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grenadier guards; Private Daniel Thompson, scots fusilier
guards; Lance-Corporal James Waterhouse, Private Wm.
Leadbetter, 17TH royals; Privates William Dawson,
George Nimmo, William Raby, 4TH foot; Private Robert
Gardner, 21ST n.i\ fusiliers.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 423



The Lancaster King of Arms and The Lancaster Herald.

The former title was originally granted by Henry VI., the Herald " King of
Anns ' being anterior to that period "Anjou King of Arms." The Col ■ nian MSS.
contains a record oi the alteration, and history generally, gives inform 1 mcerning

the marriage of Henry VI. to .Margaret of Anjou, daughter of Reguier, titular Kin
Sicilly, Naples and Jerusalem. It appears that when the French province of the
Maine, was ceded to Charles, uncle of Margaret, Henry VI. "by a singular
coincidence changed the title uf ' Anjou King of Arms ' in the Heralds' ( lollege to that
of Lancaster King uf Anns.

In a list of new years' gifts presented by Henry VI., A.D. 1436, to the
Lancaster Herald, a> well as to a person who was then created " Poursuivant ol Ann.-"
by the title of Collar, there is a silver bell fur each, but the object of this is not
readily discerned. The change occurred at " the Feast of Allehallowene," when the
King " gaf to an Heraude King of Arms, afore that tyme called Aunjoye, and there
at that fest his name changed and called Lancaster j belle of sylver, weying xvi.
unc, and another belle of sylver at that tyme delv'd to one that was pursevant, and
thence called coler, the which weyed viii. unc. Cotton MSS." This quaint record
is signed " W. Philyp Chamb'lein." The office oi Lancaster Herald has been held
for man} centuries, but much difficulty has been experienced in distinguishing those
who were actually Kings of Arms from those who were Heralds under the same
designation. The styles of Lancaster and York Heralds are supposed to have been
derived from the Dukedoms of York and Lancaster enjoyed by two of the .sons of
Edward III, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Edmond of Langley, Duke of
York. The following is a list ol persons who have held the office oi Lancaster
Herald from the time ol Henry VI11.

Thomas Wall, Bluemantle Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,
dated 3rd April, 1st Henry VIII., 1510. Promoted to Norroy, May, 1 516.

William Jenyns, Guisnes, Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent, 22nd
May, 8th Henry VIII., 1516. Died circa, 19th Henry VIII.

William Fellow e, Portcullis Pursuivant, created Lancaster, Allhallows Day,
1st November, 10th Henr) VIII., 1527. Promoted to Norroy, July, 1 5.V ■.

Thomas Miller, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, created Lancaster, yth July,
28th Henry VIII., 1530. Died 30th Henry VIII.

Fulke ap Howell, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent
28th April, 31st Henry VIII., 1539.

Nicholas Tubman, Rouge Croix Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by
patent, dated 22nd of November, 1st Mary, 1553. Died, 8th January, [st Elizal

1559-

John Cook, Portcullis Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent, da

7th March, 1st Elizabeth, 1559. Died at Amsterdam, 17th March, 1585.



4 2 4 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Nicholas Paddy, Rougue Dragon Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,
dated 7th June, 30th Elizabeth, 1558.

Francis Thynne, appointed Lancaster by patent, dated 24th October, 44th
Elizabeth, 1602. Died Circa, 1608.

Nicholas Charles, appointed Lancaster, by patent, dated 19th November,
6th James L, 1608. Died 19th November, 1613.

William Penson, appointed Lancaster, by patent, dated 29th April, 15th
fames, 161 7. Died 20th April, 1637,

Thomas Hampson, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by
patent, dated 17th May, 1637. Died in December, 1641.

William Riley, Bluemantle Pursurviant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,
November, 17th Charles I., 1641. Died in July, 1667.

George Barkham, became Lancaster, during the usurpation.

Robert Chaloner. Bluemantle Pursuviant, created Lancaster, 14th November,

1667. Died, 16th November, 1675.

Francis Sandford, Rouge Dragon Pursuviant, created Lancaster, 16th

November, 1675. Surrendered soon after the Revolution. Died 17th January, 1694.

Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuviant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,
dated 7th July, 16S9. Died 29th August, 1712.

Ronald Fryth, Mowbray, Herald Extraordinary, appointed Lancaster, by
patent, dated 14th November, nth Anne, 1712, and died 7th December, 1712.

John Hesketh, Portcullis Pursuivant, created Lancaster, by patent dated,
4th June, I2th Anne, 1 7 13. Surrendered 18th May, 13th George I., 1727.

Stephen Martin Leake, appointed Lancaster, by patent dated 1st June, 13th
George I., 1727. Promoted to Norroy December, 1729.

Charles Greene, Arundel Herald Extraordinary, appointed Lancaster, by
patent, dated 18th December, 1729, 3rd George II. Died 14th January, 174201- '43.

Thomas Browne, Bluemantle Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,
dated 5th of May, 17th George II., 1744- Promoted to Norroy May, 1761.

Isaac Heard, Bluemantle Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent, dated
3rd July, isl George III., 1761. Promoted to Norroy October, 1774.

Thomas Lock, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,

dated loth November, 15th George III., 1774. Promoted to Norroy November,

17S1.

Charles Townley, Bluemantle Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,

dated 24th December, 22nd George III., 1781. Surrendered 14th July, 33rd George

III., 1793.

Edmund Lodge, Bluemantle Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent,
dated 29th October, 34th George III., 1793. Promoted to Norroy June, 1822.

George Frederick Belz, Portcullis Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by
patent, dated 4th June, 3rd George III., 1822. Died 23rd October, 1S41.

Albert William Woods. Esq., (Norfolk Herald Extraordinary), Portcullis
Pursuivant, appointed Lancaster, by patent, dated 9th November, 1841.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 425



Sit Albert William Woods, l-'.S. A.R.H., was Garter King of Arms from
1838 to 1842. He was burn in 1816, and married Caroline, daughter of Robert Cole,
of Rotherfield, Sussex. Lancaster Herald up to 1869; Registrar of the College of
Anns, from 1806 to 1869 ; Garter Principal King of Arms from 1869; Inspect
Regimental Colours, from 1842 ; Registrar and Secretary of the Order of the Bath;
Registrar of the Order of the Star of India; and King of Arms to the Order of St.
Michael and St. George.

Present Lancaster Herald, E. Bellasis, Esqre.

" In A.D. 1412, Henry V. granted to Henry de Percy, Karl of Northumber-
land, in fee, the Island, Castle, Lordship, &c., of Man, together with all Islands,
Manors, &c, and the patronage of the episcopacy of the said Island, w ith full liberties
by the service of carrying, on the days of the coronation of the Kings and his heirs,
on the left shoulder, or shoulder of the King, by himself or a sufficient and honourable
deputy, that his naked sword with which we were girded when we went into the
pans of Holderness, called 'The Lancaster Sword,' during the procession, and during
the whole time of the coronation aforesaid." From Pars. Pal. Rot de Anno 1st
Hen. I '. in. ?j.

An Ancient Mineral Spring.

On page 305 of Simpson's "Lancaster" allusion is made to the mineral
spring situated on the north side of the road leading from Moor Lane, below
the Poor House, and said to have been known to the Romans. It is a chalybeate
and slightly saline. Dr. Charles Leigh, in his works on " The Natural History of
Lancaster, published in the year 1700, states that '" near to a noble seat called Ashton
Hall, about two miles from Lancaster, which seat is now in the possession ol the
Right Honourable the Lady Gerrard, of Bromley, from a white marie issues a pleasant
and smooth water, remarkable for its agreeable taste and lightness. This water is
lighter by an ounce in a pint than any I have seen in these parts. Now, all waters
containing more or less earthly particles, and the various consistences and quantities
of those differing from one another in gravity, it may be imagined that this water
receives its oily taste and lightness from the white marie, that being an oily and light
body, and the best tillage this country affords."

* Royal Visits.

In regard to Royal Visits, we find that in 1206 King- John
held his court in Lancaster Castle and received the French ambas-
sadors at the same ; and, likewise, the homage of Alexander of
Scotland for a portion of his territories held under the English
Crown. Henry IV., as we have seen, also held his court at

* Visits during time of war not included here. ( Vide Civil Wars and Rebellions).



426 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Lancaster August 12th, 1409. Coming" to 1 61 7, we learn that
King* James visited the town and castle, and released the prisoners
therein. In 1803 (September 21st), Prince Erederick William
visited Lancaster from his Liverpool residence, St. Domingo House,
and paid a second visit in the September of 1804, accompanied by
his father, the Duke of Gloucester, brother of George III. On the
8th of October, 1851, Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort, with
several of their family, were entertained at Lancaster, and in the
Castle received a presentation of the ancient keys of this ancient
stronghold of their ancestors. Visits of foreign potentates and
other distinguished persons will be given elsewhere.

Jubilee of Queen Victoria

The Jubilee of Queen Victoria was marked by a display of
enthusiasm unsurpassed by any city or borough in the three
kingdoms. Banquets, amusements, and p\ rotechnic devices caused
the whole town to be be alive until midnight for three nights, and a
torchlight procession, in which the royal and other characters
connected with Lancaster and its history were admirably hit off.
There was high festival on every hand ; the poor were not
forgotten, but well entertained, both in the Market Hall and at
home, and everything went off as merrily as could be desired ; very
little abuse occurring in the shape of noise and intoxication.

Lancaster Coins, &c.

History and antiquity can boast few richer fields than " Time-
honoured Lancaster," fur in every department the old city stands
right out to the front. We learn that even in numismatology the
town has no mean rank. Among the coins struck in Lancaster
were a penny of Ethelred II. with the letters " Lanstf " thereon ;
and one of Cnut bearing the abbreviation " Lan." A penny of Henry
II. which reads " Lanss " on the reverse also indicates an issue from
the Lancaster mint. About 5,700 coins of Henry II. were discovered
at Tealby, in Lincolnshire, in 1807, man}- of which bore the letters



TIML-HOXOURED LANCASTER. \2j



" Lanst," and these coins form the earliest record of a mint in
Lancaster.

Man\- coins have been found in the neighbourhood, some so
much defaced as to be incapable of being made out. One however
of silver, of the time oi' Antoninus, was thus inscribed : — Obverse
M. ANTONINUS AUG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. Reverse QTR. XXP. II. IMP.

IIII. cos. in. the coin is supposed to date from the year 169. It
was in the possession of Mr. Shepherd.

A copper coin in good preservation was also discovered
inscribed " 1 avstixa avgvsta," on the reverse side was a figure
standing with this legend "iVNONI REGINAE s. C."

A coin was found in the churchyard inscribed : — "constantius
xob. chf.s." A silver piece of the time of the Emperor Otho was
also unearthed in the garden of Joseph Dockray, Esq., below- St.
Mary's Church, in 1834. The legend round the bust of this
Emperor, who reigned a.d. 69, is thus: — " imp. m. otho. cvesar.
avg. tr. p." On the reverse side: — " secvritas. p. r.," sur-
rounding a figure, bearing in the right hand a chaplet, and in the
left a spear. The inscriptions on this coin are : — " imperatore

MARCO OTHOXE C.ESARE AVGUSTO TRIBUNITIA POTESTATE" and "SECUR-

ITAS populi romani."

Mr. John Dickinson, a stonemason, found an ancient
Roman coin in our old churchyard about this time. The coin
was one of Licinus Valerius, A.D. 307. An ancient coin of the
time of the Emperor Domitian was discovered in June, 1844, near
to the Castle. Domitian died a.d. 96. In October 1847, a Roman
cinerary was found in Queen's Square, made of unburnt clay, and
18 inches in height. It contained burnt bones and the skull of a
child. It was long in the possession of Miss Heaton, who resided
near to the place of its discovery. In 1840, while digging the
foundation of St Thomas's Church a similar urn was found, and in
1849, an iron-spear head, while digging for the junction of the



428 TLME-HOXOURED LANCASTER.

North Western and Carlisle Railways at the point where they meet
in Marsh Lane. Several gold coins of the reigns of Henry IV. and
Edward VI. were discovered in the gardens of the Silk Mill on the
22nd of March 1849.

Lancaster Tokens.

From the reign of Queen Elizabeth to that of Charles II. the
Lancaster tradesmen were in the habit of coining small money or
tokens for sake of convenience. The materials of which they were
made consisted of lead, tin, copper, and brass ; the figures and devices
were various. " Every community, tradesman, or tradeswoman
that issued this useful kind of specie was obliged to take it again
when presented for payment, and therefore in large towns where
many sorts of them were current a tradesman kept a sorting box,
into the partitions of which he put the money of the respective
tradesmen, and at proper times, when he had a large quantity of
one person's money, he sent it to him and got it changed into silver,
and in this manner they proceeded until the year 1672, when Charles
II. having struck a sufficient quantity of halfpence and farthings for
the exigencies of commerce, the memmorium famuli were superseded,
and those practices of the tradesman were no longer useful or
necessary," This statement is from the " History of Knaresboro,"
by Hargrove. The Lancaster penny is thus described: Obverse,
a view of the Gateway Tower of Lancaster Castle : legend " Lan-
caster Castle." Reverse, a view of the Bridge ; legend, "Lancaster
Bridge." In the exergue (or lower part of the side of the coin) is
the name, "A. Seward," with date " 1794."

Amongst Lancaster Halfpennies we find about twenty of them
described, and notes as to those issuing them. The first contained on
its obverse a head in profile, legend, "Daniel Eccleston, Lancaster."
Reverse, a ship, plough, and shuttle ; legend " Lancaster Half-
penny " Exergue, " Agricut. Manufact., and -Commerce." Edge,
" Payable in Lancaster, Liverpool, and Manchester." The second
represents on its obverse a coronetted head in profile, a small star



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 429



under the head; legend "John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster."
reverse, the Arms of Lancaster; leg-end, " Lancaster Halfpenny,
1791." Edge, "Payable at the warehouse of Thomas Worswick
and Sons." Mr. Blaylock, of the Lancaster Observer Office, has a
large collection of coins, chiefly English, many of which are
valuable in antiquarian and other senses. Mr. John Atkinson, of
the Lancaster Gazette has an excellent " Eccleston token."

The Probate Court.

The District Registrar of the Probate Court is Mr. J.
Douglas Willan, who suceeded Mr. H. W. Lord in the early part
of 1891. The oldest wills in this office of the archdeaconry only go
back to 1673, and appertain to Halton. Other documents date
chiefly from 1748. The Richmond Wills, originally kept at Rich-
mond, dated from 1457 to 1748, were transferred 1o London some
years ago.

Post Office.

The Lancaster Post Office, deserves some attention, At one
time (1825) the office was under the control of Miss Elizabeth Noon,
whose mother, a widow, had a straw bonnet shop fronting the
Market-place, the Post Office being behind her premises and under
the road to the Shambles. Miss Noon managed the office for about
eighteen years. After her time the office was removed to the corner
of Sun Street, and the post mistress was Mrs. Glasson, widow of a
naval officer. Again the office was removed to Market-street, near
to Alderman Seward's premises, which have been greatly altered
since that time. After Mrs. Glasson, Mr. L. Hew itt was appointed
postmaster in 1853, and his retirement near the year 1880 was
necessitated by ill health. During Mr. Hewitt's time the office was
once more removed to its present location — New-street, and on the
24th May, 1880, Mr. Thomas Murgatroyd Priestley was appointed
postmaster. This gentleman, the present master, has introduced
many beneficial changes, and has always studied the public



43Q TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



requirements in every possible manner so far as his powers allowed,
and it is only just to state that he is deservedly esteemed. A new
post office, or premises more suited to the evergrowing demands of
the postal business, will shortly greet the eye, negotiations now-
being in progress in order to realise this desideratum. Mr. Priestley
has twenty-nine suburban offices under his control, some of which
extend into Yorkshire. It may be added that most, if not all, of
the Lancaster branch offices and pillar boxes have been established
during the present postmaster's regime.

In 1647, James Hardman, an innkeeper, was postmaster of
Lancaster. He was also parish clerk. (Register, St. Mary. J The
following is taken from the records of St. Martin-le-grand. It is an
official list.

Postmasters of Lancaster.

John Tarlton, appointed in 1690; John Powell, 1695;
Christopher Hopkins, 1 7 1 7 ; Ann Hopkins, 1722; John Mc Milan,
1739; Jane Mc Milan, 1764; John Mc Milan, 1769; Barbara Mc
Milan, 1776; William Varker, 1788; Thomas Noon, 1799; Elizabeth
Noon, 1810; Mrs. Glasson, 1833; Lawrence Hewitt, 1853 ; Thomas
M. Priestley, 1880.

When Mr. Priestley came in 18S0, there were only five letter
carriers, now there are twenty, independent of rural posts. The
Post Office has been in Church Street, at the corner of New Street,
where the old Amicable Library used to be, since November, 1868.

Owing to Mr. Williamson's exertions the postal and railway
facilities ol Lancaster have been increased, and now letters, not
many years ago despatchable only from the principal office, can be
posted in all the suburbs of the town, for there are now branch
offices and pillar or wall boxes in all parts. Cheap market trains
have been running for some time at reduced fares for distances of
ten miles north and south of Lancaster. But perhaps the greatest
benefit to agriculturists particularily, consists of the purchase of the



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 431



tolls, which amounted to a large sum, in order that Lancastei

might he approached on the part of farmers free from toll expense.

The Lancaster Borough Waits, established in 1856, deserve
mention. Their notices bear upon them the arms of the borough,
with the words in Roman capitals, "By your kind permission,'' and
then follows the couplet-

Underneath my window where the snow lies white.
I can hear sweet music playing in the night.

At the foot are the words —

Flute, violin, concertina, violoncello.

Bellmen of the Century.

Of the century's town criers or bellmen, I give this list:
James Dixon, died 1798. William Naylor, who was a fine portly
individual with as much sense of dignity as if he had been mayor.
He held office 28 years, and died April 6th, 1828. After him came
Abraham Hodgson, appointed about October, 1 83 1 , or then officially-
noted in the local press. He held office 50 years, I am told.
He was succeeded by Thomas Jennings. Then there came Philip
Woodburn ; followed by Edwin Hall, who did not hold office long.
James Dunderdale was next. He had also a short "belling" career,
and was succeeded by George William Fardo, resigned November,
1888. The present street orator is William Dawson.

A word concerning "Bellman's Parrock." The origin of
Bellman's Parrock is thus given in "Gleanings in Local History,"
June 10th, 1882. It seems to have been the practise for each free-
man entitled to a marsh grass, who did not require it for his own
use, to let it privately. The grasses which were not disposed of
were afterwards let by auction to the bellman, who had the parrock
accorded to him for his trouble.

Oir Old Houses.

Man}- of the old houses in Lancaster are well worth a visit,
not only by the antiquarian and historically-minded individuals, but



432 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



by that body of strange latter day tradesmen known as jerry
builders. Apart from the old-fashioned luxurious adornment, which
in the shape of fine mahogany doors and carved lintels and wains-
coting characterised some of the habitations of the past, there is
the strongly common sense quadrangular style, indicative of comfort
and convenience, deserving of the greatest commendation. Here
is the old home of Mr. Satterthwaite, in Castle Park, near to that
of Mr. Edmund Rigby ; while adjacent are the houses once occupied
by the Tathams, Sandersons, Rawlinsons, Buckleys, and Jacksons.

There is one house in Church Street which has interested me
beyond all others on account of the prominent coat-of- arms which is
let into the wall over the fireplace of the first room, in the front
office of Mr. Councillor Molyneux. It is on a board, and the frame-
work round it is, like the painting, a fixture. Beneath is a repre-
sentation of some abbey which many have considered was that of
Furness. I have made inquiries with the view of supporting or
contradicting my belief in the arms being those of either Thomas,
second Lord Monteagle, K.B., June ist, 1533, who died August
18th, 1560, and was interred at Melling (page 95, Seacombe's House
of Stanley), or of James, tenth earl, who married Mary, only daughter
of Sir William Morky, of Halnaear, and an heiress, born September
8th, 1667, by whom he had one only son, named William, born 31st
January, 1709-10, who lived but three months, dying of smallpox
on the 4th of March. The earl died ist February, 1735.

The house is the property of Mr. Molyneux, and was first
erected according to an old date once discovered (but ruthlesslv
removed) in the year 15 13. Formerly all the panelling bore
paintings, but modern vandalism has obliterated them almost
entirely, the only two portraits remaining being one at the top of a
cupboard, and a large one, that of a lady, at the foot of the stair-
case. Fortunately, Mr. Molyreux is a virtuoso himself, therefore,
the fragments that remain are not likely to meet with further
damage or molestation. The arms are as follow: —



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 43;



1. Argent, on a bend azure, three bucks' heads cabossed,
Or; for Stanley

2. Or, upon a chief indented az., three plates, for Lathom.

3. Gules, three legs, coupled and conjoined at the thighs,
in armour argent, for the Isle of Man.

4. Cheeky, or and azure, for Warren.

5. Gules, two lions passant, in pale argent, for Strange.

6. Argent, a fesse and canton gules, for Woodville.

7. Or, a cross engrailed sable, for Bohunc.

8. Azure, a lion rampant argent, for Mont all.

And upon an escutcheon of pretence, sable, a leopard's head
jessant, a fleur de lis or, for Morley.

Crest: On a chapeau gules, turned to ermine, an eagle or,
preying upon an infant in its cradle proper, with wings expanded.

Supporters, on the dexter a griffin, and on the sinister a
buck, both or and gorged with plain collars and chains, azure
reflected over their backs.

The motto of the Stanleys is Sans Changer. — Without change ;
but here is a change which is considerably puzzling, not less so than
the political vicssitudes through which the noble house o\' Stanley
has passed. In this instance the motto is Dominus quis proliibct
spcrarc meliora adjutor. (The Lord is the upholder of those who
hope for the best). James, tenth Earl, was Earl of Derby, Lord
Stanley, Lord Strange, Baron of Weeton, Viscount Kinton, Lord
Mohun, Lord Barnwell, Lord Basset and Lacy; Lord Charfcellor
and Lord Leiutenant of the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster
and vice-Admiral of the same. Lord Chamberlain of the city and
County Palatine of Chester ; captain of the yeomen of the guards ;
one of his Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, and Lord o\
Man and the Isles.

The history of the Stanleys is half the history of England.

The Earldom of Derby is derived, not from the county town
of Derbyshire, but from the Hundred of West Derby in Lancashire.



F2



434 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



There have been Lords Stoneley or Standley from time immemorial.
My own belief is that the present aspect of the house in Church
Street in which the armorial insignia appear, is little to go by, for
it was doubtless re-built at the close of the seventeenth century, and



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