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' a picturesque building on a picturesque site.' The Asylum was
originally designed for 400 patients, but the plans were revised and
the building extended, so as to provide ample accommodation for
600 inmates. With admirable foresight on the part of the Committee,
the kitchens, laundry, stores, workshops, and other offices have



C2



386 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



been erected on a scale to meet the requirements of 1,000 inmates,
and the building is capable of easy and inexpensive enlargement.
Messrs. Paley and Austin, of Lancaster, were the architects. The
excavations were commenced in the summer of 1867, and much
progress in building had been made, when on the 17th of June,
1868, the foundation stone was laid, with masonic honours, by the
late Ear! of Zetland, Grand Master of the Freemasons of England.
A portion of the building comprising about two thirds (including
the Brooke Wing, called after the Rev. Richard Brooke and Mrs.
Brooke, of Selby, the munificent donors of ^30,000), was ready for
occupation in the autumn of 1870, and, as before stated, was formally
opened by the Duke of Devonshire, K.G. The completion of the
Asylum was celebrated by a banquet on October 8th, 1873, at which
the Earl of Derby presided and delivered one of his most thoughtful
and masterly addresses. The style of architecture is domestic
Gothic of an early type, the arrangements and details being devised
to satisfy modern tastes and ideas and sound sanitary principles.
There is no superfluous ornamentation about the building. It is
elegant in its proportions, and combines a handsome general effect
with comparative plainness of detail, convenience of appointments
with fitness of accommodation. Eminent authorities have borne
testimony to the excellence of the building and its appointments,
and the late Dr. Seguin, the pioneer in the work of training imbeciles,
regarded the Royal Albert Asylum as realising the dream of his life.
In describing the building we may say that it is somewhat in the
form of a letter HH with the centre stroke elongated and crossed
in the manner indicated. The greatest length from north to south
is 471ft. 8in., and from west to east of the central block 340ft. The
south wing is 184ft. from west to east, and the north wing 210ft.
long. The two wings project 60ft., and the centre 40ft. in advance
of the main line, and the total area covered is about 53,000 square
yards. The principal entrance is in the centre, and is approached
by a handsome flight of steps. Above the central block is a massive
tower. Its present form is not that of the original design, but a
deviation, which, after repeated and urgent representations, the
Committee were induced to make. It ought to be regarded as a



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 387



memorial of the munificence of Sir Titus Salt, Bart., whose splendid
donation of ^5,000, when the alteration was under consideration,
determined the Committee to incur the additional expense, and, in
the opinion of competent professional judges, thereby to improve
the 'appearance of the building-. With regard to the interior arrange-
ments, we must content ourselves with a very brief description. On
the left side of the entrance hall is the waiting-room for visitors, and
on the right the door leading to the residence of the medical
superintendent. Immediately in front of the hall door is a hand-
some flight of stairs, leading to the board room and the Secretary's
offices. At the back of this staircase are the main corridors of the
ground floor and first floor. The corridor of the ground floor
divides the entrance hall from the dining hall, or rather the assembly
room. This is a spacious hall 42 feet in height and 70 feet long by
35 feet wide. The roof timbers are of Baltic deal. It is lighted by
five windows of the casement pattern on each side — north and south
—and those on the south are of stained glass. These stained glass
windows, which are of neat and appropriate design, have been
inserted by friends in memory of deceased benefactors. The room
will accommodate about 300 patients at dinner, and is called " The
De Yitre Hall." At the east end is a sliding door communicating
with the crockery and serving room, at the back of the hall
is the kitchen, a lofty room, about 25 feet high, and 40 feet
by 35 feet in area. The kitchen is fitted up with ranges of
approved construction, five large boilers, and a steam appara-
tus. A patent hoist communicates with the basement corridor
wherein are the various store rooms. In the adjoining scullery are a
gas stove, a potatoe steamer, and every appliance for preparing
vegetables, &c. The servants' hall, cook's store, and other neces-
sary rooms are in the same block as the kitchen. A short corridor
connects the kitchen block with the laundry and workshops. On
the ground floor the space occupied by the workshops for carpenters,
plumbers, matmakers, upholsterers, shoemakers, and tailors, and by
the engine house is in extent about 140 feet by 66 feet. Above the
workshops is the spacious laundry with its complete fittings. From
the basement floor of the main building is a general staircase leading



3 88 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



to the upper portion of the building - by the principal corridors. To
the right and left of the main entrance are the ' Wrigley ' and ' Asa
Lees ' corridors leading - to the north and south wings, and in the
north wing the ' Brackenbury corridor — all named after great bene-
factors. Along these corridors are suites of apartments for private
patients, and at the end of them spacious schoolrooms and class-
rooms, with dormitories above. The south wing is occupied by
boys and the north wing by girls. In honour of the munificent
donors, as previously mentioned, the south wing has been called
' The Brooke Wing.' The building consists (i) of the basement
floor, level with the ground ; (2) the ground floor, level with the
entrance hall ; (3) the first floor ; and (4) the second floor. It may
be stated that the building is replete with every convenience suitable
to such an Institution. There are numerous lavatories, several
plunge and other baths, water closets, external dry-earth closets,
&c. In additon to open fire places in nearly all the rooms, the
Asylum is heated with hot water. An abundant supply of water of
great purity has been obtained from the Corporation of Lancaster
by a special service from a point about a mile distant joining the
mains before they reach the town. Every provision has been made
to meet the risk of fire, and the building is well fitted with hydrants,
stand pipes, hand pipes, hose, &c. Gas is also supplied by the
Lancaster Corporation. The building is of light-coloured freestone
of durable quality, obtained from quarries about a quarter of a mile
distant. The walling is of hammer dressed, broken coursed work,
with chiselied bands of red St. Bees at intervals. The inside walls
are lined with brick, with a small space between the brick and
stone. The roofs are covered with green slates from the Duke of
Buccleuch's quarries at Coniston. In addition to the Asylum
building there are several lodges, also a set of farm buildings with
a farm house and separate accommodation for a dozen patients who
are employed on the farm. The entire cost of these buildings,
including the architect's commission, clerk of the works' salary, &c,
was about ^"80,000. The furniture and fittings have cost about
,£10,000. The estate, which has been increased to 105 acres, has
cost, with the laying out of extensive grounds, ^17,000. Besides



ThME-HONOL'RED LANCASTER 389



this outlay, the late able Chairman of the Cental Committee and
chief promoter (Dr. de Vitre), built and presented to the Institute a
block of cottages for trade attendants and others employed at the
Asylum, at a cost to himself of £2,375. And yet another munificent
gift must be recorded. The patients having- suffered from two or
three epidemics of scarlatina and measles, the urgent need for a
detached infirmary was felt by the medical staff ; and as soon as the
filling up of the spare accommodation in the Asylum prevented
proper isolation, the Committee appealed for funds to erect an
infirmary. In consequence of the kind advocacy of Dr. Hammond,
an offer was received from Mr. Edward Rodgett, of Preston, to
defray the entire cost of the erection of a complete and commodious
infirmary somewhere in the grounds of the Asylum. The offer was
gratefully accepted, and, as the result, the Institution can now
boast of possessing one of the best planned and most convenient and
efficiently equipped infirmaries in connection with any public Insti-
tution in the country. Mr. Rodgett's contribution, with Mrs.
Rodgett's donation to defray half the expense of furnishing,
amounted to £5,000. The building has been gratefully and most
appropriately called l The Rodgett Infirmary.' It was opened in
September, 18S2, by the Earl of Lathom, and was received on
behalf of the Trustees of the Asylum by the Earl of Bective.

To complete the provision of accommodation tor aii classes
the Central Committee purchased the Quarry Hill property, com-
prising a block of houses, with extensive grounds, charmingly laid
out in tennis lawns, ornamental plantations, gardens, &c. , as a
Home for Special Private Pupils attending the Schools and other
occupations of the institution. The object is to combine, for
private pupils paying remunerative rates, the seclusion and comforts
of a private residence with the hygienic, educational, and training
resources of a public institution under responsible management.
The propertv is in convenient proximity to the Asylum estate (with
which it has telephonic connection) and is designated ' Brunton
House.'



39o timk.honoured Lancaster.



The following is taken from the pamphlet published just after
the Quinquennial Festival was held, September 17th, 1888 :—

The donors and legatees include the Rev. Richard and Mrs.
Brooke, Selby, ,£30,000 ; Miss Brackenbury, Brighton, ,£10,000 ;
Mr. Asa Lees, Oldham, ,£10,000; Mr. T. Wrigley, Timberhurst,
Bury, ,£10,000 ; Mrs. R. D. Dodgson, Blackburn, ,£9,000 ; Sir
Titus Salt, Bart, ^5,000 ; Mr. John Bairstow, Preston, ^5,000 ;
Mr. John Eden, Durham, ,£5,000 ; and the Very Rev. George
Waddington, D.D. (Dean of Durham), ,£5,000. Mr. James Brunton
of Lancaster, was the donor of the original gift of ,£2,000, and
there has in his memory been named a suite oi' detached buildings,
opened in June, 1887, as a home for special private patients, to
which have been transferred from the Asylum those who could not
be suitably associated. For the isolation of patients, an infirmary
with 35 beds was provided by the munificence of Mr. and Mrs. E.
Rodgett, of Darwen Bank, Preston. The estate, in which a farm,
with excellent buildings, is included, embraces an area of 105 acres.

Notwithstanding its admirable equipment with all needful
agencies and appliances for care and training of the patients, it has
long been regarded as essential to the smooth and efficient working
of the institution that there should be a recreation hall for lanre
assemblies of the patients, combining a suitable and commodious
hall for services and associated entertainments, as well as a spacious
playroom for the use of the girls and junior boys in inclement
weather. The provision of such an adjunct was one of the desirable
objects constantly kept in view by the late Dr. De Yitre, the first
Chairman of the Central Committee ; Dr. Shuttleworth, the medical
superintendent, has repeatedly urged its importance as an agency
of ameliorative influences ; and at the annual meetings of the
Asylum supporters it has frequently been pointed out that hitherto
the accommodation for systematic recreation has been limited
and incomplete. Seeing, then, that a recreation hall was a con-
summation devoutly to be wished, the Central Committee appealed
for funds and help in this direction, with the result that in 1886 the



TIME-HOXOURED LANCASTER. 391



response was sufficiently encouraging- to induce them to obtain plans
and estimates for a new building. Three donations of ^500 each
from Lord Winmarleig'h, whose constant and devoted services had
led to the new building being named after him, from Mr. William
Tattersall, of Quarry Bank, Blackburn, and from the Trustees of
the late Mr. F. A. Argles, of Milnthorpe, acted as an incentive to
exertion, and with other donations justified the commencement of
building operations.

The plans submitted by Messrs. Paley and Austin were
approved, and the work oi erection was commenced in November,
1886. The building is durable, handsome, lofty, and spacious. It
is situated at the north end of the block of offices, and connected
with the main building by a covered passage, which gives access
for all the inmates. In architectural style it harmonises with the
adjoining workshop and laundry block. The hall is 79ft. in length
to the front of the orchestra, and 52ft. in width. It is divided into
centre and side divisions by four " bays " of light cast-iron pillars
running up to and supporting the roof. The central division rises
to an arched ceiling 40ft. high to the apex from the floor, and the
side divisions have a flat ceiling 25ft. high. Four mullioned
windows give light in each side. At the south end is placed a
raised permanent platform, 21ft. 6in. deep and 38ft. wide, opening
into the hall by a large arch. Various apartments and storerooms
are placed under the platform. At the north end are placed the
outside entrance and lobbies, with staircase access to a large
gallery accommodating 200 people. Altogether the hall will seat
800 persons. Ample exit is provided in case of emergency, and
special provision has been made for the heating, lighting, and
ventilation of the hall. On the ground floor, and under a portion
of the large hall, is a playroom for girls and junior boys (the senior
boys having a room already provided) 51ft. wide and 73ft. long,
covered with solid blocks, laid in asphalt, on a bed of concrete.

The work has been carried out under the supervision of the
architects by the following contractors : — Masonry, Mr. \Y. War-



392 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



brick ; joiners' work, Mr. W. Hunting-ton ; slating' and plastering,
Messrs. R. Hall & Son; plumbing and glazing, Mr. W. Huthersall,
painting, Mr. Thomas Standen ; heating, Messrs. Seward and
Co.; whilst the building has been fitted throughout with patent
ventilators by the ^Eolus Water Spray Ventilating Co., London.
Mr. J. Combe, the permanent clerk of the works at the Asylum,
acted as clerk of the works in the erection of this building. The
cost of the new structure reached ,£6,300.

Lord Winmarleigh, in a few brief sentences, presented to
Lord Herschell a richly-chased silver key, requesting him to open the
door and invite the company to enter. On a shield in the centre of
the handsomely-chased handle of the key was the following inscrip-
tion : — "Winmarleigh Recreation Hall. Opened by the Right Hon.
Lord Herschell, September 17th, 1888." The key, which was
enclosed in a morocco case, was supplied by Mr. Bell, silversmith,
Market Street.

The majority of the visitors having spent a pleasant hour in
the inspection of the various departments of the Institution, at half-
past one o'clock assembled in the De Vitre Hall, where the first
ceremony in the day's proceedings — that of presenting the portrait
of Mr. Diggens— took place. To the late Mr. J. P. Chamberlain
Starkie, we believe, the credit is due for originating the idea of
obtaining a portrait of Mr. Diggens and presenting it to the Royal
Albert Asylum, and he was fortunate in securing the hearty approval
and co-operation of Sir Thomas Storey. Both gentlemen had been
connected with the Central Committee of the Asylum during the
whole period of Mr. Diggens's secretariat, and as Vice-Chairmen of
the House Committee, had had many opportunities of judging of
his character and abilities.

The picture is an excellent likeness, and was generally
admired by the visitors. It represents Mr. Diggens seated in an
arm chair, with his legs crossed one over the other, and his right
elbow resting on the corner of a desk, upon which lie a minute book



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 393



and a bundle of papers. On his knee is an open pamphlet which he
is perusing", and if one might judge from ihe well known deep blue
cover, this item in the picture is meant to represent one o( the
annual reports of the Institution. The portrait is enclosed in a
suitable frame, at the foot of which is inscribed : — " James Diggens,
first secretary of the Royal Albert Asylum, Lancaster. Appointed
1865. Presented by the members of the central committee. Painted
by Sydney Hodges, 1888." During the ceremony Lord Winmar-
leigh, as Chairman of the Central Committee, presided, being
accompanied on the platform by the Right Hon. Lord Herschell,
the Right Hon. Lord Egerton, of Tatton, the Right Hon. J. T.
Hibbert, Sir F. T. Mappin, Bart., M.P., Sir James Ramsden, Mr.
W. G. Ainslie, M.P., the High Sheriff of Lancashire (Mr. Oliver
Heywood), Sir A. Fairbairn, Sir T. Storey, Mr. W. H. Higgin, Q.C.,
Ven. Archdeacon Hornby, &c.

The second feature in the day's proceedings was the unveiling
of the statues of Her Majesty the Queen and the late Prince Consort,
which have been presented to the Institution by Mr. James Harrison,
of Dornden, Tunbridge Wells. The figures, which are placed in
niches over the massive arched doorway at the main entrance, have
been sculptured in Longridge stone by Mr. Bridgeman, of Lichfield.
The ceremony of unveiling the statues was performed by Mr.
Harrison, who made a very brief speech, requesting Lord Egerton
of Tatton to accept the present on behalf of the Central Committee.

From the speech of Lord Herschell, I extract these interesting
observations : — " During the seventeen years the Royal Albert
Asylum has been in operation, 1,151 patients had been cared for:
some had died, and there were now 553 inmates. There had been
discharged from the Institution 424, and of that number four were
discharged absolutely cured, retaining no trace of imbecility. That
was a remarkable result, and one which not long ago would have
been deemed impossible, and if the Institution had clone no more it
would alone have justified its establishment, and the time and money
spent upon it. But, in addition, 110 had left greatly improved ; 120



394 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



moderately improved ; and 125 slightly improved. There were only
65 in whom no improvement had been traced. If we reflected for a
moment on what that gradual improvement meant, one might see
how much had been done by that Institution, not only to add to the
happiness of those unfortunate inmates, but also to that of the
numbers which constituted the families to whom they belonged.
They had taken from those families the burden of watching over those
for whom they were ill-fitted to care. For every one whom they
thus benefitted, they cheered and brightened the lives of three, four,
five, half-a-dozen others. He could not but think that that record of
1 per cent, absolutely cured and 84 per cent, improved was a matter
upon which they might well be congratulated. It might be interest-
ing to enquire what had been the future life of those who had
enjoyed the benefits of that Institution. The career had been traced
of 176 who left there after completing their full term. Of these 18,
or rather more than 10 per cent., were now earning wages ; 9 were
employed in remunerative work at home ; 6 more were in a position
to keep themselves by earning wages, although at that moment out
of work ; 38 were more or less useful in their own homes : 39 remained
at home and were not quite the burden that they formerly were.
The great object of that Institution was, as Dr. Shuttleworth, the
medical superintendent, had stated, to try and find out what was the
particular faculty which might be developed and turned to account.
That work was often one of great difficulty, but it was not insuper-
able, and it was by specially cultivating these faculties that such
great results could be achieved.

It was estimated that in the Seven Northern Counties, from
which that Institution drew its inmates there were, under 20 years
of age, 4,800 imbeciles. In the country as a whole, the number
under 20 years of age was something over 18,000. Yet in all the
Institutions of the country, provided for the reception of such cases,
there was only room for 2,400 inmates. It was obvious, therefore,
that there were multitudes who were year by year still being deprived
of the possibility of future happiness and usefulness which might be
theirs if funds were provided to enable these Institutions to do a



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 395



larger work than they were at present doing. Even the Institution
under whose auspices they met that day could accommodate 47
more patients if there were only funds to support them. This extra
provision would entail the contribution of £1,480. Surely there
could be,no reason, considering the wealth of the seven northern
counties, for the continuance of this state of things. The Institution
should not be prevented from doing the work for which it was
capable ; and he hoped that by the next time they met all the vacant
room would be usefully occupied. The ladies had done much for
the Institution. The annual subscriptions amounted to ,£4,500, and
of that sum the ladies had collected ,£2,000. (Applause.) He
appealed to them to add to the obligation by collecting the additonal
£1,480. The ladies had a happy audacity which did not characterise
the other sex when seeking to replenish the empty coffers of a
charity, and he hoped they would still further usefully exercise this
valuable faculty. The Recreation Hall to be clear of debt required
,£1,533 to be raised, besides the modest sum of ,£150 for the supply
of furniture ; and there was another deficit in connection with the
provision of two large boilers, a new boiler house, and certain im-
provements in the laundry and the heating apparatus, which left
£"2,165 to be raised to fully pay for what had been done. The bare
recital of the facts he had detailed was far more eloquent than words
could be, and if it did not dispose them, or those who would learn
the facts, to aid the Institution more in future, no eloquence the
most bewitching could do so. In asking them to drink to the pros-
perity of the Institution, he called upon them to resolve to do all in
their power, by the assistance they were able to render, to ensure
the prosperity they so heartily desired. "'

The general Secretary is Mr. James Diggens, Royal Albert
Asylum, Lancaster. Offices : —Royal Albert Asylum, Lancaster;
and Exchange Chambers, Bank Street, Manchester.

The Ripley Hospital.

Earlier on we alluded to the tomb of Julia Ripley, relict of
Thomas Ripley, a native of Lancaster and a Liverpool merchant, as



396 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



one of our old city's chief benefactresses. Here, then, are we at the
great orphanage, built in the early pointed style of the twelfth
century, called "The Ripley Hospital." This Hospital was erected
by the said lady at a cost of ^25,000 for the education and mainten-
ance of three hundred orphan and fatherless children of Lancaster
and Liverpool, special preference being", of course, given to the
children born in the former. Candidates must be natives of Lan-
caster, or within a radius of fifteen miles thereof, or natives of
Liverpool, or within a radius of seven miles of that port and city .
in each case within the County of Lancaster only. The Institution
was erected in the shape of the letter E, so as to form two wings
of equal proportion ; in the one there is accommodation for one
hundred and fifty boys, and in the other accommodation for the
same number of girls. Candidates for admission must be between
the age of seven and eleven, and may remain — boys until their
fifteenth year, girls until their sixteenth year. In the centre pro-
jection is the main entrance, and beneath the tower, which is 98ft.
high. There is a clock in the tower, and the latter is pierced with
three tall lancet lights on each side. Each wing is 130ft. long and
68ft. high. The principal is the Rev. W. L. Appleford, M.A., the
matron Miss McLeod. The Trustees are the Lord Bishop of the
diocese, the Lord Bishop of Liverpool, the Yiear of Lancaster (Dr.
Allen), Sir Thomas Broeklebank, Bart., Liverpool; Sir Thomas
Storey, Knight, Lancaster ; the Rev. C. Twemlow Royds, Heysham;



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