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ful opponent in Dr. Hawarden, an eminent Catholic Theologian.
By the desire of Queen Caroline, the consort of George II., a con-
ference was held by them in the presence of her Majesty, Mrs.
Middleton, a Catholic lady much in the confidence of the Queen,
and the celebrated Dr. Courayer. When they met, Dr. Clarke, at
some length, in very guarded terms, and with great apparent per-
spicuity, stated and explained his system. Dr. Hawarden said
he had listened with the greatest attention to what had fallen
from Dr. Clarke, that he believed he apprehended rightly the
whole of his system. The only reply he would make to it
would be by asking a single question — and if the question were
thought to contain any ambiguity he wished it to be cleared of
this before any answer to it was returned, but desired that when
the answer should be given, it should be expressed by the affirmative
or negative monosyllable. To this proposition Dr. Clarke assented.
Then said Dr. Hawarden, I ask, "Can God the Father annihilate
the Son and Holy Ghost?" Dr. Clarke continued some time in
deep thought, and then said it was .a question he had never con-
sidered. Then the conference ended. On leaving - Douay, Dr.
Hawarden was sent to the North of England, and was occupied in



322 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



watching - over the welfare of Catholics in this neighbourhood, at
any rate during the years 1712, 1713, and 1 7 14. He resided mostly
at Aldcliffe. That manor had previously belonged to the Daltons,
of Thurnham, A moiety of it was conveyed in marriage by Dorothy,
youngest daughter and co-heiress of Robert Dalton, to Edward
Riddell, Esq., of Swinburne Castle, Northumberland. The re-
mainder, being left tor the support of the secular clergy, was on
three several occasions confiscated to the crown, and by the crown
was, after the third confiscation, let and subsequently sold to the
family of Dawson about the year 1 73 1 . The third confiscation most
probably took place after the inroad of the Jacobites in 1 71 5, when
after the war, the royal commission disposed at their pleasure of the
estates of suspected persons. To whom it belonged during the
period of Dr. Hawarden's residence we have not been able to
ascertain.

Rev. Nicholas Skelton.

It is certain that the Rev. N. Skelton was the first resident
priest in Lancaster after the Reformation. Until within the
past few years we knew hardly anything of this gentleman but
the names of his parents, the day of his birth, and the date of
his death. There existed indeed among the Catholics of the town a
tradition, which, if it was satisfactory on some points, was most
disappointing in others. It was certain in so far as it testified to his
existence, and the lengthened period of his ministry, but it could tell
us nothing about his person, his parentage, his education, or the
circumstances by which he was surrounded. The three simple
entries in the Douay Diary, and the other sources of information to
which they pointed, have cleared away a world of doubts ; and we
now know that he belonged to one of the great county families of
Cumberland, that he was the son of Richard Skelton and his wife
Mary Meynell, daughter of George Meynell, of Dalton Royal, in the
county of York, and that he was born on the 17th ol December,
169 1 (old style). Of the same family was John Skelton, poet
laureate in the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII, , but as this



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 323



gentleman seems not to have cast any great lustre on the name he
bore, he may be dismissed from these pages without further
ceremony. Richard, the father of Nicholas, was lord of Armathwaite
Castle and estates ; but whether it be that he foresaw greater evils
darkening the prospects of the future, and deemed it the more
prudent course to descend from a conspicuous position, or for
whatever other reason, he sold his property to John Sanderson, in
1 71 2, and we have not the means of tracing further the history of
his family.

It is a curious fact, and yet in perfect keeping with the
necessities of the time, that his son Nicholas is not mentioned in
the ordinary lists of his children. He was a student in a foreign
college, and it would have imperilled son and parents, and house
and home, to keep a record of his existence.

In 17 10, Mr. Skelton, then in his nineteenth year, took the
College oath, by which he engaged to proceed to sacred orders at
the proper times, and in spite of all dangers, to return, as he should
be directed by his superior, to his own country, and labour to win
souls to God. In accordance with this oath it is more than probable
that he would be ordained sub-deacon, deacon, and priest in three
successive years ; and if we suppose that he was 24 at the time of his
ordination — and he could not be ordained at any earlier age without a
dispensation — he may have been in Lancaster, in "the old house "
in St. Leonard's Gate, shortly after the excitement of 17 15. It is
certain that he died on the 13th November, 1766, aged 75, and if
the former supposition be correct, and we regard it as highly
probable, he seems to have passed a long and, for the times, a
peaceful life in the old town. No doubt he owed much to the
notice of the Dukes of Hamilton, then resident at Ashton Park,
and the great Catholic families of the neighbourhood; and if it be
said that he was indebted to his family distinction for these atten-
tions on the part of the Hamiltons, it is obvious that he was
not the only priest befriended by them. A place was always
reserved at the Duke's table for the Rev. W. Foster of Thurnham.



324 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



In 1766, Mr. Skelton, then 74 years of age, signed his last
will and testament, by which he bequeathed all his real property,
whatsoever and wheresoever, to the Hon. Edward Clifford, of Park
Hall, in Quernmore, and Thomas Winder Faithwaite, of Pottyeats,
in Littledale, as tenants in common, and not as joint tenants. To
these was joined, for other purposes, William Pennington, the
resident priest of Robert Hall, of whom the Douay Diary states
that he was a youth of great promise. The witnesses to the signa-
ture of the will are Antony Atkinson, Tho. Shepherd, John
Hankinson.

In Cabus is a farm or some farm land called " Skeltons,"
containing 13a. or. i4p., which formerly, along with adjoining
properties, belonged to the Duke of Hamilton.

The Right Honorable and Reverend Charles, Viscount

Fauconberg, D.D.

This nobleman, the last of the bearers of the title, was born
in 1750. He was sent at an early age to the college at Douay.
He greatly distinguished himself in humanities, and afterwards
proceeded to St. Oregon's Seminary. Paris, passing through the
schools of philosophy and divinity, and won in 1778 the much
coveted honour, namely, the Doctorate of the Sorbonne. On
returning to England he laboured many years on the London mission.
A few years prior to his decease he retired to Lancaster, and resided
with his sisters, the Honourable Misses Belasyses. But, though he
had retired, he was not idle ; and the registers of the neighbouring
missions bear ample witness to the charity and zeal which continued
to animate him to the end of his days. He died on the 21st of June,
181 3, three years before his friend, Dr. Rigby. He died at his
residence in Thurnham Street (now the Dispensary).

The Rev. John Rigby, D.D.

This gentleman was the son of Richard and Mary Rigby,
nee Winstanley, of Pemberton, near Wigan. He was for thirty



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 325



years pastor of the Catholic Mission in Lancaster. He died at his
residence, Dalton Square, on the 10th of June, [818, aged 63 years.
He had a brother Thomas, who was also a Doctor o\' Divinity o\
the Sorbonne, and Vicar-General of the London district. Dr. Rigby,
of Lancaster, was the originator of the Catholic Chapel in Dalton
Square, erected in 1797. It is now the Palatine Hall.

Dr. Rigby composed the Latin inscription, still to be seen,
though but faintly, on the Aqueduct Bridge. It was written by the
Doctor at the request of the Canal Company. The following
extracts from Dr. Rigby's note-book, concerning the Chapel in
Dalton Square, Schools, and Priest's House, are taken from the
note book of the Rev. Provost Walker : —

"TJctober 8th, 1797. Bought of James Barrow, four iots of ground,
fronting the lower or north end of Dalton Square, making 79 feet in front, and 87
backward ; price, ^"260.

October 10th. Printed for the purpose of circulation, an address to the
Catholics of England, soliciting contributions, of which the following is a copy :—

' To contribute to the con venit nee and decency of public worship is in no

slight degree to extend the influence of religion and morality. The wavering are
often fixed, and the tepid warmed, by external aids, and the devout must feel grate-
ful to that pious liberality which has enabled them to enjoy the advantage of meeting
together in prayer. To those who are acquainted with the local circumstances of the
Catholic congregation at Lancaster, it is useless to say that a new chapel is wanted
there, and that the members of it are not in general in a condition to contribute much
to so desirable a purpose. It may Lie further observed that the town and congrega-
tion are increasing daily, and likely to continue t<> increase. Of course, the necessity
of adopting the measure proposed becomes daily more urgent. The R. R. William
Gibson," bp. of the district, has sanctioned that measure, and subscribed handsomely
to encourage it, and to those who may be charitably induced to follow his example,
these lines are addressed. Any contributions, therefore, towards the building of a
new chapel and house for the incumbent at Lancaster, will be gratefully received by
Mr. Richard Gillow, London, or Dr. Thomas Rigby, do., or by

J. R. , Lancaster.
October 10, '97.' "



326 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Then we find the following additional notes : —

" October 22nd. Meeting in the chapel was held but very thinly attended.
Certain resolutions were entered into."

They read thus : —

" Resolved, that on account of the increase of the congregation, it is
expedient to attempt to build a new chapel in Lancaster, and a house for the
incumbent.

Resolved, that the priest for the time being be always one of the trustees,
and that Messrs. Robert Gillow, Richard W'orswick, and John Kaye be the other
trustees.

Resolved, that the said trustees be empowered to purchase the aforesaid lot
of ground foi the use of this congregation, and that they deliver over the full use and
management of the house and chapel erected thereon, and the income thence to
arise, to the priest who is now appointed, or shall hereafter be appointed by the
bishop of this district, to serve this congregation.

Resolved, finally, that the house, chapel, ground, and buildings, belonging
to this congregation, be sold at any future and convenient time, and that the money
then arising, be applyed towards the erecting, finishing, or engraving of the new
chapel and house.

Feb. nth, 1798. Paid for land ,£260 to Mr. Baldwin.

Feb. 26th. Corry and Woodcock came over from Preston to undertake
the woodwork. Nearly agreed.

March 5th. Agreed with Mr. Taylor for the mason work. Agreed with
Mr. Exley to superintend.

March 13th. Foundation stone of north end of Chapel laid.

August nth. Rearing.

August 31st. Sold the old house, chapel, and premises, at the Shakespear,
by auction, to Mr. Gillow, at ^610.

September 8th. Finished slating.

March 1st, 1799. Opened the chapel.

In the list of subscriptions which follows the Right Reverend Bishop
Gibson's of ,£20, are : — T. Worswiek, ^200, and a second of ,£50 ; R. Gillow and



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



J-*/



Sons, ,£150 ; Robert Gillow, London, £50. who also left by will another .£50; Mr.
Wheble, London, ,£50; total subscriptions received, ,£1,010 }s., which together
with moneys received from other sources, furnished the cost of the Chapel and
Presbytery, viz. £2,311 7s.

From a paper left by Dr. Rig-by, we find " that the income
belonging - to the incumbent of this Chapel being barely ,£90 a year,
^80 from the benches, and not always so much, and from another
source, ^,"10, a very uncertain sum for contingencies, not included,
and of which he must supply wine, wax, &c, for the Chapel, and
repairs and taxes for the whole building, it may be thought
reasonable to augment it, and if so he begs to make the following
proposal. " (Then follows a scheme for increasing the amount
derived from the bench rents.)

" N. B. — Each bench below to pay 6 pence, and in the gallery I shilling a
year, for keeping the Chapel clean.

The Incumbent on his side promises to advance the money, which will be
nearly £,70, for the enfranchisement of the land belonging to the Chapel.

If this scheme be admitted, to commence with the year 1811. "

The next extract shows that Dr. Rigby fulfilled his part of
the above scheme : —

" In 181 1, J. Rigby purchased the freehold of the Chapel and house of Mr,
Dalton, for which he paid, including attorney's bill, £"]"] 7s. 5d."

Dr. Rigby succeeded the Rev. James Tyrer in the mission at
Lancaster, who is mentioned as being of the age of twenty-three in
the Douay Diary, 1764. Mr. Tyrer died on the 5th of May, 1784,
and was buried at Windleshaw, near St. Helens.

Dr. Rigby was interred in the Chapel in Dalton Square, but
his remains were exhumed when the cemetery in connection with St.
Peter's Church was completed, and placed therm, and the com-
memoration stone which had marked the spot where he was buried



328 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



in the above-named Chapel, was transferred to the new grave. The
inscription on the marble is as follows : —

I. H. S.
H. S. E.
R.D. JOANNES RIGBY, S. T. D.
HUJUS SACELL1
CONDITOR ET PER 33 ANNOS MINISTER.
OBI IT ETATIS ANNOS 61
CHRISTI 1818 MENSE J UN DIE X,
IN CHRISTO SPES
H I C O S S A CONDI
IL EC SEPULCHRO INSCRIBI VOLUIT.

The Very Reverend Provost Walker, M.R., V.F.

One must be careful what he says about the Rector of St.
Peter's Church, since it is well known that the reverend gentleman
has a supreme abhorrence of anything bordering upon ostentation
or even commendation, so far as himself is concerned. But for the
sake of days to come, when the present generation will have passed
away, it has been deemed imperative, after due reflection, to make
a few very brief remarks respecting the provost.

The Very Reverend William Walker was born at Layton
Hall, near Blackpool, the old seat of a branch of the Rigbyes, the
branch celebrated for its loyalty to Charles I. After receiving the
rudiments of his education at Bispham school, he was entrusted to
the care of the Reverend Thomas Bryer, who took private pupils in
the parsonage at Great Marton. Here he was initiated among other
things into the mysteries of the Eton Latin Grammar and the
Eclogues of Virgil, and formed, as far as disparity of years would
permit, with Mr. and Mrs. Bryer, a friendship which was kept up
by kindly intercourse until the death of his old master. He pro-
ceeded to Ushaw at the end of the year 1835, and, thanks to the
solid foundation laid by Mr. Bryer, he found his college course



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 329



comparatively easy. Shortly after, the London University was
thrown open to the Catholic colleges, and he matriculated there ;
but was prevented by circumstances from proceeding- further.
Subsequently he taught successively the two higher schools of
humanities which included Greek and Latin and French Authors ;
as also ancient or English History, as the case might be. He
was sometime professor of Poetry, was ordained in 1849, and held
the post of professor of Rhetoric for several years. He left the
college at the end of the scholastic year 1856. Mr. Walker was
then appointed to St. Augustine's, Preston, where he remained
until the death of the Very Rev. Richard Brown, whom he succeeded
at St. Peter's Church, Lancaster, on the 28th of January, 1869. In
1873, he was appointed to a vacant stall in the pro-cathedral of St.
Nicholas, and in 1889 was raised by His Holiness Pope Leo XIII.
to the provostship of the Chapter. Provost Walker is a nephew of
the late Canon John Walker of Scarborough, many years the
personal friend of the lamented Dr. Lingard, and one of the few who
• were with the doctor during his last hours. The reverend gentleman
has endeared himself to all classes in Lancaster, who have found in
him at all times a fair and generous minister, a fluent and candid
speaker, as charitable in every respect as he is courteous and learned.
He is a member of the Lancaster Burial Board, and is identified
with all such movements as are calculated to redound to the well-
being of the borough. He is 70 years of age.

Richard Gillow.

This gentleman was born in 1734. He was a younger son
ot Richard Gillow, Esq., of Ellel Grange, who died in 17 17. He is
best known to us as the architect of the Custom House of Lan-
caster, as the inventor of the telescope table, and also as the
initiator of a new and improved system of furnishing the dining and
with-drawing rooms of superior dwellings and mansions. Mr.
Gillow was an ardent supporter of the Catholic religion, and was a
principal contributor to the cost of erecting the new Chapel in
Dalton Square, in 1799. Owing to his exertions the Catholics of



33Q TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.

Margate and the Isle of Thanet generally, were enabled to have a
place of worship of their own instead of having to go to Canterbury
when they wished to attend mass, that city prior to 1800 being the
nearest place available for the purpose. Mr. Gillow likewise con-
tributed largely to the establishment of St. Mary Abbots, Kensing-
ton. He died at Ellel Grange on the 14th of August, 181 1.
Richard, his eldest son, purchased the manors of Leighton and
Yealand Conyers from his cousin, Thomas Worswick, Esq., whose
mother, Alice Gillow, was the wife of Alexander Worswick, of
Leighton. There were two other sons, Robert Gillow, of Clifton
Hill, Forton, and George Gillow, of Hammersmith. For fuller
particulars of this ancient Catholic family, see Mr. Joseph Gillow's
" Bibliographical Dictionary," vol. II. In the same will be found
interesting biographies of the Gillows of Preston, Singleton, and
Salwick, including one of the Rev. Dr. Gillow, president of Ushaw
College.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



33 J



CHAPTER XII.

Churches of St. John — St. Anne—Christ Church — St. Luke, Skerton—
Fast Incumbents of each — Value of the Respective Living- oi
Churches — Congregationalism and Wesleyanism in Lancaster-
Si-. Nicholas's Chapel— Various Denominations — Friends' Meeting
House — Moorside Burial Ground.



St. John's Church.

J FEW 7 more places of divine worship now

We must now treat



pj require some attention.

of St. John's Church. This first Chapel ot
ease erected in Lancaster demands more
than a passing- notice. But it will, perhaps,
be as well to call attention to it first archi-
tecturally, and then note its interior and the
features of interest therein. The Church is
built in the Italian style, is 28 yards long by
18 wide, and 30 feet in height. The tower,
erected in 1784, is square, and in three
sections, surmounted by a dome having eight plain circular pillars,
supported by square central columns behind, and above is a small
spire of the concave-curvilinear and octagonal form. In 1889, the
appearance of the Church was greatly improved by an application oi
the painter's brush and by general cleaning. Outside, a new parapet
was erected, into which, new and neat iron railing was inserted, so
that a much more cheerful aspect now greets the eye. Within the
sacred edifice are several interesting tablets ; the first refers to
the augmentation of 1757.




a.d., 1757.
This Church of St. John was augmented, and A.D., 1760,

Lands purchased with £Soo



332 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Whereof given by

Queen Anne's Bounty ^4°°

By executors of William Stratford, LL.D ^200

By other Benefactors £ 2 °°

Another tablet near the above, and adjacent to the font,
states that : —

THIS FONT WAS PRESENTED TO ST. JOHN'S CHURCH BY
ELIZABETH AND DOROTHY BOWES l8l8. THE ABOVE-MENTIONED
ELIZABETH BOWES DIED ON THE 5TH DAY OF APRIL, 1 858, AGED 84
YEARS, AND DOROTHY BOWES ON THE 22ND DAY OF MAY, 1858,
AGED 78.

A beautiful marble slab bears this inscription : — XIO tbC

OlOfP Of (BOO, AND FOR THE BENEFIT OF HER NEIGHBOURS, THE
CLOCK OF THIS CHURCH WAS GIVEN AND FIXED AT THE COST OF
MISS BALDWIN, OF GREEN AYRE, IN THIS PARISH. IT WAS DEDI-

CATED TO DIVINE SERVICE, SUNDAY, AUGUST 29, 1886.

THIS FACT IS RECORDED AS A TOKEN OF GRATITUDE FOR A
VALUABLE GIFT, AND OF ESTEEM EOR THE DONOR.

William Harris Ewald, M.A., Vicar.

William Bell, j Churchwardens.
Henry Hartley, J

On the wall of the north aisle I found memorials, the first of
which is : —

TO THE MEMORY

OF CORNEY TOMLINSON, LATE OF LANCASTER,

THIS TABLET IS INSCRIBED

BY HIS ONLY SURVIVING DAUGHTER

AS A TRIBUTE OF AFFECTION

AND DUTIFUL REGARD

TO THE INESTIMABLE QUALITIES

OF A BELOVED PARENT.

HE DEPARTED THIS LIFE APRIL 3OTH, 1813.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 333

IN MEMORY ALSO OF FOl'R OF HIS CHILDREN,

VIZ : — TWO SONS AND TWO DAUGHTERS,

INTERRED NEAR THIS PLACE.

ALSO IN MEMORY OF MARGARET, THE BELOVED RELICT.

OF THE ABOVE CORNEY TOMLINSON,

WHO DIED OCTOBER 9TH, 1837,

AGED 71,

ALSO OF MARGARET, THE ONLY SURVIVING CHILD

OF THE ABOVE CORNEY AND MARGARET TOMLINSON,

AND THE LAST MEMBER OF THE TOMLINSON FAMILY,

WHO DIED MARCH 27TH, 1 843,

AGED 55 YEARS,

A BENEFACTRESS OF THIS CHURCH.

The next is : —

IN MEMORY OF BENJAMIN S.YTTERTHWAITE, ESQ.,

OF LANCASTER,

WHO DIED DECEMBER III. MDCCCL.

AGED LXXXVII.

Further on is a memorial to John Brockbank, Esq., which
reads thus : —

in memory of john brockbank, of lancaster,
who died june 1 2th, 1847, aged 66 years,

and Eleanor, wife of the above,

who died september 20/th, 1 847, aged 57.

also John Brockbank their only son,

who died september ioth, 1 873, aged 59



334 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.

In the south aisle is this commemoration of the life and
labours of a former pastor :—

SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF

The Rev. George M o r l a n d

38 YEARS VICAR OF THIS CHURCH,

WHO DIED 5TH OCTOBER, 1862,

IN THE 72ND YEAR OF HIS AGE,

AND WAS INTERRED IN THE CEMETERY, LANCASTER.

THIS TABLET IS ERECTED BY HIS SORROWING RELATIVES,

IN AFFECTIONATE REMEMBRANCE OF HIS CHARACTER,

AS A FAITHFUL MINISTER OF GOD'S HOLY WORD,

AND A BRIGHT EXAMPLE OF THE DOCTRINES HE TAUGHT,

BY HIS TRULY CHRISTIAN DISPOSITION

AND CONSISTENT DEPORTMENT IN THE DAILY WALK OF LIFE."

The last one I surveyed is: —

in memory of
Nancy, wife of Thomas Howitt,

of lancaster, surgeon,

who died i2th september, 1839,

aged 56 years,

also of the above

Thomas H o w i t t ,

WHO DIED THE

2 I ST AUGUST, I 846,

AGED 62 YEARS.

There are three large medallion lights in each of the two east
windows. In the south-east window, beginning with the lowest
medallion, the subject is Our Lord's Nativity ; in the two medallions
above are representations of the Crucifixion and of the Angel at our
Lords's empty sepulchre. In the north-east window the subjects
are, beginning from the bottom : — Our Lord's appearance to Man-
Magdalene after his Resurrection. Then we have Our Lords'
appearance to St. Thomas, and the Ascension.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 335



The east window bears at its base the following inscription :—

"IN HOXOREM DEI, E.P. MDCCCLXXI. TO THE GLORY OF COD.
IN MEMORY OF HARRIET, WIFE OF JOHN H.\LL, BORN' IITH APRIL,
1805, DECEASED 30TH JULY, 1 870. "

Neatly engraved round the lower portion of the pulpit is a
brass on which are these words: — "to the glory of god. in

THE YEAR OF OUR LORD, 1 875, THIS PULPIT AND THE PRAYER DESK
WERE GIVEN BY MISS BALDWIN, OF GREEN AYRE, IN THIS PARISH,
AND HER SISTER, MRS. PEEBLES. EDWARD PeDDER M.A., VICAR,

James Parker and Henry Longman, churchwardens.

An organ was presented to the Church, in 1863, by Miss
Tatham, of Melling. It replaced an organ given to the Church by
Abram Rawlinson, Esq., M.P., in 1784, erected by B. Langshaw,
who was also the organist. On the west gallery are the National
Anns, and over the late Mr. Roper's pew, formerly occupied by the
Rev. Wm. Stratford, LL.D., were the Richmond Arms. Over
the Mayor's Pew are the Lancaster Arms. This Church used to be
designated the Green Ayre Chapel. It stands on the site of what
was once known as the " Clayholes."



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