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oxygen. The number of these bodies is very great, and almost
every year adds fresh ones to the list.

The next step in Professor Frankland's career was his
appointment to the Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Insti-
tution of Great Britain in 1863. He did not, however, retain this
position long, for in 1865 he was asked to fill a still more important
post, that of Professor of Chemistry at the Royal College of
Chemistry and School of Mines, then in Oxford Street but since
removed to the more convenient and spacious buildings at South
Kensington. He retained this chair for twenty years. A Fellow
of the Royal Society since 1853, Dr. Frankland in 1870 received
the honorary degree of D.C.L., of Oxford. One of the most
important works oi his life began in 1868, when in conjunction
with Sir W. Dennison, K.C.B., and J. Chalmers Morton, he was
appointed one of the Royal Commissioners for inquiring into the
pollution of rivers. The results of these inquiries filled six large
reports presented to Parliament, five ot them dealing with th e
pollution of rivers by the drainage of towns and manufacturers, and
the sixth with the domestic water supply of Great Britain. The
sixth report of the Commissioners is a conspicuous example of pains-
taking industry. It treats of the subject in its entirety. No argu-
ment is left out, no proof is wanting. Each statement is carefully



ioo TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



verified by experiment and observation ; and the whole work is filled
with analyses and the most complete and minute details. All the
analyses of waters were made by Dr. Frankland's own process, and
the estimations of organic carbon and nitrogen by his combustion
method. This latter process is one which has often been attacked,
but its inventor has demonstrated beyond all doubt that it is not
only the most accurate, but the only trustworthy method for deter-
mining the proportion of organic matter in water. The importance
of the sixth report of the Rivers Commissioners cannot be too
strongly insisted on. Through it an insight has been obtained into
the water supplies to all the chief towns of Great Britain, and
standards of purity have been given to all the water companies.
Dr. Frankland collects monthly samples of the water supplied by the
London Water Companies and submits them to analysis. On the
results he makes a report to the Local Government Board and the
Registrar-General. A check is thus established on the Water
Companies ; and since this system has been in operation, the
quality of the water supplied to London has very materially
improved.

In 187 1 he was elected President of the Chemical Society,
and in 1877 he became the first President of the Institute of
Chemist rv. This latter Society, founded mainly through his
exertions, has for its object the securing that public analysts and
other persons holding important positions of this description are
dulv qualified for their work.

In 1866 was published in the Journal of the Chemical Society,
his " System of Notation." By means of this system the formulae
of bodies, hitherto for the most part written empirically and without
much regard to the constitution of the body, are made to repre-
sent graphically and to the eye the mode of arrangement of the
atoms in their molecules in accordance with the atomicity of the
elements they contain. The system has cleared up a great many
points in organic chemistry, and by its means the causes of isomerism
hitherto unexplained, in many organic compounds were elucidated.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 301



Two volumes of his lecture " Notes for Chemical Students " were
published in 1876, based on the theory and written in the system of
notation above mentioned. As explanatory works, when taken in
conjunction with Dr. Frankland's lectures, these volumes cannot be
overvalued by the student. They enable him to obtain a better
grip and a clearer understanding- of his subject than any other more
profuse treatise would do. The constitution of organic bodies is
seen quite plainly by Dr. Frankland's method, and it is calculated
to save the student much trouble in comprehending chemical
reactions.



Dr. Frankland gave six celebrated lectures to teachers in
training at the Royal College of Chemistry on " How to teach
Chemistry." These have been put into a convenient form and
published, making a valuable little handbook for would-be teachers.



Among his contributions to scientific literature and research
on various subjects, may be mentioned his memoir in the Philosoph-
ical Magazine, "On the Source of Muscular Power" (1866);
"Observations Economical and Sanitary on the Employment of
Chemical Light for Artificial Illumination ; " " Contributions to the
Knowledge of the Manufacture of Gas;" "Researches on the
Influence of Atmospheric Pressure on the Light of Gas, Candle, and
other Flames." This latter paper is a most important one on a
most important subject, that of artificial illumination, and how best
to obtain the maximum light from combustion. "Winter Sani-
tariums in the Alps and elsewhere ; " on the " Purification of Town
Drainage and other Polluted Liquids ; " and on "The Composition
and Qualities of Water used for Drinking and other Purposes,"
are other of his more important papers.

Researches on the Atmosphere of the Sun, in collaboration with
Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S., is a work which shows the varied
genius of the subject of this sketch, who can grasp and treat with
success so many different branches of science.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



In 1878 Professor Frankland published Experimental Re-
searches in Pure, Applied, and Physical Chemistry. This is a large
volume of over 1000 pages, issued by John Van Voorst, London.
It embraces the more important researches of his scientific career.
Among more recent papers may be mentioned the articles on " Dry
Fog," and various contributions to Organic Investigation, In 1880,
a Handbook of Water Analysis appeared ; a very useful and valuable
little book, containing much information connected with Water
Analysis. Dr. Frankland recently published in the Journal of the
Chemical Society a paper entitled " On the Spontaneous Oxidation
of Organic Matter in Water."

In conclusion, it may be stated that Dr. Frankland is an
honorary member of many foreign societies ; among others, he is
Corresponding Member of the French Academy of Sciences ;
Foreign Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Bavaria ;
and of the Academies of Sciences of Upsala, Berlin, St. Petersburg,
Vienna, New York, and Bohemia. He is also Honorary Member of
the Societies of Natural Sciences of Switzerland and of Gottingen ;
and of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester; of the
Chemical Societies of Germany, America, and Lehigh University,
United States ; of the Sanitarian Society of Dresden, and of the
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

Professor Frankland has also received the honorary degree of
M.D. of the University of Wurzburg, in recognition of his services
to Sanitary Science ; and the honorary degree of LL.D. of
Edinburgh. In 1884 he was Vice-President of the British Associ-
ation at Montreal, under the Presidentship of Lord Rayleigh, where
he received the honorary LL.D. of the M'Gill University. He has
since been made Honorary Member of the Medical and Chirurgical
Society of London. In 1887, he reported to the International
Congress on Hygiene at Vienna on the present state in England of
the purification of sewage, with special reference to the prevention
of river pollution. In the same year he was appointed a Justice of
the Peace for the county of Surrey. The foregoing sketch is taken



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 30;



from the "Cosmopolitan" of November, 1888. It was written by
the late Mr. Frank Hatton, a pupil of Professor Frankland's.

Professor Galloway, M.R.I. A., F.C.S., &c.

Another eminent chemist closely connected with Lancaster
in his youth is Professor Galloway, who was born on the r8th
of December, 1823. He is the son of the late Mr. Robert Galloway,
of Cartmel, North Lancashire.

In 1839, he became a pupil of the late Mr. Stephen Ross, 01
Cheapside, and upon the termination of his apprenticeship with
that gentleman, he proceeded to the Royal College of Chemistry,
and had the advantage of studying under the distinguished Dr.
Hofmann. After a very diligent training in this institution, Mr.
Galloway was appointed assistant to Dr. Lyon Playfair, Ph. D.,
L.L.D., F.R.S., C.B.P.C, now Sir Lyon Playfair, and eventually
he accepted the post of Lecturer and Teacher of Chemistry in
Queenswood College, Hants. Here he remained two years, and
then removed to the College of Civil Engineers, Putney, where he
filled a similar capacity.

Professor Robert Galloway is the author of various scientific
and technical works, among them being the well-known educational
book, entitled "The Second Step in Chemistry, or the Students'
Guide in the higher branches of Chemistry." Of this work the late
very distinguished chemist, Professor Thomas Graham, said at the
meeting of the Cavendish Society, of which he was President,
when it was under consideration whether the Society should be
continued, " that he considered the mission of the Society nearly
fulfilled. Societies like the Cavendish could now no longer com-
pete with private enterprise, and in illustration he mentioned
Galloway's Second Step in Chemistry, a work comparable to the
volume of memoirs published by the Society, and which would not
have been undertaken by a private publisher sixteen years ago."



3 o 4 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



It may be remarked that the Cavendish Society was estab-
lished by chemists for the translation of foreign chemical works,
which English publishers would not undertake.

Professor Galloway has also published a " Treatise on Fuel,
scientific and practical," and more recently the valuable work on
"Education, scientific and technical; or how the Inductive Sciences
are taught, and how they ought to be taught." This is one of Mr.
Galloway's most popular productions, respecting which the British
Trade Journal of February, 2nd, 1S82 says: —

" Those chapters in Professor Galloway's book which treat upon chemical
science render the volume particularly valuable to the manufacturing community
whose interests are so largely affected by the scientific qualifications of those whom
they employ. It may be noticed that the author, who has written some of the
best manuals of chemical science extant, was the first to introduce arithmetical
problems in connection with the study of chemistry, although the credit has been
assigned to a later author. In addition to his scientific and literary qualifications,
Professor Galloway's zealous labours as a teacher of chemistry during more than
thirty years, has given him probably a larger number of ex-pupils amongst the
experts in practical and applied chemistry than can be claimed by any other scientific
teacher. Such qualifications must give a substantial value to any work on a topic
with which the writer is thoronghly conversant, and especially when, as in the
present case, it assumes the form of so vigorous a protest against cram and super-
ficiality. "

The scientific and other journals speak in the highest terms
of this book, and it is now a standard work in our leading colleges
and schools of science. Professor Galloway has contributed some
excellent articles to the Journal of Science and the British and
Colonial Druggist, and one on the "The food of our Sailors," together
with "A simple and inexpensive plan for rendering salted meat more
nutritious," must at the present period command serious attention.

"The Fundamental Principles of Chemistry practically
taught by a new method," is the most recent of Mr. Galloway's
published works.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 303



Sir Robert Rawlinson, K.C.B.

The first engineering- inspector, appointed under the Public
Health Act, 1848, who, as civil engineers, devised and carried out
the water-works scheme for Lancaster, and likewise the main
sewerage, was born on the 28th of February, 1810, at Bristol. His
father was a native of Chorley, as also was his grandfather and
great grandfather. Sir Robert was brought to Lancaster when
quite a child, owing to his father being paymaster-sergeant to th>j
Grenadier Company of the 1st Royal Lancashire Militia, a regiment
he had served in for seventeen years, and on the staff of which he
remained, residing in Lancaster after the proclamation of peace and
the disbanding of the regiment.

The son, destined to become so famous, was but six years old
when he first saw Lancaster, and he lived in the town until he was
thirteen. His father was a stonemason, and in due course he
became a stonemason, a bricklayer, and a millwright, and could
earn full w r ages in any of these trades. At the age of 21 he entered
the office of the eminent engineer, Mr. Jesse Hartley, the designer
and constructor of the Liverpool Docks. With this gentleman he
remained five years, and afterwards went to Robert Stephenson
(only son of the father of railways, George Stephenson) on the
London and Birmingham Railway, continuing in this capacity five
years. It was in 1848, as already stated, whenMr. Rawlinson was
first employed by the g-overnment. But prior to this appointment
he had acted as Engineer to the Bridgwater Trust, matured the
plans and details of the great scheme for supplying the city of
Liverpool with water from Bala Lake, and had also been left in
charge of the completion of St. George's Hall, owing to the illness
and death of the Architect, designing and seeing executed the
hollow brick arched ceiling of the large hall. In 1854, Mr. Rawlin-
son became the Engineer Sanitary Commissioner sent by the
Government to the Crimea, and, subsequently, he was Consulting
Engineer for the water works for Hong Kong and Singapore. In
the year 1863, the year of the Lancashire Cotton Famine, he was



x



3 o6 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



sent down as engineer commissioner to undertake the task of
sanitary improvements in Lancashire, carrying out the same in no
fewer than 93 places ; the lahour being provided by the cotton
hands, the government on his advice advancing ^1,840,082 at
3^ pet" cent., for a term of 30 years, for accomplishing the work.
Upwards of 400 miles of roads and streets were formed, drained,
sewered, channelled, and paved during this period, and, says the
Municipal Review, the administration did not cost the government
3s. 6d. per cent. Mr. Rawlinson has served upon three Royal Com-
missions : in England, and on one in Dublin, and has been a
member of the Army Sanitary Committee since 1862. He reported
for the Queen on the sanitary condition of Windsor Castle, and on
Sandringham Hall and Marlborough House, for the Prince of
Wales.

This eminent engineer has had some experience of Colonial
life. He passed through Swedish Lapland in 1859, and has known
what it was to "camp in a virgin forest;" helping to cut down a
small tree in order to make a tent-pole, and having for a drinking
cup the bark peeled off a birch tree, and coiled round ; the only
cooking utensil himself and his comrades had being a frying-pan,
and the only method of grinding coffee the primitive one of pound-
ing it with a stone.

He has faced many dangers, and the late Mr. Kinglake
records in his '* Invasion of the Crimea," the fact that Mr. Rawlin-
son was struck by a 40-pounder steel shot while in the performance
of his duties. Mr. Rawlinson was made C.B. in 1868 and was
knighted on the 23rd of August, 1883, and made K.C.B. on his
retirement in 1889. He is a member of the Council of the Institu-
tion of Civil Engineers, and a Vice-President of the Society of Arts.
In August, 1883, Sir Robert distributed the certificates of merit to
the successful pupils, in the Lecture Room of the Crystal Palace
School of Engineering, when he made a very excellent speech on
the work that lies before the rising generation of young engineers
in our colonies, and mentioned some interesting events in his own



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. *o



j^/



career. Sir Robert is the author of a work on "Tall Chimney
Shafts" and on the " Hygiene of Armies in the Field," and has
written much on Sanitary Reform and Drainage questions. His
"Suggestions" for the use of local surveyors and sanitary engineers
are accepted as authorities throughout Great Britain, North
America, British India, Australia, and the British Colonies
generally He was, and still is, everywhere esteemed for his sound
practical knowledge, and on his retirement from the post of Chief
Engineer to the Local Government Board, the Press, technical
and otherwise, paid a high compliment to his ability and congratu-
lated him on his well-earned repose.

The Rawlinsons are descended from one Rollin or Rollus,
living in the time of the Norman Conqueror. They represent an
old Cumberland and Lancashire family, and a pedigree of them may
be seen in Surtee's " History of Furness Abbey." Some of this
family in the days of the Spectator were noted goldsmiths, some
have held the position of Lord Mayors, and others have excelled as
musicians and antiquaries. Several Rawlinsons settled in Lan-
caster, and so far back as 1780 and 1784, one of them was member
for Lancaster. Mireside and Carke Halls were anciently the
property of the Curwens, whose heiress married one of the Raw-
linsons, of Greenhead, in Colton. The eldest son of Robert
Rawlinson, Esq., who died in 1665, married Elizabeth Monk,
the last descendant in the male line of the Plantagenets, and was
father of Christopher Rawlinson, the antiquary. Robert Rawlinson
lived at Carke Hall from 1619 until his decease. He received a
grant of arms in 1662, and they may be seen beneath the doorway
arch of the Hall. This Robert Rawlinson, or Justice Rawlinson,
along with other Justices, sent George Fox to Lancaster Castle in
1663. From Christopher Rawlinson both Mireside and Carke
Halls descended through co-heiresses to Gray Rigge, Esq., Adam
Askew, Esq., the Rev. Henry Askew, and Stephen Roger Moore,
Esq.

The Rawlinson's Arms are gules, two bars gemelles between



308 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



three escalops argent ; crest a shelldrake proper, in the beak an
escalop argent. (See Dr. Barber's Prehistoric Remains.")

In may be mentioned that Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke
Rawlinson, Bart., G.C.B., K.C.B., LL.D., F. R.S., son of Abraham
Tysack Rawlinson, Esq., of Chadlington, Oxfordshire, is grandson
of Henry Rawlinson, Esq., of Lancaster, M.P. for Liverpool.
Abraham Rawlinson, Esq., M.P. for Lancaster 1780 — 1784, of Ellel,
was the cousin of the member for Liverpool. Sir Henry informs
me that a pedigree of the Rawlinson family has just been compiled
by Mr. Joseph Foster, of St. John's Wood, London, and that the
genealogy goes back to the time of Henry VII. Sir Henry considers
Sir Robert Rawlinson, the eminent engineer, a representative of the
same family as his own, and alludes to the late Chief Justice of
Madras, Sir Christopher Rawlinson, as being one of the same race
but not in direct line. The present head of the Rawlinson family is
William Millers Rawlinson, Esq., born in 1863. Graythwaite Hall
was the old family seat. It has recently been rebuilt, and is
tenanted by a cousin of the last named gentleman.

Several sites in Cumberland and Lancashire bear the name
ol' Rawlinson, as on Lake Windermere, Rawlinson's Knot, that is
nose. A marble bust of Sir Robert Rawlinson has just been pre-
sented to the Store}- Institute. It is by Woolner.

Captain Sir A. J. Loftus, F.R.G.S.

( The Honble Phrd Nidesa Jalahdi, Knight Commander of the most Honourable

Order of the Crown of Siam.

The name of Loftus is well known in Lancaster, and pleasant
memories of the subject of this notice still remain in the hearts of
many Lancastrians who have been fortunate enough to meet with
the hydrographer to the King of Siam.

Captain Loftus is the son of the late William Loftus, Esq.,
and was born at Darlington. At the age of thirteen he joined the
trigate-built ship" Pekin," of Newcastle, as a midshipman on board



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 309



which ship he served nearly six years. This, his first vessel,
carried troops from Madras to Burmah at the outbreak of the war
there, and subsequently it was stranded and locked up in the ice
during - a whole winter near the Hudson Hay Company's territory
in the Columbia River. Its crew were afterwards engaged in
taking- out colonists to New Zealand. "The end of this good
ship," writes the captain, " was in a north-east gale on Shield's
Bar at the entrance of the Tyne." In due course the young sailor
visited the Australian Colonies, the South American ports and the
Guano Islands. It was while visiting the Sandwich Islands that he
became acquainted with King Kamy Kamya who gave his new
acquaintances a crew of fishermen in order to bring back to New r -
castle the old ship " Pekin." As chief officer in London vessels the
captain made many voyages to different parts of the world, and
finally settled in the east. In 1857 he lifted a sunken vessel in the
harbour of Amdy, and was her commander in several trading
voyages in the Eastern Archipelago. This was his first commander-
ship. Since the period named Captain Loftus made Singapore his
home and port for some years, sailing thence to all ports in the
Indian, Chinese, and Japan seas. In 1866 he visited England, and
remained in his native land a little over a year. Next we find him
leaving the old country in a schooner of 125 tons, with four seamen
and one mate for India, whence he sailed into his old cruising
grounds in the Eastern Seas until 1870. "Then," says this gallant
officer, " came the turning point of my fortunes. My little vessel
was captured and burnt by pirates on the coast of Hainan, and I
lost all — all — all I had in the world ; I had not a dollar at my
disposal." Happily succour was nigh. He again got afloat, and
taking charge of the steamship "Viscount Canning," just returned
from the Abyssinian war, he sailed away for Siam and joined the
Government service there under the Regent, His Grace Somdetch
Chow Phya Suriyawongse, as hydrographer, which position he still
holds under the King. In 1871 he commanded the gunboat Regent,
with Sir Thomas George Knox, H.B.M.'s Minister, on a visit to
India with the King of Siam, the royal yacht and other war vessels
joining in the squadron.



3 io TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



The official position of Captain Loftus in Siam has consisted
of surveying' the coasts and rivers, telegraph and railway routes,
and the superintending of observatory building for noting eclipses.
In 1883 he accompanied the French Expedition under Commandant
Bellion for the purpose of making an examination and survey of
the Kra Pass part of the peninsula, with the object of cutting a
canal. As far as could be made out this was not altogether the
secret aim of the French, and while they made their survey the
captain made his, and published it as a member of the Royal
Geographical Society. The British Government and the press
accorded with the author's views as to the practicability of the
canal, and as he took care to get the facts known before the French
had completed their calculations the whole project collapsed.
With regard to the present position of Sir Alfred Loftus it may be
remarked that he is the head of his department. He is a noble of
Siam, holding the rank of a Count, his title being Phra Nidesa
Jalahdi. Since he received this patent of nobility he has been
honoured with a decoration and diploma of a Knight Commander
of the Crown of Siam, and Her Imperial Majesty the Queen of
England and Empress of India has granted her sign-manual
permitting the acceptance of this mark of respect for distinguished
services. In the jubilee year (1887) Captain Loftus attended a
Queen's levee at St. James'. Among other honours awarded by
the King of Siam is a gold medal, the occasion of its presentation
being the confirmation of the Crown Prince of Siam's title and
claim as the future sovereign of the shores of the Meinam. The
captain has kindly forwarded some notes on Siam and also a
pamphlet of thirty pages entitled " A New Year's Paper on the
Development of the Kingdom of Siam, 1891." This latter work
contains a map of Siam and its dependencies, showing some of the
projected railway lines and existing telegraph lines, &c. The present
capital of Siam is Bangkok, founded in 1782 ; the old capital of the
sovereignty was Ayuthia. The pamphlet is extremely interesting,
giving us a brief history of Siam and its kings, with many of the



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