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and the Clerk to the Trustees is Mr. G. W. Maxsted, solicitor,
Lancaster.

Messrs. Paley and Austin are to be congratulated upon
erecting such an excellent chapel in connection with the Ripley
Hospital. It is thoroughly in keeping with the hospital buildings
generally, and reflects credit upon architects and builders alike. In
one of the local journals the following" description of the new edifice
appears, and will doubtless be read by friends of the Hospital and
others with interest : — The Chapel forms the completion of the
scheme of addition and alteration which was commenced in the year
1885, and which with the exception of the chapel was completed t\\ o



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 397

years ago. As accommodation for too additional children was
required, the old school building's have been adapted and added to
the domestic portion of the Hospital, giving additional dormitories,
wardrobe-rooms, lavatories, &c, and new schools with class-rooms
were built as one-storey wings on each side of the main front, and a
spacious covered play-ground was provided both for boys and girls.
At the rear of the main building there have been built a large
swimming-bath, and a complete washhouse and laundry block with
necessary boilers and other fittings. The carpenters' shop and the
kitchen-offices have been enlarged and refitted. The Ripley
Hospital Chapel is of the decorated style oi~ architecture, and
consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with vestry on the
south side of the chancel, over which is the organ gallery opening
by arches with corbelled balconies into the chancel of the south
aisle. The chancel, 26ft. wide by 34ft. long, has a stone-groined
ceiling 35ft. hig'h at the crown, divided equally into two bays by a
clustered shaft on either side, which branch at the springing into the
groining ribs. The stonework between the ribs is relieved by
bushes of red Runcorn stone. The diagonal ribs at the four corners
rest on shafts which are supported by corbels richly carved with
leaf foliage. The choir stalls, prayer desks, lectern, and pulpit
are of oak richly carved with tracery and leaf foliage. The chancel
pavement is of encaustic and plain tiles divided by strips of stone.
The nave, 72ft. long, is divided from the chancel by a chancel arch,
32ft. high to the apex. Ample accommodation is provided in the
nave for the inmates, who enter this Chapel by a covered wa\
connected with the main building. The seats are terminated at the
west end by a panelled oak arch, 9ft. high, across the full width of
the nave and 9ft. out from west wall. In the south aisle, which is
divided from the nave by an arcade of three bays with clustered
shafts and capitals, accommodation is provided for 150 adult
worshippers, and these sittings are approached by a door to be used
by the public at the north side of the chancel arch. The nave is
covered by a massive pitchpine roof of eleven principals with
traceried spandrills. The roofs of the aisle and organ chamber are
also of pitchpine. The floors under the seats are of solid wood



39 8 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



blocks, and the aisles are flagged. The outside stonework, for both
dressings and walling, is of Lancaster stone, and the inside dressings
and walling, which is ashlar throughout, is of Stourton (Cheshire)
stone. The roof is covered with Westmorland slates from the
Longridge Fell Quarries. The chancel roof is surmounted by a
tall octagonal fleche, the lower part of which contains a bell,
which formerly belonged to the Parish Church peal, and round
which runs an over-hanging gallery of oak. The total height from
the top of the fleche to the ground is iooft. The Chapel will
accommodate 300 children and 150 adults. It contains a large
three-manual organ, built by Messrs. Wilkinson & Sons, of Kendal;
opened in 1890. The edifice was erected in 1888. The resident
Principal and Chaplain, the Rev. Walter Langley Appleford, M.A.,
was appointed in 1882.

The orphan boys and girls who compose the congregation
proper are extremely well behaved during the hours of divine
service. Some of the older boys are annually chosen to fill the
positions of "churchwardens and sidesmen," and very creditably do
they perform their official duties. The Chapel is open to the
general public, who thoroughly appreciate the order, heartiness,
and melody characterising the Sabbath worship of the Ripley
children. Great credit is due to the Head Master, Mr. C. Grime,
and to the Head Mistress, Miss M. Snalam, together with their
able staff of assistants, for the excellent training —moral, religious,
and secular — which under the supervision of the Rev. W. L.
Appleford, they daily endeavour to impart to their juvenile charges.

In its object and intention the Ripley Hospital is very similar
to the famous Christ's Hospital (Blue Coat School), London. The
foundation stone was laid on July 14th, 1856, and the opening cere-
mony took place amidst much public rejoicing on Nov. 3rd, 1864,
the anniversary of the birthday of the foundress. Mrs. Ripley lived
for manv years to carry on the work of the Institution, and at her
death in 1881, the charity was vested in the seven Trustees before
named.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 3gg



The Workhouse.

The old Workhouse of Lancaster originally stood near to the
White Cross. It was deemed too small, and in June, 1787, it was
decided by the Council to erect a more commodious building on a
portion of the Moor.

The following" is a copy of the agreement which was made
between William Watson, Esq., Mayor of Lancaster, Robert
Addison, and John Warbrick, the bailiffs, and Edward Batty,
churchwarden, and John Shaw, Robert Inman, Joshua Robinson,
and Thomas Barrow, overseers :—

"• Whereas the present house for the reception, maintenance, and residence
of the poor of the Borough and Township of Lancaster is too small and inconvenient :

» It is become highly necessary to build a poor-house, and the Churchwardens
and Overseers have applied to the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty as Lords of the
Manor.

And the Mayor, &c, are willing and did represent the propriety thereof to
the Aldermen and Council in Council assembled 21st June, 1787.

And it was unanimously resolved that a convenient quantity of ground on
Lancaster Moor should be enclosed under 43 Elizabeth.

These present witness that in consideration of the comfortable provision and
residence that will be made for the poor

The Mayor, &c, do give and grant liberty to erect a proper and convenient
poor-house on a piece of common ground on Lancaster Moor, betwixt the two high-
ways there, near to the stone quarries; ami also to enclose from the waste or
common 30 customary acres of 7 yards to the rood.

Witnesses, Thomas Shepherd.

Thomas Edelston."

The present Workhouse, certain portions of which were
rebuilt in 1889-90, was erected in 1787-8, at a cost of ;£ 1,050,
which Clarke says was borrowed. Ten acres of land were enclosed
from the common for the use of the poor. In 1 84 1-2 the Poorhouse
was enlarged at a cost of ^4,000. The Union embraces 24 town-
ships, covers an area of 57,141 acres, and contains a population of
near 51,987 people.



4 oo TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Among past governors of the Lancaster Workhouse, just
one hundred and two years old, I may mention the following in rota-
tion, as far as possible, according to an aged informant's statement :
Mr. Nicholas Robinson (1788) ; Mr. James Rothwell, Mr. Craystone,
Mr. Thomas Watkinson, who in 1840 was fined £j and 19s. costs
for brutally assaulting Mary Dixon, a pauper. Then came Mr.
Hughes, appointed 1843, succeeded by Mr. James Stringer, Nov.
22nd, 1845. After him came Mr. Blezzard, Mr. Edmondson, then
Mr. Smith, appointed 1866, and governor 21 years. He was
followed by Mr. Roach, and Mr. Flowett, and then came the
present master, Mr. W. Wells, who conducts the house most
efficiently and is ably seconded by Mrs. Wells, the matron.

The Chairman of the Poor-law Board is the Rev. Charles
Twemlow Royds, M.A., Rector of Heysham, and the clerk is
Joseph Ennion, Esq.; auditor, Percy J. Hibbert, Esq.; Union
medical officer, Dr. Johnson, St. Leonardgate ; Union relieving
officer, J. R. B. Pilkington, Dalton Square. Mr. James Grant was
clerk to the Union many years, and prior to his appointment the
post was held by Mr. S. Simpson, appointed in December, 1839.
In 1806 the poor rate was 2s 8d. A few years before it was 5s.

There used to be a windmill on the moor behind the Work-
house. One or two persons were killed when it was blown down.
The late Mr. William Cleminson spoke to having seen the mill,
and an "Old Inhabitant" confirmed the statement. It appears
that it was a square mill removed from St. Michael's and fixed
above the gate on the Quernmore Road from the Poorhouse, about
40 yards from the road. It never got to work, but was blown
down and killed a man whose name the "Old Inhabitant" believed
was Herdman.

The Cemeterv.

The Cemetery, with its three neat mortuary Chapels, is near
to the Park. It w r as opened in 1855, and in it are many admirable
memorials of gilded marble and granite, and many a local worthy



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 401



has his virtues and talents unostentatiously alluded to upon the same,
as likewise upon many less imposing leaves which form this large
library of stone volumes. The terraces are well arranged, and the
undulating- character of the "plots of death" makes the idea of a
gloomy side scarcely admissible. The registrar is Mr. John Barton.
This garden of death is well worth a visit on account of the vast
expanse of country you gain from its more elevated or centre
points. Its area is 21 acres.

Among many beautiful memorials is one : —

" in memory of

the right honourable

Matthew Talbot Baines,

born february i 7th, 1 799,

died january 23rd, 1 860 ;

ALSO OF

Ann,

widow of the above,

born november i 7th, 1798,

died june 22nd, i 874."

Mrs. Baines was the daughter of Mr. Lazarus Threlfall, of
Lancaster. This lady met with her death owing to a railway
accident at Scorton.

In this cemetery lie the remains of the Rev. Joseph Rowley,
the Rev. Dr. Hathornthwaite, the Rev. George Morland, Captain
Hansbrow, Dr. DeVitre, Dr. Broadhurst, and many other local
celebrities. The grounds are kept in excellent order by the registrar
and his staff.

The Lune Fishery.

The Lune Fishery demands a few observations. Everyone
familiar with Lancaster history must know that the Lune salmon
stands high in the estimation of every judge of good river fish.
The Lune Fishery is very ancient. It extended from Denny Beck to



D2



4 02 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Scaleford, a little below St. George's Quay, and previous to the
Reformation belonged to the Abbot and Convent of Furness,
subject to a claim to a third draught, in part of the fishery called
St. Mary's Pot, and to an alternative draught in all the other parts
of it, claimed and established by the Prion' of the Church of St.
Mary in Lancaster, in virtue of an ancient deed made by the Abbot
of Furness. Upon the surrender and dissolution of monasteries,
Beaumont Fishery, as it was called, became vested in the Crown,
and was subsequently held by Francis Mustall, George South-
worth, and John Ayliffe successively, as lessees, at an annual rent
of ;£i2. In the fourth year of Charles I. it passed by patent, along
with other possessions, under the great seal of the Duchy of Lan-
caster, to Edward Ditchfield, Richard Dalton, and others, and to
their heirs and assigns. It afterwards passed by demise of Thomas
Foster and others, and in 1759 was conveyed in fee by purchase to
the ancestor of the Brads*haws, of Halton Hall, who enjoyed the
right of the Lune Fishery exclusively upon payment of a fee farm
rent of ^"12 to the representatives of George (Monk), Duke of
Albemarle, to whom the possessions, of which this fishery formed a
part, were granted by Charles II. soon after the Restoration. The
river has always been famed for its salmon fry or smelts, and in
1825 the estimated value of the fishery was ^500 per annum.
There is now, and long has been, a Lune Fishery Board, the
chairman of which is Mr. Fenwick, of Burrow Hall. The Secre-
tary, Mr. W. T. Sharp, has kindly forwarded the following informa-
tion : — The Lune, Wyre, Keer and Cocker Fishery Board was
established under the provisions of the Salmon Fisheries Act, 1865.
The certificate of the district, signed by the Home Secretary,
bearing date the 18th January, 1866. The Halton Fishery is now
held by Mr. Edmund Sharpe, and the Skerton Fishery by Mr. T.
Thompson.

Seats Near Lancaster.

Aldcliffe Hall (the seat of Mr. E. B. Dawson), Ashton Hall
(formerly the seat of Thomas, first Lord Gerard, and afterwards oi



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 403



the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon), Bare House, Beaumont Cote,
Bolton Lodge, Carnforth Lodge, Cawood (where the North family
once resided), Crow Trees, Dalton Hall (the residence of Edmund
Hornbv, M.P., 1807), Ellel Grange, Ellel Hall, Gunnerthwaite,
Hall Garth, Kellet (now vacant), Halton Hall, Halton Park,
Heyning Hall, Hilderstone Hill House, Hornby Castle (formerly
the seat of the Monteagles, and now the stately abode of the repre-
sentative of the Fosters, of Queensbury, Yorkshire), Hornby House,
K.ier Bank Hall (a seat of the Martens), Leighton Hall (where
reside the Gillows), Lune Bank (Mi. Housman's), Lunefield (a
delightful spot, once the residence of the Carus family), Melling
Hall, Newland Hall, Polefield, Quarnmoor Park (formerly the
dwelling place of the Clifford family, and now of a branch of the
very ancient family of Garnett), Starbock Lodge, Stodday Lodge,
Swarthdale House, Thurland Castle, Thumham Hall (the old home
of the Daltons), and last, but not least, must be mentioned Holker
Hall, the favourite dwelling of the Duke of Devonshire.

Lune Villa was erected by Mr. John Cumpsty, of the old firm
of Bradshaw and Cumpsty, drapers, Market Street. Mr. Cumpstj
died on the 8th of October, 1815, aged 47 years. He was the son
of William Cumpsty, who died September 26th, 1803, aged 69.

Scale Hall was the property of the Rev. Geoffrey Hornby,
Rector of Winwick. It was occupied by the Rev. James Stainbank,
Rector of Halton, and perpetual curate of Over Kellet, and also by
the HisrS'in family. Beaumont Hal! was the seat 01 Edward F.
Buckley, Esq. The Cole family resided here in the seventeenth
century. Stodday Lodge was for some years the home of the
Arthingtons who came from Leeds. Thomas Arthington, Esq.,
father of John Arthington, Esq., of Arthington Hall, was High
Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1767. He died in 1801. He was one of the
founders of the Old Bank, Leeds. Ashton Hall demands a special
notice since it has long been the seat of seats, as one may say, in the
neighbourhood of Lancaster. There are about 21 Ashtons in
England, according to Carlisle's Dictionary, Lewis gives 18; and



4 o 4 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



the suburbs of many places in this county boast their Ash-tons or
tuns (aesc an ash, and tun a town), as a reference to a comprehensive
chart will at once show. The real name of this place or full name
is Ashton-cum-Stodday, the stodday denoting' " the stud of wild
horses on the wood sheltered shaw or shav." In the Coucher Book of
Funiess Abbey we meet with stodfaldwra, which means "stud of
wild horses with fold near the angle of the field." Anglo Saxon,
stod a horse, fahl a fold, vra or wra, an angle or corner. The old
chronicles inform us that Ashton Hall, Lancaster, " was the
ancient seat of the De Couceys, out of which family it passed by
marriage to Sir John de Coupland, the hero of Neville's Cross. In
1445, it became the property of Sir Robert Lawrence, knight, who
received his titular distinction at the hands of Lord Stanley, at
Huttonfield, in Scotland. From the Lawrences the Manor and Hall
passed to the Radcliffes, through the Butlers, and from them by
marriage to Sir Gilbert Gerrard, ancestor to Lord Gerrard, of
Bromley. Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress, of Digby, Lord
Gerrard, having married James, Earl of Arran, created fourth Duke
of Hamilton in 1679, it thus came into the Hamilton family. The
ancient owners of the Hall, the De Couceys, where the family who
enjoyed what has long been known as the De Coucey privilege,
which consisted of standing before the sovereign covered, was
granted by King John in 1203, under the following circumstances:—
King John and Phillip II. of France agreed to settle a dispute
respecting the Duchy of Normandy by single combat. John De
Coucey, Earl of Ulster, was the English champion, and no sooner
put in his appearance than the French champion put spurs into his
horse and fled. The King inquired of the earl what reward should
be given him and he replied : " Titles and land I want not, of these
I have enough, but in remembrance of this day I beg the boon for
myself and successors to remain covered in the presence of your
highness and all future sovereigns of the realm." In 1853, the
Starkie family of Huntroyde Hall, Padiham, purchased the Ashton
Manor estates, and Mr. J. P. Chamberlayne Starkie, J. P., resided
there until his sudden decease in 1888. This gentleman was
brother to Col. Le Gendre Nicholas Starkie who is descended from



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 405

one Hugh Starkeye, Esquire, gentleman usher to King Henry VIII.
and whose tomb is to be seen with effigy thereon in the church of
St. Chad, Over-cum-Delamere, Cheshire. About six years ago
Ashton Hall became the property of Mr. James Williamson, M.P.,
who paid ^100,000 lor it.

Sale of the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon's Lancashire

Estates in 1853.

The Hall and estate were bought by the Starkie family for
^75,000. The estate contained 1,540 acres of land. The Scotforth
estate of 1 17a. 21'. 13P. was reserved: the reserved price, ^9,600, not
being bid. The Holleth and Forton estate of 361a. 2r. 8p. was
purchased by Mr. Gardner, of Liverpool, for ^"9,400. The Nateby
property, comprising 1,802a. 2r. 28p. was bought by Mr. William
Bashall, of Farrington Lodge, for ^45,700. The Barnacre estate
of 3,341a. 3r. 32p. was bought in at ^104,000, the highest bid having
been ^90,000. The Nether Wyresdale estate of 4,027a. or. 2ip.
was bought by Mr. Ormerod, of Bolton, for ;£ 110,500. The
Cleveley estate of 693a. or. 14P. was also purchased by Mr. Orme-
rod for ^35,100, as well as the Cabus property of [,359a. or. 6p.
for ^"54,100. The total price realised for the estates sold was
^329,800, and the computed value of the estates reserved £1 13,700.
Together the Duke of Hamilton's Lancashire estates were reckoned
to be worth ^443,500, the total acreage being about 13,243 acres.
Average price per acre, including buildings, &c, would be about
^33 10s. od. The land generally, realised about 32 years'
purchase." Archibald, Duke of Hamilton, died at Ashton Hall, on
the 1 6th February, 181 9, in his 79th year. He was succeeded by
Alexander, his son.

Ashton Hall contained the following pictures which it is
believed were removed to Hamilton Paiace, Scotland : Portrait of
Elizabeth Gerard, Duchess of Hamilton, the Marquis of Douglas
and Clydesdale, and Lord Archibald Hamilton, by Gainsborough ;
the Duke of Bedford ; a Head, by Rembrandt ; Clelia escaping from



4 o6 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



the Roman camp, by Raphael ; a Boar Hunt, by Snyders ; a large
Landscape by Berg-hen ; and Original Cartoons, by Leonardi da
Vinci, from his celebrated painting of the Last Supper.

Another matter I may just as well allude to. "You have
never said anything about Cromwell and Cromwell's Steps," sax-
some. I have not, and for the very best reason, viz., that I have
not been able to find anything indicative of the Lord Protector's
presence in Lancaster, and as far as the "steps " are concerned, 1
believe fancy rather than fact has given them their noteworthy name.

The Local Press.

The Lancaster Gazette commenced June 20th, 1801. On Aug.
9th, 1834, Mr. William Minshull disposed of the Lancaster Gazette
to Mr. C. E. Quarme. Miss Minshull gave up her interest in the
Gazette in August, 1834. Mr. Minshull died on the 19th May, 1833.
Mr. Quarme ceased to be proprietor of that journal on the 30th of
September, 1848, when Mr. G. C. Clark became owner of the plant,
&c. In 1874, Mr. William King acquired the property and still
retains it. Mr. Quarme died August 16th, 1879, aged 84. The
Gazette, originally Gazetteer, until 1st of January, 1804, was
started in Benson's Court. (Mansergh's yard). The office was
subsequently removed to Great John Street, and in 1842, to
Market Street, where it still remains. The Lancaster Guardian,
was established in 1836, by Mr. A. Milner, and the Messrs. Milner
are still proprietors of this weekly journal. The Lancaster Observer
was founded in i860 by Mr. Thos. Edmondson, who sold it to Mr.
T. C. Bell in 1874. The first supplement of the Lancaster Gazette
appeared on the 18th of April, 1812.

The Green Lane Murder.

About two miles out of Lancaster, going south, towards
Galgate, is a very secluded lane called Green Lane, a lane like many
others in this part of the country, thoroughly rural, and far from



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 407



any human dwelling. A stranger would scarcely find it, and few
outside the agricultural community have any occasion to find it or
walk along it. Prior to January nth, 1866, this isolated bye-way
bore no notoriety, but was one of those peaceful poetical spots "far
from the madding crowd," and full of beauty in the beautiful seasons
of the year. But let a stranger pass along it now, and he will be
surprised to find a small tombstone, upon which appears the
following inscription : —

in .memory of
Elizabeth Nelson,
of skerton, spinster,

AGED 31,

WHO, AT THIS SPOT,

ON THE EVENING OF THURSDAY, JANUARY IITH, 1866,

WAS BARBAROUSLY MURDERED, IN DEFENCE OF HER CHASTITY.

"O Lord Thou hast seen my wrong; judge thou my
cause." — Lam. c. III., v. 79.

The poor woman was discovered early on the following morn-
ing partly covered with a shroud — a natural shroud of snow, typical,
indeed, of all that is chaste and pure, by a man going to his work.
The body was fearfully bruised, and showed signs of a terrible
struggle with her vile murderer or murderers, who have never to
this day been discovered. It has been remarked by some of the
more superstitious that there has always been a downfall of snow
on the anniversary of the dreadful trag'edy ; but this assertion is
not true. There is still a brother of the victim residing in
Lancaster, and other relatives. The stone mentioned above
is Swarthmoor blue stone, and was erected by public subscrip-
tion. Mr. John Thompson, of Penny Street, was the engraver,
and he at first refused to make any charge for the memorial,
but on being pressed to accept payment, he generously offered
to erect a stone over the young woman's remains at Aughton,
free of charge. On behalf of the family of the victim subscriptions
poured in from rich and poor, and a general feeling of sorrow



4 o8 TIME-HONOURED LANXASTER.



pei'vadecl the whole district. The lane in which the murder took
place leads from Burrow to Hazlerigg, and the man who found the
victim was Thomas Wilkinson, of Burrow Beck.

Centenarians.

There have been during the century two centenarians in
Lancaster, one John Berry, who died on the 4th December, 1807,
and a woman named Bainbridge, who lived in St. Leonard Gate,
and died on the 1st of April, 1873.

There have been some curious names in our town and such
are still extant, as for instance, those of Physick and Pharaoh.

In 1783, there was married to Mr. Samuel Brian, cabinet
maker, a Miss Repentance Walmsley. Both parties belonged to
Lancaster. Brian, whose name means " voice of thunder" certainly
took Repentance to Church (" Repentance not to be repented of,"
surely) and married her. To-day a name no less strange is that of
the chief resident officer of the Castle — William Repulse Shenton,
but Mr. Shenton was burn on her Majesty's ship " Repulse" about
1842, hence the name, not unwisely given, in such a case.

Two or three years ago Mr. Justice Wills was sitting at the
Lancaster xAssizes, and just over a hundred and four years ago from
that period, a Mr. Justice Willes sat at the Lancaster Assizes, in
April, 1784.

The Lancaster Quarter Sessions are held on the first Monday
after the 31st of March, 24th of June, nth of October, and 28th ot
December. The chairman of the Quarter Sessions is John Fell,
Esq., the magistrates' clerk, Mr. H. J. J. Thompson. The County-
Petty Sessions are held every Saturday at the Crown Court.



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