's
Park, and ultimately accepted an appointment at Belle Vue, Man-
chester. Mr. Danson painted two pictures which found their way
to America, pictures representing London and Paris by night.
Mr. Danson died in London, on the 23rd of January, t8Si, and was
interred at Kensal Green Cemetery on the 27th inst. Mr. Thomas
Danson, his son, from whom these particulars have been derived,
was born on the 19th of December, 1829, and holds an art appoint-
ment at the Zoological Gardens, Belle Vue, Manchester.

Mr. Thomas Edmondson.

The following biographical sketch of one of the smartest
geniuses the world of invention has ever known is taken from a
pamphlet reprinted from the English Mechanic and World of Science
of August 2nd, 1878. The biography was written by Mr. J. B.
Edmondson, in response to many inquiries concerning the originator
or inventor of the railway ticket system.

Few people seem to be aware that Thomas Edmondson was born in Lan-
caster on the 30th of June, 1792. His parents, John and Jane Edmondson, were of
humble but respectable extraction and educated their children to the best of their
ability, giving to each that share which his or her talent seemed to warrant or
inclination as to literary or mechanical pursuits seemed to require. Of the twelve
children that were born to them only five reached maturity, three boys and two
daughters. Thomas' brothers both attained good and useful positions as principal s
of educational establishments. The name of the elder one, Joseph, is the less known
of the two, as he gave up the post of instructor in middle life, but that of his younger
brother, George, is no doubt familiar to many, and among the readers of this paper
there will probably be a number who received their early training under him either
at Lower Bank, near Blackburn ; Tulketh Hall, near Preston ; or at the scene of Ins
latest labours, Queenwood College, Hampshire. Thomas early displayed an
inventive turn of mind, which led to many ingenious contrivances for the good of the
household. One piece of mechanicism in particular has been mentioned to us, by
which the busy housewife was able to churn the butter and rock the cradle at the


same time. With this tendency he was very suitably placed as apprentice to a
cabinet-maker, and he afterwards worked as journeyman in the same line cf business
with the eminent firm of Messrs. Gillow & Co., in his native town. While there he
made sundry improvements in cabinet-making implements which elicited the
approval of his fellow-workmen and those who were practically acquainted with
their use. Thoroughness in manufacture, completeness in detail, and adaptability to
the work required, were points about which he was conscientiously particular ; a
habit of mind which conduced greatly to his future success. Indeed, the training
altogether was of the utmost service to him in after life, for it enabled him to work
out his own notions quietly in his own workshop, and prevented the necessity for
confiding' to other hands a crude idea or a half finished invention. In due time he
entered into partnership at Carlisle with other, in the business of cabinet-making,
but the firm becoming bankrupt he found himself in a reduced position from circum-
stances over which he had not full control. Although he endeavoured to retrieve
himself, and had the kind assistance in so doing of many of his creditors, he did not
feel he was making that progress which warranted his proceeding further, and
finally relinquished the undertaking. lie next for a short period engaged in the tea
and grocery business, but he was not fitted for commercial pursuits, and very willingly
turned his attention to another source of livelihood which just then came in his way.
The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, now a portion of the North-Eastem system,
opened for passenger traffic and a stationmaster being required for the small road-
side station at Milton, since called Brampton, he applied amongst a number of
competitors for the post and fortunately obtained it ; the directors remarking in
making the selection that they thought "Mr. Edmondson would prove a credit to
them." Thus, then, about 1836, when in his 44th year, he made his first acquaintance
with the railway world at the solitary little station of Milton, situated about fourteen
miles from Carlisle — a point at which the traffic was then so small that the duties of
station-master and booking-clerk were performed by the same person. In the first
days of railway travelling it was natural that the kind of tickets which had served for
coach passengers should still be used as vouchers that a traveller had paid his fare.
But as travellers increased in number these scraps of paper proved inconvenient in
many ways, and Mr. Edmondson at once felt that a change was needed in them.
Another want, and one of still more importance, soon became apparent to him. He
found that little or no systematic check was imposed upon the station clerks, it being
left to their integrity to account correctly for moneys paid to them. His ingenuity
was therefore soon at work, endeavouring to organise a system whieh should be a
complete check in the first instance upon himself — a task congenial to his constructive
head and honest heart. He still retained his bench and tools as old friends, and his
perfect familiarity with the use of them, combined with ample leisure between the
train services of that day at Milton, enabled him to produce the various little pieces
of apparatus which he required to carry out his plans. He first constructed a small
wooden block, or hand stamp, in which he inserted the necessary type, -ay " Milton


to Carlisle," with the class, fare, &c. , which lie wanted printed; also a small rack,
divided into equal spaces, in which the stamp was fitted to slide. Having previously
placed under the rack a strip of stiff paper or cardboard, he supplied the stamp with
ink by means of an ordinary pad, and inserted it in the first division of the rack,
he brought it by the tap of a mallet down on to the cardboard and thus obtained
the needful impression. By a repetition of this process in the various divisions
of the rack he completed the strip, producing in fact a series of tickets printed
" Milton to Carlisle," &c. These he progressively numbered with pen and ink,
separated with a pair of scissors, and laid aside for use. When a sufficient number
of one kind were prepared, he re-set the stamp, substituting' the name of some other
station for Carlisle, and altering the fares, &c. , in accordance with the change, fie
then repeated this slow tedious process, until he was provided with a supply of
tickets from his own station to all others on the line. His next study was to make a
case in which the various descriptions of tickets could be safely kept, and at the same
time be handy for issue to the passengers when they presented themselves at the
counter. As the tickets were progressively numbered, they must, of course, be
progressively issued, for upon this principle depended the check which he pro-
posed to institute. With the idea of having the ticket to be next issued always in
view, his first attempts were directed to its being removed from the top. For this
end he prepared a series of tubes with loose bottoms, bavin-; tapes fastened to them
which passed over small pulleys at the top of each tube, the ends of the tapes
having leaden weights attached, in order that as a ticket was extracted from the top
the next would be lifted to take its place. But the advantage of seeing the ticket was
more than counterbalanced by all this cumbersome machinery, and he soon decided
to abandon his tapes, weights and pulleys, and allowing the tickets to drop by their
own gravity, he removed them as required from below. The new tubes were, there-
fore, so constructed that, while affording every facility for being filled and replenished,
they only allowed one ticket at a time to be withdrawn at the bottom. This being
the most simple plan possible, has not been departed from or improved upon since,
and has continued to be the principle upon which the ticket-issuing cases at the
various stations have been constructed to the present time. A number of these tubes
are ranged side by side in one case, and across them, for the convenience of the
booking-clerk, as the face of the ticket is invisible, runs a wooden strip or label, on
the upper part of which space is left for inserting the name of the station, class, and
fare of the tickets in each tube. The lower portion of the label forms the frame of a
strip of slate, the use of which will be hereafter mentioned. A suitable receptacle
having now been provided, only one other contrivance was necessary before making
the trial he contemplated, and this was some expeditious method of putting a date
upon the ticket when it was issued to the passenger. Probably it was accomplished
in the first instance by hand, but the plan was liable to error and a cause of delay.
Something was, therefore, to be thought of which, by a quick and instantaneous
motion, would stamp the date at once. When the mind is absorbed day by day in


seeking after that which for the moment seems to elude its grasp, it is in a condition
to seize an idea from trifles, which would otherwise pass unnoticed. In this frame of
mind his pocket-comb was the trivial instrument that suddenly suggested to Mr.
Edmondson a way for accomplishing his object. It was an old-fashioned pocket-
comb, working on a hinge, and the two edges, the end of the comb, and the end of
the handle, when pushed together, suggested a motion and convenience of nip or
pressure which he thought might be utilised for his purpose, and that if type and
the means of supplying it with ink, could be introduced into the mouth or angle
formed by the two edges before mentioned, it would, on receiving a sharp push after the
ticket was inserted, close and bring the type against the cardboard. This idea after
being- duly matured, was practically developed in his little workshop, and resulted
in a small wooden machine, which so completely answered the purpose intended
that he never had occasion to alter the principle of construction, and though the
dating presses were afterwards made of iron, this principle, combining efficiency with
expedition, has not been improved upon. The problem of supplying the type with
ink he solved by passing a ribbon saturated with it between the type and the card.
In the first place the length of inked ribbon is wound on a roller below the type,
whence it passes over the face of the type, on to another roller above. By the act of
dating a ticket a certain length is drawn from the supply roller, and at each stroke a
fresh surface of inked ribbon is thus presented for the next impression.

All being now ready he commenced to give his system a trial, and to issue
to each passenger a cardboard ticket, which, though smaller than the present one,
represented the station to which the traveller was going, the class in which he wished
to be conveyed, and the progressive number of the ticket, the date, of course, being
added at the time of issue. After the departure of the last train at night he proceeded
to examine the tubes of his ticket-case. A matter of importance should here be
referred to. He had commenced the progressive numbering of his tickets at o, and
that being the first issued of each description of ticket it followed that the figures on
the card lowest in the tube at any time represented the actual quantity sold. Had he
commenced them at I an additional process of subtraction would have been necessary
at each tube, leading to inadvertence and error, but by commencing at o he had only
{0 copy the lowest number in the tube which was done on the strip of slate before
alluded to as running in front of the case. The result of the day's issue being thus
clearly before him, and the fares being marked on the label or frame above the slate,
it was not difficult to ascertain what ought to be the amount in his cash -drawer. On
the following night, by subtracting the number left on the slate from the lowest
ticket again in the tube, he found the quantity of tickets sold on the second day, and
so forth. These details may, to the general reader, seem a simple matter to dwell
upon, but if he will remember the number of ticket-tubes to be inspected each night
at some of our large stations — at one or two of them nearly two thousand, — he will
see that it is of great importance to the booking-clerk in making out his returns to


have the most simple yet exact method of ascertaining the number of each kind of
ticket issued at his station during the day in order to balance his cash, and forward it
with a correct return to the head office. To facilitate the last operation, Mr. Edmond-
son drew out a set of forms for making the needful returns to the audit or chief office,
which after being duly filled up, presented an accurate summary of the daily or weekly
business transacted, and showed at a glance the amount of traffic at each station,
and the sum due from each clerk on behalf of the passengers booked. To extend to
other stations what was found so applicable to his own was his next consideration
but for unexplained reasons his propositions were not at first entertained, and it was
only after repeated efforts that he was able to induce the directors of the Newcastle
and Carlisle Railway to arrange for the adoption of his plans at some of their stations.
There was a proposition to remove him to Newcastle, but it was not carried into
effect, and the repeated delays were very disheartening to him. While in this state
of discouragement he received a visit from Captain Laws, at that time the enterprising
and energetic manager of the Manchester and Leeds Railway, who, having heard of
the plan adopted by the clerk at Milton Station lor ' checking himself came over to
inspect it, and having had the details thoroughly explained to him, was clear-sighted
enough to perceive its immense value to the railway interest, then becoming an im-
portant feature in the country. He, therefore, at once proposed to Mr. Edmondson
that he should remove to Manchester, with the object of introducing his system on
the above railway, making the promise " that his salary should be multiplied by two,"
an offer which, after due consideration, was gratefully accepted. This unexpected
recognition and timely acknowledgment of his invention paved the way for its general
adoption, and for the next ten or twelve years the introduction of his plans on to new
lines of railway as they rapidly developed themselves, in addition to his duties on the
Manchester and Leeds line, involved a great amount of labour on the part of the
inventor. At length that Company, with a complimentary minute of the board,
liberated him from their service, in order that he might devote his whole time to the
further development and introduction of his system.

Mr. Edmondson's brother, Joseph, having for some time relinquished his

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