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The Judge of the County Court is Millis Coventry, Esq.;
Registrar, Mr. W. T. Sharp.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 409



A decided improvement has been made in what may justly be
termed the boulevard of Lancaster, namely, the Victoria Avenue,
for which the public are indebted to the present Mayor, Mr. Charles
Blades (brother-in-law of the Jubilee Mayor, Sir Thomas Storey).
We allude to the planting of trees on each side of the road for up-
wards of a mile, and the placing- of comfortable seats at certain
points, at a cost of something- like ^700. Lancaster has for many
years possessed a few lovers of nature and art also, and possibly
the society, established in the year 1820, for promoting the fine arts
has done a little towards implanting in the breasts of a succeeding
generation an honest regard for nature as well as for the canvas
and the brush.

The Lancaster brogue is what may be termed a transition
brogue. It differs much from the vulgar tongue of the average
South or West Lancashire man's, and is largely made up of West-
morland and Yorkshire modes of pronunciation. For " 1 am," the
Lancaster person usually says " I is.' - " I is well," or ' T isn't well ''
is a sample, as also is — " If thou is ready, let's ga t'at fair, it's nae
ower fur, an' lile Jacky ul Ink efther t' bee'as while we git back.
There's nat ower mitch wark just now an' it'll be a gert tre'at fur
thee, I's sure." (Sure is sounded as sewer). There is a strong-
guttural sound increasing very much as you get out into the sur-
rounding villages, northward especially. There is very much Norse
in the Lancaster dialect.

The Lancaster people may be fairly enough marked off as
shrewd, cautious, slow but sure, very conservative, and particularly
averse from strangers for a long period. Inquisitiveness is a
Lancashire trait, not so remarkably indulged in, be it said, in the
county town, as in places further south. Their business system and
promptitude, whether of an agricultural or commercial nature, wilj
rank with those of denizens in any of the larger centres of industry.



There is a spirit of enterprise apparent to-day, certain to
render the town distinguished as a commercial centre as well as for



4 io TIME-HONOURED LANXASTER.



its grey antiquity. The only danger is that commerce will obliterate
the few public memorials of the past yet remaining amongst us.

The fairs held in the town are as follow : — Thursday,
Friday, and Saturday, before the first Sunday in the new year,
horses ; May ist, cattle ; May 2nd, horses, and sheep; May 3rd,
toys : July 5th, cattle, July 6th, wool, horses, and sheep ; July 7th,
toys; October 10th, cattle; October nth, horses and sheep;
October 12th, toys. Cheese fairs first Wednesday in February,
May, July, August, October, and December. The hirings are held
at Whitsuntide and Martinmas.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



411



CHAPTER XIV.

The Bowerham Barracks— The First Royal Lancashire Regimen'j oi
Militia— " King's Own"— Lancaster Kings of Arms and Lancaster
Heralds— List of Past Kings-of-Arms and Heralds— Lancaster
Coins and Tokens— Lancaster Probate Court— Lancaster 1
Office— Borough Waits— Bellman'.-, Parrock— Our Old Hoi
—Castle Hill House— Fenton-Cawthorne House— An Old Tower
— Old Wells — Hotels.



T Bowerham are the Head-Quarters of the
4th Regimental District, commanded by
Colonel Middleton. The Barracks was
erected in 1876-80, the price for the land
being £j, 300, bid by Messrs. Myres, Veevers,
and Myres, of Preston, on behalf of the War
Office. This was at the rate of ^433 per
acre, or is. 4d. per yard. The estate was
originally charity land, and formed part of
the endowment of Penny's Hospital.



There are two portraits of considerable interest in the Mess
Room of the barracks. The first is thus inscribed : —

Major General Charles Trelawney.

From the original painting by " Kneller." He obtained a command
in 1672, and served under Turenne ; was appointed Major in the 2nd
Tangiers Regiment, now the King's Own, in 1680, and Lieut-Colonej
to command the Regiment, shortly afterwards. In 1682, he was
appointed Colonel of the Regiment.




He commanded a Brigade at the Battle of the Boyne, and
retired from the Regiment in 1691, on promotion, and being
appointed Governor of Plymouth. He died in 1731 .



4 i2 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



The second, and almost opposite the first, bears the following
inscription : —

General Henry Trelawney.

From the original painting by " Kneller." He obtained a command
as Captain in the 2nd Tangiers Regiment, now the King's Own, in
1680. He was at the Battle of Sedgemoor. He was promoted Lieut-
Colonel in 1688, and was Colonel of the Regiment in 1692. He
retired from the Regiment in 1702, and died shortly afterwards.
He was M.P. for Plymouth from 1700 to 1702.

In another part of the room is a framed Certificate of Free-
manship of the City of Cork. Here is a copy of it : —

" Be It Remembered that on the eighteenth day of May,
One thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven, Lieut-General
Studholme Hodgson was by the unanimous consent of the mayor
sheriffs and common council of the City of Cork admitted and
enrolled a Freeman at large of the same. In Testimony whereof
the common seal of the said city is hereunto ffixed the day and year
aforesaid."

The County of Lancaster has distinguished itself in arts and
arms generations ago and its sons have ever been men who did not
believe in doing things by halves, in fact, in half-hearted schemes
or projects or in half-hearted work, Lancastrians never did believe.
To do what requires doing heartily, thoroughly and well, or
leave it alone altogether is a true trait of Lancashire men. If there
is work to be done, if it is absolutely necessary to do that work,
then a prompt beginning is half of the turnpike to completion.
The history of the 1st Royal Lancashire Regiment of Militia proves
the Red Rose spirit to be no less plucky in deeds of peace than in
deeds of war. The history of the 1st Lancashire Militia shows all
through that this same spirit permeates every capacity in the battle
of life, and I need not therefore apologise for venturing to include



TIME-HONOURED LANXASTER. 413



a brief sketch of the "King's Own," in obedience to the suggestion
made by a gallant officer whose interest in the Regiment is well
known.

The oldest standing national force of these realms is the
Militia, established by the father and brothers of Alfred the Great,
between the years of 872 and 901. In 1172, a commission of array
was issued to raise a Militia — a term which by the way is the Angli-
cised form of the Spanish Mihcia, Latin Miles — and fifty-four years
after Henry II. revived the commission, and it was again revived in
the reign of Mar) - I., 1557. This military force is said to have
amounted to 160,000 men in 1623. The present Militia statutes date
from 1661 to 1663. In 1796, a supplemental Militia Act was passed,
and in 1802, a General Militia Act for England and Scotland was
passed, that for Ireland being passed seven years later. Acts to con-
solidate the Militia laws date from 1852-4. Owing to the prevailing
opinion that it was necessary to strengthen our defences against the
possibility of a French invasion, the act empowered Her Majesty to
raise a force not exceeding 80,000 men, of which number 50,000
were to be raised in 1852, and 30,000 in 1855; the quotas for each
county or riding to be fixed by an order in council. The Militia
Reserve Act was passed in 1867. Grose's "History of the British
Army" published in 1801 shows clearly the great utility of such a
standing force as the Militia. But of these general observations
enough. By the courtesy of Colonel Middleton and Colonel
Whalley, J-P-, I am able to place before my readers a very pleasant
sketch of the career of the King's Own Royal Lancaster Regiment,
the depot of which has been stationed since 1880 in our midst. An
interesting summary by Colonel Middleton was written at Colonel
Whalley's request for inclusion in this work.

In 1878 the territorial system was introduced into the British
Army ; that is to say, each Regiment was given a certain area or
district in the country from which to obtain its recruits. Each
Regiment was to consist of two Regular Battalions, one or
or two Militia Battalions, and one or more Volunteer Battalions.



4 i 4 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



One of the Regular Battalions was always to serve abroad, either
in India or in the Colonies, whilst the other was to be quartered in
Great Britain or in Ireland. A depot was formed in a central
position in each district where the recruits both for the Regular and
Militia Battalions are drilled, and where the clothing- and equipment
are kept for Militia and Reserve men of the Regular Battalions.
The town of Lancaster was selected as one of these depots, with a
Regimental District extending from Cockerham and Dolphinholme,
to the north of the County of Lancaster. The Regiment posted to
this district was the qth Foot, and the district was accordingly
numbered the 4th Regimental District. At this period the 4th
consisted ot two Battalions, and with the two Battalions of the
1 st Lancashire Militia and the Volunteer Battalion then existing
within the area assigned, there was thus formed the territorial
Regiment — now called The King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Regi-
ment.

It may not be uninteresting to those who are connected with
the County if a brief history of this distinguished Regiment is given
at this point, since it is one of the oldest Regiments in the
British Army. It was raised in 1680 by King Charles II., for ser-
vice in Tangiers. In 1684 it returned to England. It was engaged
at the battle of Sedgemoor, in 1685; at the battle of the Boyne, in
1690; and in 1692 it embarked for the Netherlands, and formed
part of the Army commanded by King William, in person. It was
present at the battle of Steinkirk, the relief of Furnes, the battle of
Landen and the sieges of Huy and Namur. In 1702, it formed
part of the expeditionary force to Cadiz, under 'General the Duke
of Ormond. In 1704, it was engaged in the capture of Gibraltar,
and afterwards in defence of the fortress.

In 17 1 5, this Regiment was selected to furnish the Guards .it
Windsor Castle, on the accession of King George I., and for this
service His Majesty was graciously pleased to confer upon it the
title of "The King's Own," which honorary distinction it bears to
the present day. In 1745, it was sent to Scotland and was present



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 415



at the battles of Falkirk unci Culloden. In 1751, a warrant was
given to the Regiment styling it "The King's Own Royal Regi-
ment," and authorising it to wear as a budge, the "Lion of
England." It was in consequence of this distinction that in 1878,
this Resriment was selected to form its Head Ouarters in the Pala-
tinate of Lancaster, which also has for its arms the Royal Badge. In
1754, it served in the defence of Port St. Philip, in the Island of
Minorca. In 1758, it proceeded to the West Indies, and took part
in the attack on Martinico, the capture of Guadaloupe, Dominico,
Grenada, St. Lucie, St. Vincent and Havannah. In 1774, it em-
barked for North America, and was present at the actions of
Concord and Lexington, and at the battle of Bunker's Hill and
other engagements. In 1799, it embarked for Holland, and was
present at the battle of Egmont-op-Zee. In 1807, it proceeded with
the expeditionary force to Copenhagen, and in 1808, it embarked
for Portugal, advanced into Spain with Sir John Moore, took part
in the retreat to Corunna, and at that battle greatly distinguished
itself by defeating a flank attack made on the British Army by the
French. In 1809, it formed part of the force under General the
Earl of Chatham, which was sent to Walcheren. In 1810, it again
proceeded to the Peninsula, and took part in the defence of the lines
of Torres Vedras under Lord Wellington. In 181 1, it was engaged
in the battle of Sabugal, in the skirmish near Barba-del-Puerco, at
the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, the storming of Badajoz, the battle of
Salamanca, the siege of Burgos, and the skirmish near the River
Carion. In 1813, it was present at the battle of Vittoria, the siege
of St. Sebastian, the passage of the River Bidassoa, the battles o(
Nivelle and Nive, and at the blockade of Bayonne. In 18 14, it pro-
ceeded to America, and was present at the battle of Bladensburg,
the capture of Washington, the expedition against Baltimore, and
the battle of Godly Wood — the expedition against New Orleans,
and the capture of Fort Bowyer. In 1815, it was present al the
battle of Waterloo, advanced on Paris and formed part of the army
of occupation in France, until 1818. In 1854, the Regiment em-
barked to take part in the Eastern Campaign, landed in the
Crimea in the September of that year, and was present at the



4 i6 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



battles of Alma and Inkerman, and served in front of Sebas-
topol during the entire siege. In 1857, it took part in the
suppression of the Indian Mutiny. In r868, this same Regi-
ment was engaged in the Abyssinian Campaign, and in 1879,
in the 7ai1u War. Few Regiments in the British Army can show
such a record of active service. The Barracks on Bowerham Hill
was completed in June, 1880, and has since that time been occu-
pied by the Depot and Militia Staff of the Regiment. The following
is a list of the Colonels who have been in command of the Regi-
mental District since its establishment:-

Colonel A. C. K. Lock, (late 50th Regiment), from 1880 to 1884.
Colonel C. Eccles, (late King's Own), from 1884 to 1888.
Colonel O. R. Middleton, (late King's Own), from 18S8 to the
present time.

From Colonel Whalley's interesting book " Roll of Officers
of the First Royal Lancashire Militia," I take the following items : —

Titles of the Regiment.

1642 — Lancashire Regiment of Militia.
1761 — Royal Lancashire Regiment of Militia.
!yg Q — 1st. Royal Lancashire Militia.

I g^ I — Is t Royal Lancashire Militia (The Duke of Lancaster's Own).
jSSi — 3rd and 4th Battalions The King's Own (Royal Lancaster)
Regiment.



-&■



Colonels Commanding the Regiment.

William ffarington, 1642.

William George Richard, 9th Earl of Derby, 1689.

Sir Henry Houghton, Bart., June 1st, 1715.

Edward, nth Earl of Derby, October 25th, 1745.

James Smith Stanley, Viscount Strange, July 15th, 1760.

Edward, 12th Earl of Derby, February 14th, 1772.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 417



Thomas Stanley, October 28th, 1783.

Peter Patten-Bold, January 18th, 1817.

John Plumbe-Tempest, November 4th, 181 9.

John Talbot Clifton, October 8th, 1852.

William Assheton Cross, December 8th, 1870.

Robert Whitle, May 31st, 1872.

Hon. Frederick Arthur Stanley, June 23rd, 1874. A.D.C. to the

Queen.
Thomas Dawson Sheppard, September 26th 1877, commanding"

2nd Battalion.
George Blucher Heneage Marton, Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant,

commanding 3rd Battalion, March 20th, 1886.
Joseph Lawson Whalley, commanding 4th Battalion, November

26th, 1887.

It may here be interesting to note a few of the leading events
in the history of this, one of the oldest and most distinguished
Regiments in the Militia service. The following facts are therefore
taken from the " Records of the Regiment," compiled by a local
officer, and partly from " Her Majesty's Arm}," by Walter
Richards : —

W r e find an honourable incident connected with it so early
as 1642, when King Charles I. summoned to his Headquarters at
York, Colonel and Captain ffarington, both officers of the Regiment.
The latter subsequently took an active part in the defence of Lathom
House, and was named by Charles II. " Knight of the Royal Oak."

In the library of the House of Lords there is a Roll of Officers
of the Regiment called for by Parliament, and supplied by the Lord
Lieutenant of the County, This Roll is dated 1680. It was one of
the many demanded by the government of the day in order to ascer-
tain the names of those officers who were Papists. This Roll I am
able to publish since a transcript of it has been kindly lent by
Colonel Whalley, who obtained it direct from the House of Lords.



E2



4iS



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



To the Right Honble. the Earl of Sunderland, one of His
Ma'ties. principal Secretaries of State at Whitehall, London.

Knowsley, 28th Nov., 1680.
My Lord,

In obedience to His Ma'tie's commands contained in your
Lo'pp's letter of the 19th, I have enclosed two Lists of the names of
all the Deputy Lieutenants and the Officers of the Militia under my
command, and am, my lord,

Your Lo'pp's most humble servant,

Derbv.
Lancashire. November 28TH, 1680.



Deputy Lieutenants.



William Spencer, Elsq.
Sir Charles Hoghton.
Sir Robert Bindlos.
Sir Ralph Ashton.
Sir Roger Bradshaigh.
Sir Peter Brooke.
Richard Legh, Esq.
Richard Kirkby, Esq.
Roger Novell Esq.
Edward Fleetwood, Esq.



Alexander Rigby, Esq.
Richard Atherton, Esq.
Tho. Norris, Esq.
Christopher Bannastre.
Tho. Greenhalgh, Esq.,
Lawrence Rawstorne, Esq.
Miles Dodding, Esq.
Thomas Braddyll, Esq.
Daniel Fleminge, Esq.
Curwin Rawlinson, Esc].



Colonels.



Foot Officers.
I The Ear! of Derby, Roger Nowell, and Richard



J



Lieut. -Colonels



Sergeant Majors.



Kirkby, Esquires.

\ Sir Ralph Ashton, Lawrence Rawstorne, and
I Alexander Rigby, Esquires.

I Henry Farrington, John Parker and William



J



Fleminge, Esquires.



Captains.

Sir Richard Standish, Thomas Ashurst, John Risley, John Ashton,
Alexander Nowell, William Hulme, Robert Nowell, Adam Byrom,



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 419



Thomas Preston, Curwin Rawlinson, Ralph Longworth, James
Morian, and Christopher Parker, Esquires.

r

Lieutenants.

Henry Slaughter, Esq. ; John Widdowes, Richard Houghton, Peter
Standish, Thomas Gilliburne, Jeoffrey Holcroft, John Linnaker,
William Clayton, Samuell Bamford, Christopher Smith, Thomas
Ainsworth, Robert Hough, Edward Cockshutt, William Cosill,
William Waller, John Kitchen, Randall Hunter, Nicholas Atkinson,
John Veale, Henry France, Peter Wall, and Richard Hudson,

Gentlemen.

Ensigns.

Barnaby Hesketh, Robert Moor, William Farrington, Robert
Markland, Hamblett Ashton, John Wilme, John Wright, John
Etough, Henry West, James Starkey, Symon Blakoe, John Lord,
John Heape, William Ashton, William Hoghton, Ralph Woodhouse,
John Dawson, Walter Chorley, William Higginson, Thomas Swar-
brick, Robert Fisher, William Thompson, Gentlemen.

Q^l Thomas Moorcroft, Thomas Burne, and John
UARTERMASTERS. d i

J Ryley.

Horse Officers.

„ \ The Earl of Derby, Thomas Greenhalgh, and Edward

Captains. [ 'n- u u •

J Kigby, Lsquires.

T 1 Henrv Hoghton Ralph Eg-gerton and Thomas

Lieutenants. > - fe ^ b °

j Lacy, Esquires.

Cornets: — John Crosse, Ralph Browne, Alexander Johnson, Esqrs.

Q) Richard Hodgson, \\ 'illiarn Tomlinson, and
UARTERMASTERS. - t 1 i o i 1 r> ^

I Hugh Hradshaw, Gentlemen.

Mustermaster : — Robert Roper, Gentleman.

At the period the roll refers to there was only one Regiment
which was divided into Battalions, and the Officers were called
upon to serve just as emergencies demanded.



4 2o TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



It does not appear what part the Regiment took in the
Revolution, but in 1690 we find it actively employed under King-
William III., in his Irish campaign, fighting at Carrickfergus, the
Boyne and Athlone. At the Jacobite rising in 17 15, the Regiment
took part in "Preston Fight," losing no fewer than eleven officers
and a hundred and five rank and file. Some of the Rebel Pikes
taken on that occasion are in the Museum at Lancaster Castle,

The Regiment was again actively employed in "the 45,"

when the Lancaster Company under Captain Bradshaw, of Halton
Hall, was attached to a Regiment of Volunteers called the "Liver-
pool Blues," had several engagements with the enemy, and was
present al the capitulation of Carlisle.

In the year 1759, it was again embodied, and two years
later, furnished a guard of honour to receive the Princess Charlotte
when King George III. presented new colours at Warley Camp
Essex : his Majesty directing that the Regiment for the future should
be termed "His Majesty's Royal Regiment of Lancashire Militia,"
—that the Colonel's company should be termed the "King's
•Companv." The Regiment was again embodied from 177810 1783;
and in 1794, on the occasion of a review at Brighton, supplied by
special order, the body guard to the King. After service in various
parts of England, the Lancashire Regiment, in 1798, volunteered
for Ireland, and the following year was remarkable for the great
number of volunteers furnished for the line; Captain Williamson,
two Officers, and the whole of his Company joining the 36th Foot.
Later on in the same year in consequence of the Supplementary
Regiments being raised it was ordered to be called the 1st Royal
Lancashire Militia. In 1803, it was again embodied, and received
the order to wear the Lancastrian Red Rose on its colours. During
the residence of the King at Weymouth, in 1805-1806, the Regi-
ment was quartered there as a guard of honour. In the former year
the King' presented * Colonel Thomas Stanley and the Officers of

!Ih portrait now adorns the Shire Hall.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 421



the Regiment with a pair of "Kettle Drums," which still adorn the
Officers' Mess Room, and the following- year Her Majesty, Queen
Charlotte, presented new colours. In 1811, they were employed in
the suppression of the Luddite Riots, at Nottingham, and in 1814,
volunteered for Ireland, where previous to their departure for
England in 181 6, the Lord Lieutenant presented new colours, upon
which the Harp of Ireland was displayed.

In 1 83 1, the title of "Duke of Lancaster's Own" was added
to the former designation of the Regiment, and for many years—
not, indeed, till 1852 — were they called out. in 1853, new colours
were presented by Mrs. Clifton, wife of Colonel John Talbot
Clifton, the old colours together with those of 1806 and 1810, were
given to Colonel Plumbe- Tempest, the late commanding officer, who
had^served in the Regiment for the long period of 56 years. At the
time of the Crimean War they volunteered for foreign service, and
proceeded to the Ionian Islands, being quartered at Fano, Paxo
Santa Maura, and neighbouring Islands, in recognition of which
service the word "Mediterranean" was ordered to be borne as a dis-
tinction on their colours. In 1870, Mrs. Clifton again presented new
colours, the previous pair being given to Colonel Clifton. They
again volunteered to serve abroad, in 1876-7, when relations with
Russia assumed a threatening aspect ; an offer which was again made
during the Egyptian complications of 1882, and which obtained for
the Commanding Officer, (Colonel Stanley, M.P.), the well merited
compliments of the then Secretary of State for War in the House of
Commons; during that year the Regiment was quartered in
Preston. A second Battalion of the Regiment having been formed
in 1877, m 1880 Lady Constance Stanley, wife of Colonel Stanley,
presented them with their first set ot colours.

In 1889, the Regiment celebrated the bi-centenary ot the

expedition to Ireland in 1689, under William [II, when the Officers
commemorated the event by a large Ball, at Morecambe, where over
400 friends of the Officers congratulated them upon the auspicious
anniversary. During the present year, the Regiment was aug-



422 TIME-HONOURED EANCASTER.



merited by two more companies to each battalion; it now consists
of 1 6 companies, with a strength of one thousand, seven hundred
Officers and Men.

Pages 505-9, Volume 11, Macfarlane and Thompson's
"History of England," give the fullest accounts of the battle in
Parliament over the Militia Bill, in the time of Charles I.

On the most elevated part of the Lancaster Cemetery is a
large Monument, which is inscribed thus: —

Crimea.

TO

THE IMPERISHABLE MEMORY OF

THE BRAVE

SOLDIERS AND SAILORS,

NATIVES OF LANCASTER AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD,

WHO FELL IN THE RUSSIAN WAR,

A.D. MDCCCLIV.V. VI.

THIS MONUMENT

ERECTED BY PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTIONS

IS DEDICATED.

Privates Matthew Fell, 2 3RD royal welsh fusiliers; Robert
Kirk, 44TH regiment; W. H. L. Quittenton, 49TH regiment;
Richard Brown, 55TH regiment ; Ralph Blezard, 72ND
regiment: William Whitehead, land transport corps;
Seaman Edward Parkinson, h.m.s. valiant ; Gunner William
Yere, royal artillery; Privates William Lund, Stephen
Hayhurst, William Grime, Thomas Miller, 3RD batt.



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