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greatly altered since. The arms may be those of Thomas, second
Lord Monteagle.

As for the sketch of the ruins beneath, they may be those of
Furness Abbey. If the sketch is of the same period as the arms,
and it appears to be, it coincides with the possible suppression of
this abbey, though hardly with its ruined appearance. But only
here and there are there any signs of demolition in the picture.
The present Lord Derby knew nothing whatever about these inter-
esting features, and on all hands I find only conjectures more or less
credible. The figure at the foot of the stairs is a large painting on
the wall oi' a lady whom some have supposed to be the heroic de-
fender of Latham, Charlotte de la Tremouille, countess of the
unfortunate James, seventh Earl of Derby, beheaded at Bolton-le-
moors, on the 15th October, 165 1 . October has ever been a critical
month for the Stanleys, death and disaster having generally occurred
to the members of this distinguished family in that month. It was
in 1485, at the battle of Bosworth Field, that the father-in-law of
the first of the Tudor line of Sovereigns was created Earl of Derby,
in the month October.* The late Earl of Derby died October, 1869.

Then, again, a little farther, observe the house of a somewhat
Spanish style, with the date 1684 thereon, erected by the ancestor
of Sir Ughtred Ray Shuttleworth, and some really good builders'
work greets you. Most of the older houses are dated. The offices of
.Messrs. Maxsted and Gibson, solicitors, are part of the house erected
by Lord Fauconberg, while another house hard by was built by one
of the Wilsons, of Dallam Tower. Rowland, Lord Falconberg,
died on the 30th of November, 1810, and was succeeded by his
brother Charles Bellasis who became eighth Baronet and seventh
Lord Viscount Fauconberg. At his death the title became extinct.



It was in October, 165 1, that James, seventh Earl of Derby, was beheaded.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 435



Here is the announcement of the last Lord Fauconberg's
death: -"On Wednesday, June 21st, 1815, the Right Hon. and
Reverend Charles Lord Fauconberg died, at his house in Thurnham
Street, ag'ed 65. His lordship was formerly Chaplain to the
Portuguese Ambassador. On his decease the title became extinct."
The house in which his lordship died is now the Dispensary, located
here since 1834.

The old sugar house in St. Leonardgate, was formerly the
seat of Mr. George Crosfield, a West Indian Merchant, whose
name was very prominent in the early years of this century. Behind
the house there was once a fine garden. A fire took place at these
premises in 1801, doing much damage. Mr. Crosfield died October
10th, 1820, aged 66.

The old house, one of a few cottages with steps in front of
each, where John Lawson resided, no longer exists. Upon its site
stands a portion of the Centenary Schools. It was John Lawson
who sheltered George Fox, after he was stoned out of St. Mary's
Church-yard. When the old premises were demolished two stones
were taken away from them. One bears this inscription:—

DISTRIBUENDO SUUM CUIQUE
NEMINEM TIMEAS.

The above is on a door lintel. The second stone which is of
trianglar form, bears the date and initials as follow :

L.

R. J.
»75 6 -

The letters stand for Robert and Jane Lawson, great great grand-
father and grandmother of J. Rawlinson Ford, Esq. The stones
were conveyed to Morecambe Lodge by the late Hutton Rawlinson
Ford, Esq. The first was placed over a side door of the house, and
the second has only recently been fixed over a garden gate by the
nephew of the latter named gentleman, Mr. J. R. Ford,



436 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



There are two houses in St. Leonardgate, one of which up to
March, 1890 (the time of writing" this portion), was occupied by Mr.
G. W. Fardo, ex-town crier. These houses were formerly one,
and formed the residence of the Roman Catholic Priest. St.
Leonardgate is very interesting so far as facts and traditions of
the past are concerned. Pursuing our way eastwards, we observe
the Centenary Chapel, a portion of which stands over the remains
of the mansion of George Burrow, Esq., a West Indian Merchant,
and more recently by Thomas Winder Faithwaite, Esq. There are
still some old arches beneath the Chapel, and in the cellar or vault-
like apartment, herein, George Fox and his host often met for
devotional purposes. In Mr. Burrow's time a large garden extended
from this point — Phoenix Street — as far as Mr. Crosfield's property.
It is said that when Mr. Fox was a prisoner under the gaoler of
Lancaster Castle, he was occasionally permitted to walk out on
parole, and that once having been away at his friend's abode for a
longer period than usual, he felt that he had better go back
immediately to his immurement, lest the keeper should think he
had abused the licence granted to him, "to go about into the
town." It turned out that messengers had been sent for him, and
when they arrived at his host's dwelling they were informed that
their prisoner had gone back of his own accord. Afterwards, the
greatest faith was placed in him and he could walk about the town
with freedom.



The Judges used to lodg'e at Cawson's, in St. Leonardgate,
where the Centenary Chapel now stands. The house was afterwards
converted into a factory, which belonged to one of the Albrights —
a sail-cloth factory. The Judges also had lodgings in a house once
standing on the site of the County Club, in Church Street. The
present Judges' lodgings was the first house in Lancaster which
had shutters; and they were put up by one John Chaffers. These
premises formed the Old Hall of Lancaster, and the seat of the
Covells. About 1662, the Cole family bought the property, rebuilt
it, and called it New Hall.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 437



In the wall at the trough joining up from the toll-bar, there
used to be a gravestone with a cross, which was taken nut while
cutting the hill, the Priory of St. Leonard having been a little
higher in the field to the south. Where is the relic now/

The house in Castle Park occupied by the famous ecclesias-
tical architects, Messrs. Paley, Austin and Pale}-, was the old home
of Dr. Wright, a well-known medical gentleman, who died at the
end of January, 1797, aged 80. About ninety years ago this abode
was valued at ^2,000, but was afterwards sold for ,£500.

Castle Hill House, once the residence of Mr. Gardner
Mashiter, was for many years the house occupied by the Sheriffs of
the County during the Assizes. A much smaller dwelling near to
used to be the Sheriffs' lodgings in the last century. The premises
occupied by Messrs. R. Hinde and Co., Wine Merchants, were for-
merly the chief offices of the Pusey Hall estates. The old roof of the
warehouse was composed of flags, and on their removal, some years
ago for re-roofing, the timbers supporting them were found to consist
of ribs of black oak, which probably belonged to the hull of some
old West Indian ship. On the wall-plate the figure-head of the
vessel was discovered and it is now carefully preserved by Messrs.
Hinde and Co., as a memento of the past. The premises date from
1688. On the 20th of September, 1837, died Sarah, relict of
William Whitaker, Esq., of Townhill, Yorkshire, mother of Dr
Whitaker, vicar of Blackburn, aged 77, at Castle Park. Lancaster.

A grand old dwelling, a stately home of England in truth, is
the one known to us all as " Fenton Cawthorne House." In the
dining room are two very large oil paintings by Romncy, the oik
represents the late John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq., M.P., and his
brother when they were boys, and the other represents their mother.
Mr. Cawthorne was the son and heir of James Fenton, Esq. \>\
Royal licence he assumed the name of his mother, Elizabeth Fenton,
nee Cawthorne, on the 22nd May, 1781. He first offered himself as
a candidate for the representation of the borough of Lancaster



438 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



in Parliament in April, 1802, but did not become member for Lan-
caster until 1806, when he was returned with John Dent, Esq., for
his colleague. At the election of June 1818 he was defeated,
General Doveton and John Gladstone, Esq., being returned as
members. A petition to unseat these gentlemen was presentd to
the House of Commons in February, 1819, but was dismissed as
"frivolous and vexatious" on the 2nd of the ensuing April. In
1820 Mr. Cawthorne was again returned with Colonel Gabriel Dove-
ton. In 1824 he was returned, having for his coadjutor T. Gregson,
Esq., who took the place of Colonel Doveton deceased. From
1826 to 1831 Mr. Cawthorne and Mr. Greene continued together as
members for the borough. In August, 1775, Mr. Cawthorne married
Frances Delaval, daughter of *Sir John Hussey Delaval, Bart, of
Seaton, Delaval, Cumberland. He died at his residence in London,
on the 1 st of March, 1831, in the 79th year of his age.

The ancestors of Mr. Cawthorne are said to have held a
portion of Wyersdale for six or seven hundred years. Mrs.
Cawthorne was related to the Earl of Tyrconnel. Her niece, the
Lady Susan Carpenter, married Lord Waterford. The father of
Mr. Cawthorne, James Fenton, Esq., died in November, 1 791 , in
his 76th year. Dr. Fenton, vicar of St. Mary's, was his brother.
]ames Fenton, Esq., Recorder of Lancaster, died in December,
1797, aged 79.

John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq., gave the ground upon which
the Charity School was erected in August, 1813, supplementing
this gift with a subscription of one hundred guineas. In 1818 he
gave another piece of land for the purpose of building the National
schools for girls. So popular was Mr. Cawthorne that on the 17th
of April, 1820, a dinner was given in his honour by his friends and
admirers in Preston, at the Old Red Lion Inn, James Pedder, Esq ,
being chairman on the occasion, and Mr. Jonathan Lodge, vice-
chairman. On the same evening the FVeemen of Lancaster resident
in Preston were entertained at two hostelries by the promoters of
the dinner to Mr. Cawthorne.

* Afterwards Lord Delaval.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 439



George III. once contemplated the revival of the Barony of
Wyersdale in the person of Mr. Fenton Cawthorne, whom he
intended to create Lord Wyersdale. Wyerside is an elegant
mansion, now the seat of the Garnett family.

Fenton-Cawthorne House is more like a country hall. It
contains some excellent rooms, most elaborately adorned with frieze
and sculpture work. The mantel-piece of the drawing-room reveals
some fine carving in wood, and the centre piece of the ceiling is
likewise worthy of observation. Below and adjoining the cellars
is a passage called the " Cloister," leading to the garden. It is
arched and has the appearance of an ancient subterranean pathway.
This house of the Cawthornes was frequently visited by the best
families in the country. The Prince Regent has on one or two occa-
sions sojourned here. In the days gone by this house projected
into the thoroughfare to such an extent as to make it impossible
for more than one vehicle to pass between it and the end of the
Mechanics' Institute. But it was put back when the road was
straightened and improved, and so carefully was the work done
that all the original features of its front remain intact. The
gates contain some fine specimens of wrought-iron ornamenta-
tion. From an old window that stood out very much after the
style of the front window of the Merchants' Newsroom, a window
which has long ago disappeared, Mrs. Cawthorne used to address
the freemen and burg'esses of Lancaster at election times on her
husband's behalf. Indeed, it is said that Mrs. Cawthorne secured
her husband's return to Parliament by her persuasive powers of
argument and good ringing eloquence. Dr. Wingate Saul, a
descendant of Colonel Saul, who fought in the Civil Wars, and
who belongs to an ancient Lincolnshire family, settled near to
Croyland Abbey, is the present occupant of this historic abode.
His collection of old oak cabinet ware and military weapons,
pictures, &c, is a collection of a highly interesting character.

Dr. Saul possesses an official copy of the "Proceedings <>f a Court Martial
holden for the trial of John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq., Colonel of the Westmini
Regiment of Middlesex Militia," which was ordered to he printed, 8th April, 1796.



44Q TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



The trial was held at the Horse Guards, and lasted from Friday, 27th of November,
1795, until the 30th of January, 1796. The officers constituting the court were: —
" Colonel George, Karl of Powis, of the Montgomery Regiment of Militia, president;
Colonel George, Earl of Euston. of the West Suffolk Regiment of Militia; Colonel
Lord George Henry Cavendish, of the Derbyshire Regiment of Militia; Lieutenant-
Colonel John Scudamore, of the Hereford Regiment of Militia; Major John Bevan,
of the Radnorshire Regiment of Militia; Major John Keeling, of the West Essex
Regiment of Militia; Captain Bache Heathcote, of the Derbyshire Regiment of
Militia ; Captain Thomas Stanley, of the Royal Cheshire Regiment of Militia ;
Captain Thomas Smith, of the Herefordshire Regiment of Militia; Colonel Sir
William Smyth, Baronet, of the West Essex Regiment of Militia; Colonel George
Harry, Lord Grey, of the Royal Cheshire Regiment of Militia; Lieutenant-Colonel
Robert Hughes, of the Royal Flintshire Regiment of Militia; Major Robert Barnston,
of the Royal Cheshire Regiment of Militia ; Captain William Morton Pitt, of the
Dorsetshire Regiment of Militia ; Captain Thomas Gardner Brainston, of the West
Essex Regiment of Militia; Captain Daniel Dulany, of the West Suffolk Regiment
of Militia: fohn Augustin Oldham, deputy Judge Advocate General. There were
fourteen articles of charge. A summary of the series of indictments is as follows: —
(1) Withholding the receipt of the Marching Guineas or some part thereof from the
respective Captains and other Officers of his, Colonel Cawthorne's Regiment, and
withholding (2) the receipts of the said money. Fraudulently obtaining receipts and
agreements in re>pect of such Marching Guineas from several persons who had agreed
to serve as substitutes; (3) pardoning deserters from the Regiment, in order to
appropriate certain moneys to his own use offered by such delinquents; (4) discharging
men from service without any lawful reason ; (5) obtaining persons to serve for less
money than the law directs shall be given to men in the service; (6) encouraging
desertion; (7) embezzlement and procuring certain sums by false pretences ; (8-9)
charging more for clothing than he ought to have charged; (10) causing intense
suffering during inclement weather to centinels who were ''obliged to wear blankets
when on duty, although money was intrusted or allowed to bin: by government for
sufficient clothing and misapplying the said money; (11) keeping the regiment in-
complete; (12) making a fabe muster including names of men not belonging to the
Regiment ; (13) reducing Sergeant Thomas Jackson to the rank of a private, for an
offence of which he was on the 4th August, 1794, fully acquitted by Court Martial;
(14) recommending to the deputy Lieutenant of the County of Middlesex, and to the
Lieutenant of the said County, since the Marquis of Titchfield, men who were ineligible
for service, and under age, and appropriating to himself their pay and allowances.
Colonel Cawthorne admitted himself to be the Colonel of the Westminister Regiment
of the Middlesex Militia, and in a speech commencing on page 9, urged his objections
to certain charges, and declared his innocence and ability to give a satisfactory
explanation of his conduct. The speech is a very able one and shows that the
Colonel was well grounded in military knowledge and law.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 441



John Copeland, Joseph Cock, Julian Rawlinson, Richard Yeates, and
William Caton, are names met with in the charges or articles of charge. The court
found the Colonel guilt)' of the misdemeanours attributed to him especially in the
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth charges, and he was
sentenced to he cashiered out of the service. On Saturday, 19th March, 1796, a
certificate was handed in to the effect that the prisoner was by illness prevented from
attending the court. Owing to his continued illness as attested by Dr. Reynolds, of
Bedford Square, the court decided to dispense with his personal attendance in oidcr
to hear sentence. Lieutenant-Colonel O'Kelly appeared in the character of prosecutor,
and certainly seems to have been very anxious to prove the guilt of the accused.
The report of the trial contains 435 pages.

There used to be a house in Church Street, on the site of the
Co-operative Stores, in which the Earls of Wilton dwelt. The house
at the corner of China (originally Keln) Lane, numbered 79, and in
the occupation in 1891 of Mrs. Parkinson, furniture dealer, was the
old home of the grandfather of James Williamson, Esq., J. P., D.L.,
Member for the Lancaster Division.

In the time of the second rebellion the house dated 1683, now
the business premises of Mr. J. S. Baxter, was visited by a number
of rebels, who were under the impression that the post-bearer who
stayed the night at this house, bore Hanoverian despatches and
instructions in his saddle bags. But to their consternation the
plunderers found nothing except proof of the fact that they had been
deceived.

The building now occupied by the Conservative Club is
certainly historic. Colonel Marton, J. P., states that a sword dis-
covered in an upper room or in the roof of this house was left there
by the Pretender or by some of his party. The Prince and his suite
stayed at this house one night while on their way north. A pair of
spurs and some other small articles were also left. The sword is
now at Capernwray Hall.

There is outside this house on the right of the door as you
enter, an ancient torch extinguisher dating from the sixteenth
century, which will be treated of on page 448.



442 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



An Old Tower.

By the kind permission of Mr. Abram Seward I have
been able to go through the old tower erected in days of yore by
the Rev. Dr. Marton in what is now known as Back Sun Street.
The walls and ceiling of the room in the first storey are covered
with excellent specimens of classic art in stucco, consisting chiefly
of medallion representations of the nine daughters of Jupiter, and
twelve of the Roman Emperors. There are some beautiful figures
on the north and west walls, some of them unimpaired by the
ravages of time, and the more terrible ravages of machine and
smith work, while others show signs of damage caused by the
rearing of timber, pipes, and other bulky articles used in the trade
to which the chamber has unfortunately long been devoted. There
are profiles of Calliope, the muse of eloquence and heroic verse ; of
Clio, the muse of history ; of Erato, the muse of amorous poetry ;
of Euterpe, the muse of music ; Melpomene, the muse of tragedy ;
Polyhymnia, muse of rhetoric ; Terpsichore, muse of dancing ;
Thalia, muse of comedy and lyric poetry ; and Urania, the goddess
of astronomy. Of the Roman Emperors I noticed the heads of
Claudius, Nero, Otho, Caligula, Tiberius, Valerian, &c. Over the
chimney-piece is a fine figure of Apollo, and in the centre of the
ceiling is a smartly executed Ceres, goddess of agriculture. Mr
Seward informed me that the medallions were done by special
sculptors from Italy. It was with regret that I heard that it is
intended to scrape all these sublime symbols off at an early date.
Alas ! if the reverend founder could return and view the present
state of his magnificent temple of the muses, would he not exclaim :
" Oh, what a fall is here, my countrymen!" Also, "Begone, run to
your houses, Eall upon your knees, Pray to the gods to intermit the
plagues That needs must light on this ingratitude." He would be
Marcellus over again.

The Rev. Dr. Marton was vicar of Lancaster from 1767 to
1794. For a time this vicar resided with his father at the house
known as the Conservative Club.



T1ME-H0X0URED LAXCASTER. 443



There is a tradition in the town to the effect that the old
tower just treated of was the Town Hall of Lancaster, but there is
no truth in it.

Dates at Present or Formerly to be seen on old Lancaster

Buildings.

161 3 Cross Keys Hotel.

1625 Cross Keys Kitchen (over doorw r ay).

1625 King's Arms.

1629 7, Market Street (back of house).

1636 16, Church Street.

1643 Bridge Lane (Church Street corner).

1664 Old Barn, South of Barracks.

1666 73, Castle Hill.

1669 Old Brewery.

C
T . T

i675-
(Judges' Lodgings, formerly Old Hall, in front of which stood the

Covell Cross.)

Over one of the doors of the Vicarage Stables are the letters and

date, thus :
S.B.D.D., 1683.

Over another we read :

Seth Bushell, D.D., 1684.

(A plan of the old Vicarage still exists. The present Parsonage was

erected in the time of the late Canon Turner.)

S
H

1683.
(74, Church Street.)



444 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.

I . H

1686.
(Church Street).

F.
16 C . D 84.
(Church Street).

1684 Bridge Lane.

1687 West of Castle Park.

1688 Penny Street.

1688 Flag of weather-vane. (Castle).

16 Y 94

I. E.
(House in Bridge Lane. "Best London Porter" still to be seen

over the door.)

16 Y 87

I. E.

(House formerly the Old Pilot Boat Inn, near to the " Soot-hole.")

E. B.
(Date gone.)

P.
R. A.

1700.
(North Road. Re-built 1845.)

1697 26, St. Leonardgate.

1706 Mr. Milne's cabinet shop, 2S Castle H

1714 Simpson's Yard, Cheapside.

L.
W. H.

J776-
J.S.R.B.

1877.
(North Road.)






TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 445



I . T

1722.
(Feathers Hotel, formerly Masonic Tavern, and originally Coach

and Horses.)

H.

R. A.

1726.

(St. Leonardgate.)

B.
W. E.

1724.
(Moor Lane.)

T.
R. A.

1739-
(Castle Hill.)

B.

W. E.

1740.

(Moor Lane.)

B. H.
A.

!74J-
(Old Golden Ball Yard.)

J. G.

Philo.

1779.

(North Road. "Philo," I am told, was the name of a vessel.)

H . I

L . 1
(New Inn. No date discernible.)



446 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



L.
I. C.

1845.
(Castle Park. )

M.

J. M. N.

1848.
(Princess Street.)

Old Wells.

The following are the sites of the old wells in Lancaster : —

The Toll-bars - , Castle Hill, bottom of New Road, Lawson's Spring at Well
House (covered in by Dr. Bracken), Friarage Well. Well on the south side of Aldcliffe
Lane, Mineral Well on Lancaster Moor (not far from where the old gallows stood).
The butcher from Manchester says, a writer in the local press washed his whittle in it,
after quartering the rebels in 17 15, and it was not used for drinking purposes after-
wards. In Stonewell were two pumps and a large trough at the north side, built for
watering horses, &c. At the corner of Rosemary Lane, where the Centenary Church
now stands, was a dial post and a well of soft water. There was an old Roman Well
in Messrs. Gillow's Yard, a Well in Meeting-house Lane, one near to the Church
Steps, a Well with steps (called Hodder's Well), near to the Castle, a Pump and Well
in the Castle Park.

The old Stone Well was nearly in the middle of the square, and was incon-
veniently placed for the traffic, as Nicholas Street was, for a long time, the main road
to the north from Market Street before North Road was opened out. In this square
there used to be a trough with rails over it surmounted by an oil lamp. The sketch
represents the old house that formerly occupied the site of Mr. Wolfendale's butcher's
shop. The old well was covered and the ground in Stone Well elevated about the year
l 824. and a pump placed against Mr. Ireland's wall, which remained until the
introduction of the water works in 1834-5. Previous to 1824 all the water from Moor
Lane, as far as the Park Gates, came running through Stone Well, and during a
thunderstorm there was a great weight of water rushing into the open gutter on the
east side, then across from the smithy (now Mr. Kendrick's place), to the butcher's
shop, where stands the Centenary Chapel, and through Rosemary Lane. Formerly,
the water from Stonewell flowed in an open gutter through Rosemary Lane,, and so
to the dam. It was crossed by a bridge connecting Church Street and St. Leonard-



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 447



gate in those days to which we refer. Stonewell, before it was raised, in 1824, was
very low and liable to damage by floods, for we read that in 1785 there was a great
flood which filled the streets from side to side; about Stonewell it got in at the doors
of houses and windows and washed up the pavement. The Calkeld Well supplied a



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