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Another well-known grave tells us that " Richard Owen died at the
Island of Bartholomew, in the West Indies, October 14th, 1809,
aged 53 ; his wife Catherine dying November 24th 1838, aged 78.
There is also a James Hawkins Owen commemorated, who died at
Demerara, April 18th, 1827, at the early age of 29. I need not say
whose parents and brother repose here, parents and brother of an
illustrious man who still survives at the time of writing. Vet an-
other stone I call attention to : —

" Vivi ut morituus,
Johannes Shepherd,
Natus, Decern. 19th, 1769.
Denatus, Aug. 26th, 1792.

Eripere Vitam nemo non Homini potest. Ad nemo Mortem nulle,

ad hanc aditus patent."

There is a rather telling epitaph to the memory of "John
Howarth, Surgeon, of Bolton-le-Moors, who died in the Castle, on
the 28th August, 1827, aged 28.

" No sorrow now hangs clouding on his brow,
No loss, no grief his deathly looks do show,
111 fortune press'd upon his generous mind
Till Nature's strength left all his grief behind."

This young: sureeon was evidently confined in the Castle tor debt.



34 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



A curious memorial appears at the west end of the yard to
Eleanor Harrison, late of Fairfield, Manchester, — "A single sister
in the Church of the United Brethren, who fell asleep in Jesus on
the igth of January, 1827, ag'ed 30 years." The Churchyard was
enlarged about 1818 by the enclosing- of garden lands on the west,
belonging to the heirs of Mr. Butterfield.

Priors ok St. Mary's, Lancaster: — John, circa a. d, 1230; Galfridus,
1241 ; Gernerus, 1249; Willielmus Ree, 1252; Ralph de Truno, 1266; John Ray,
1270; Nigellus, 1315 ; Fulcherius, 1318 (named in an Inquisition, 15th, Edward II.,
1521-2. predecessor of the prior of that year); Galfridus, 1322; William de Bohun,
1327 ; Adam Conratts, 1330 ; Ralph de Truno, 1331 ; Emerie de Argentelles, 1337 ;
Peter — , 1367 (succeeded by William Raymbant same year. Peter translated to
Leeds) ; John Innocent, 1391 ; John Loget, died 1399.

Giles Lovell. the last prior, died in 1428, and Whitaker could not trace
the succession t<> a later date than that ol this Lovell. But it is not impossible for
the Randal Elcock or Christopher Leye, mentioned in John Gardyner's will, made
in 1472. and proved in 1483, to have been successor to Lovell and predecessor of
William Paynes, mentioned in the Lancashire Records.

Vicars of Lancaster: — 1575, Hugh Conway: 1582, Henry Porter;
ante 1602, Richard Townson ; 1608, Geffrey Kynge ; 1616, James Gregson ; 1630
William Brudenell ; 1630, Augustine YVildbore ; 1630, Richard Routh ; 1631,
Augustine Wildbore, Edward Garforth ; 1682, Seth Bushell ; 1684, James Fenton ;
1714. William Lindsay; 1714, James Fenton ; 1767, Oliver Marton ; 1794, William
White; 1806, John Man by ; 1844, Joseph Turner; 1870, John Allen.

When the Act of Uniformity was passed Dr. William Marshall was Vicar.
Calamy states that he was ejected in 1662. He did not remain long in Lancaster,
but travelled abroad.

In the Record Society's publication of "First Fruits Compositions" are
these additional names : —

Waynhouse John, V, 1 8th Oct., 8th Elizabeth,
Conway Hugh, R. cl., 9th February, 18th Elizabeth."

" Lancashire and Cheshire Records." — Part II., p. 410
In the Cantar Elemos' ville Lancastr*," a Bayne? is mentioned as Incumbent about
the 5th of Mary, or 1st Elizabeth.

Augustine Wildbore, D.D

A few remarks concerning Dr. Wildbore may not be out of

place at this point.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



35



Augustine Wildbore became Vicar of Garstang on the 17th February, 1620,
The Wildbores belonged to Northants and are recorded in a pedigree of the Visitation
of 1618, Harl MSS. John Wildbore had a son, Robert, who died icth September,
1600. He belonged to Glintow and married Alice Godfrey, of Stranground, Hunts,

daughter of William Godfrey. I le had issue four sons and several daughters. The
eldest son, Thomas, died unmarried. A Godfred was living at Glintow in 16 [8.
He married Petronella, daughter of Augustine Earle, of the County of Leicester ; and
secondly, Mary, daughter of Patrick Lowe, of Denbigh. By the latter wife he had
no issue, but had two sons and three (laughters by the former. Augustine, born 1590,
educated at the Grammar School, Peterborough, matriculated pensioner of Trinity
College, Cambridge, 1607, then went to Sydney Sussex College: took his 1;. A. in
1610, and his M.A. in 1614; B.D. in 1623, and D.D. in 1633. His sister Elinor
married Edward Cowell, of Hunts, and Frances, another sister, married Thomas
Foote. Elizabeth becoming the wife of Samuel Barker, of Duffield, Derbyshire. Dr.
Wildbore was buried on the 19th April, 1654, at Duftield, according to the Registers
.»f the Parish.'' — See p. i^g, Fishwick's " Gnrsfang."

The late Rev. William Stratton, B.A., of Gressingham, in-
formed me that there was once a Chapel dedicated to St. Thomas
A' Beckett in St. Mary's Church. (See Raines's " History of Chan-
tries" (j noted at t/ie end of this work. )



Churchwardens, 1671

Lancaster : — John Mashiter.

Bulk and Aldcliffe : — William Shierson.

Scotforth : — John Walton.

Skerton : — Thomas Bond.

Poulton, Bare, and Torrisholme : — Thomas Cooper

Middleton and Overton : — Thomas Gardner.

Wyresdale and Quernmore : — William Chapman.

Sidesman : — Nicholas ffbx.



Parish Clerks

Acting in 1656 — George Eskrigg
18th Oct. 1656 — William Newton.
Acting in 1658 — James Hardman.



3 6 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Acting- in 1679 — Thomas Townson (and Sexton).
1 69 1 — John Horsfall, began 1691.
1723 — John Brown.
1760 — Thomas Cartmel.
1784 — Thomas Batty.
1790 — Thomas Slater.
181 5 — Thomas Bibhy, died September
29th, 182 1.
,, 1825 — John Beckett, appointed by the Rev. John

Manby, April 8th, 1822; died December 9th, 1883, in his 92nd year.
1 have been permitted to refer to the Church Books for the lists



given.



John Beckett was the last Clerk. The office has since been
held by the junior curate. The dates must not be taken as dates of
appointments. 1 find that Jas. Hurtley succeeded Edmund Parkin-
son as sexton on the 4th of December, 1824. Edmund Parkinson
died 1 8th September, 1824, aged 66.



The Tower and Bells.

At a Vestry Meeting held on the 28th June, 1743, it was
decided to raise the Steeple ten yards higher, in order that the Bells
might be heard to better advantage. In the same year the Bells
were to be re-cast, and it transpires that one Abel Rundall, of
Gloucester, was directed to undertake the work. The Big Bell at
this period is stated to have weighed 20 cwts.

The Old Tower of St. Mary's has long been famous for its
good bell-music. On the 2nd of October, 1880, the Ringers of
Lancaster rang 5,040 changes of grandsire triples Holt's ten part
peal, in three hours and thirty-two minutes. Affixed to the wall is
the following verse : —



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 37



If to ring you do come here,
You must ring with hand and ear,
And when your bell you overthrow
Your shilling pay before you go ;
Your fourpence pay, besides all that,
Whoe'er appear in spur or hat :
And if above you wish to go
Your twopence pay or stay below.

The eight new bells in the Tower are the gift of James Williamson,
Esq., M.P., in the year of his shrievalty, 1885. There are no in-
scriptions on the same save the name of the donor and the date of
the gift, with the name of the Vicar of Lancaster and those of the
Churchwardens, and they appear on the tenor bell Mr. Williamson
at the same time, presented the ancient edifice with a beautiful new
clock with chimes. The following items will at once show what a
genuine presentation the clock really is, and likewise the degree of
perfection at which public clock-makers have arrived. " This new
horologic instrument is the work of Messrs. Lund and Blockley, a
distinguished firm, of Pall Mall, London and Bombay, (makers of
the Bombay University great clock and carillons). The clock shows
the time on four dials, each eight feet two inches in diameter, chimes
the full quarters on eight bells, a most unusual circumstance, the
tenor bell weighing $2 cwts. It strikes the hour on the tenor bell
with a hammer weighing 62 lbs. All the works are of the finest
manufacture, and the latest improvements have been introduced.
The solid cast iron bed on which the clock is built, and which is
eight feet six inches long by two feet three inches broad, is bolted
on to two strong iron girders built into the walls of the Tower, so
that the clock may be perfectly steady and an equal vibration of the
pendulum constantly assured. All the wheels, bosses, &c, except
the winding work are made of the best gun metal, no brass being
used in the construction of the clock, so that the wear is reduced to
a minimum. The pinions are solid and made of hard steel. The
three main wheels of the going, striking, and quarter trains
are respectively i6in., i6in., and 22m. in diameter; the going
main wheel being unusually large for the size of the dials on account
of their exposed position to the weather. The escapement, which
is of gun metal steel faced, is that known as the ' double three-



38 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



legged gravity escapement,' generally deemed the best for large
public clocks, especially where the dials are much exposed as in this
instance. The two seconds compensated pendulum, which is 15ft.
6in. long, is built up with iron and zinc tubes, so adjusted as to
maintain a steady rate in all degrees of temperature. The bob of
the pendulum weighs about 5 cwts., and the pendulum complete
7 cwts. There is the usual inside dial in the clock to enable the ex-
ternal hands to be set from the inside of the Tower. One of the
neatest contrivances of this clock is the maintaining power, which is
so arranged by means oi' a double click and racket wheel, that the
same amount of power which is taken off the going train when
being wound is automatically put on to it again without the man,
winding the clock, putting any extra work into gear, thereby ensur-
ing no stopping of the immense timepiece while being wound. The
quarter train which is very large, on account of the weight of work
it has to perform, chimes the full quarters on eight bells by means
of eighty steel cams, bolted to an independent chime barrei, so
arranged as to lift their respective hammers at the proper time. The
chime 'barrel is arranged so that the changes can be altered at any
time, without interfering with or altering the clock in any way.
The total weight of the bells is iibcwt. jqrs. 261bs. The tenor bell
is Db. The bells were cast by Taylor, of Lougborough, and were
first used on the 12th of July, 1886.

The following are the chimes :—

1st quarter 1 2

2nd quarter 1 3

" 1 6

3rd quarter 2 1

>> 3 5

»> 4 3

4th quarter 5 3

,, 6 5

>> 7 5

>> 8 7



6


4


5


6


7


8


2


4


5


7


6


8


5


7


2


4


6


8


n
^t


4


6


5


7


8


7


2


1


4


6


8


2


I


5


6


7


8


1


2


4


7


6


8


7


6


2


1


4


8


6


8


*>
j


2


4


1


6


5


4


3


2


j



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 39

The clock was erected under the personal supervision of Mr. Block-
ley, junr. A brass plate is screwed on to the clock, bearing' this
inscription : — ' Presented to the Parish Church oi' St. Mary, Lan-
caster, by James Williamson, Esq., J. P., D.L., High Sheriff of the
County, 1885, John Allen, D.D., Vicar, William Thomas Sharp,
B.A., John Hatch, Churchwardens.' One thing 1 should like to
see introduced more freely into church campanology, that is the
tune-playing arrangement so common in other counties, so rare in
this one. Of Mr. Williamson's further gifts to Lancaster mention
will be made at a more fitting period. The patron of Lancaster
Church is Col. Marton, of Capernwray Hall, and the living is valued
at about ^1,800 per annum.



Privilege of Sanctuary.

The privilege ot sanctuary existed in the Church of Lancaster
almost from the period of the erection of the Church. The words
of William the Conqueror in the charter given to Battle Abbey were
to this effect : — " If any thief or murderer or person guilt}- of any
other crime, fly for fear of death, and come to this Church, let him
have no harm but be freely dismissed." -—Camden. History tells us
that this was also the extent of the ancient privilege in other places.
After the Reformation, persons who had committed murder, rape,
arson, or robbery, either in a dwelling-house or on the high-way,
were not allowed to become refugees, and the asyla in this county
were confined to Lancaster and Manchester, by the statute ^2,
Henry VIIL, cap. xii. In the 38th year of the same reign Man-
chester was permitted to transport all its sanctuary men to Chester,
and from that period it ceased to form a "centre of sinners," says
Fuller ; but Lancaster continued to afford sanctuary to delinquents
till the first of James I., when the privilege was finally abolished in
every part of the kingdom by the authority of Parliament. The only
excuse that could with reason be raised in favour of the sanctuary
privilege was that it forned a sort of haphazard set-off against those
unjust convictions and punishments which many persons suffered



40 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



from time to time. It was the old judaic streak of mercy, audibly
preaching- the doctrine of " love mere}- rather than judgment."

On Tuesday, the 2nd of March, 1824, one Hannah dough,
did penance in St. Mary's Church. She was confined in the gaol
for debt, from the Ecclesiastical Court of Chester. In consequence
of her recantation she was set free, otherwise she would have been
confined for life.



Tithes of the Parish.

It appears that in the year 1650 the tithes of the Parish
Church of St. Mary were farmed at ^'510 per annum, and that not
unly Fulwood, 16 miles distant, but Toxteth also, 50 miles distant,
were then returned " as in the Parish of Lancaster." There were
in the Lancaster Parish the following chapelries : — Wyresdale,
Admarsh, Overton, Toxteth, Stalmine, Gressingham, and Caton,
at which latter place is a Chapel at Littledale. Bleasdale and Poul-
ton were chapelries of Lancaster, but Toxteth Park, being extra-
parochial, has long ceased to be of the number.

Amongst the Chapels added to the town of Lancaster may
be mentioned St. John's, which some say was erected on the
site of John Gardyner's corn mill. But I always understood that
John Gardyner's corn mill stood out in Briery Field, Newton, other-
wise Bulk. This Chapel was consecrated in 1755, and decorated
with a steeple designed by Mr. Harrison, of Lancaster, in 1784, and
erected by the munificence of Thomas Bowes, of Lancaster, gentle-
man ; and next is St. Anne's, Moor-lane, erected by the Rev. Robert
Housman, in 1796. At the early part of the present century Lan-
caster was much disturbed owing to a succession of law suits be-
tween the Incumbent and his Parishioners, but arrangements were
made for commuting the tithes for an annual rent, varying with the
price of corn, on the principle oi~ the Act obtained by the neighbour-
ing Parish o( St. Michael's in the year 181 ^.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 41



The Gardyxer Chantry and Lancaster Charities.

A chantry was founded in connection with Lancaster in the
year 1485, by John Gardyner, of Bailrig, one of the benefactors of
the town, for the reception of four poor men as well as for the
stated celebration of divine offices in the Parish Church. This
chantry escaped the fate of the monastry. It was rebuilt in 1792.
on the ancient site to the east of the Vicarage Court, affording a
dwelling with an allowance of seven pence per week, and two pence
for a serving maid weekly to each of the poor inmates. The inscrip-
tion to be seen over the centre of the cottages forming the charity
is as follows : —

" Gardyner's Charity

founded, 1485,

re-built, 1782.

EDWARD SUART, Mayor.

JOHN WARBRICK, ]

RICHARD ATKINSON, J Damns<

The re-erection of the charity was undertaken by Mr Richard
Postlethwaite, the owner of the adjoining dwelling, who was re-
building his own house ; Nicholas Grene was the first Chantry Priest.
A John Hinde and a Robert Mackerel are also named by Willis,

A.D. 1553.

The charities of Lancaster, if not numerous, are very sub-
stantial. The first is Gardyner's, already noticed, then Penny's
Charity, founded by William Penny, Esq., alderman of Lancaster,
in 1720, comprising twelve small dwellings, situated in Back Lane,
affording to as many poor men a residence each, with an allowance
of ^3 6s. 8d. a quarter, and a new suit of clothes yearly. The
translation of the Latin inscription over the Entrance of the Hospital
is as follows : — " By the liberality of William Penny, gentleman,
formerly one of the aldermen of Lancaster, these aim-houses were
founded and endowed. Persons of profane or immoral character,



42 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



by his express orders, are not to be elected or permitted to continue
as inmates of this Hospital." Penny's Hospital stipends have been
increased owing to the improved value of the property. Mr.
Heyshams estate, which used to yield a total rent of ^50 a year,
now allows a payment of ^31 4s. to ten pensioners, two of whom
may be women. The benefit of this charity is reserved for those
who have once known better circumstances. Gillison's Hospital,
founded in 1790, by Miss Anne Gillison, consists of eight houses,
for the reception of eight unmarried women, each of whom had an
allowance of foui pounds per annum, and a new gown, value
one pound. This Charity was augmented in i8i8by Mrs. Margaret
France who gave to it by deed the sum of ^100 Navy five per cent
annuities. The same benevolent lady left ^200 to the Dispensary.

The following is taken from the Report of the Trustees of
the Lancaster Charities. It is the first one issued. The meeting
was held on the 2nd of April 1890. The names of these gentlemen
are as follow : — C. Johnson, Chairman, G. Jackson, H. Welch,
T. Preston, Sir T. Storey, C. Blades, W. Pickard, J. Williamson,
M.P., E. G. Paley, E. Storey, A. Greg, E. Clark, J. Fenton,
W. G. Welch, A Seward. The Clerk to the Trustees is Mr. M.
M. Harrison, of 73, Church Street, Lancaster.

Additional particulars of each Charity are given in this
Report, and re-produced in this work.

Gardyner's Charity.

This Charitv has been augmented by the following Legacies :

Miss Dorothy Addison (less duty) £ 50 o o

Miss Tatham (less duty) 200 o o

Miss Mary Warbrick 112 10 o

Miss Susan Crompton 200 o o

The scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 27th May,
1870, provides that the four inmates of these Almhouses shall be
widows. Pension — Five shillings per week. No changes in 1889.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 43



Penny's Charity.

William Penny, by Will dated 2nd March, 17 15, provided
for the building- and endowment of Almshouses for poor ancient
indigent men and women within the town of Lancaster. The
Charity was augmented by a Legacy from Miss Tatham of ^200
(less duty). By the scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated
27th May, 1870, it was provided that there shall be fourteen Alms-
people inmates of Penny's Almshouses, twelve of whom shall be
men, either married or single, and two of whom maybe either men,
married or single, or widows. Pension — Men : Six shillings per
week ; Women : Five shillings per week.

Changes since 1st January, 1889.
Deaths. Appointments. Age.

J. Dickinson. John Airey. 75

Richard Monks. Henry Atkinson. 73

J. Ritson. Robert Lee. 71

John Airey. Richard Pye. 73

Hevsham's Charity.

William Heysham, by Will dated 22nd April, 1725, left his
estate called the Greaves upon trust that the rents should be appli-
ed for the benefit of eight poor men residing in Lancaster. By the
scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 27th May, 1870, it was
provided that there shall be ten Pensioners, eight of whom shall be
men, and two of whom may be either men or women. Persons
who shall have been reduced by misfortune from better circum-
stances shall (caiteris paribus) be entitled to a preference at every
Election. Pension — Men : Twelve shillings per week ; Women :
Ten shillings per week.

Changes since 1st January, 1889.
Deaths. Appointments. Age.

Miss Mary Beckett. Mrs. Jane Jackson. 67

P. Raby. James Atkinson 75

Mrs. A. Battersbv. Miss Anne Battersby 56

Joseph Ellison. T. B. Hill. 66

John Morland. J. Chamberlain 80



44



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Gillison's Charity.

Ann Gillison, by Will dated 19th January, 1781, provided
for the building- of Almshouses for eight destitute unmarried women
belonging to the town of Lancaster. She also left a sum of ^"iooo
as an endowment, and this Founder's Bequest has been augmented
by the following Legacies received from time to time.



Arthur Armitstead, Esq.
Benjamin Satterthwaite, Esq.
Miss Margaret Satterthwaite

Mrs. France's Gift

Miss Dorothy Addison

Miss Barbara Shaw

Miss Alicia Salisbury

William Satterthwaite, Esq.
Miss Margaret Ferguson

Miss Tatham

Miss Mary Warbrick

Miss Alice Giles

Pension — Five shillings per week.
Changes since 1st January, 1889.
Death. Appointment.

Miss M. Standen. Miss Ellen Bradley



(less duty) ^400 o o
(less duty) 400 o o



(less duty)


100










100








(less duty)


50










50








(less duty)


5











200










500








(less duty)


400










225










19


19






Age.
69



From the Trustees' Report 1 venture to reproduce the
following paragraphs : —

" Due provision for the continued performance of the duties
of the Trust is secured by the Scheme of the Charity Commissioners.
The number of the Trustees is maintained at fifteen, vacancies as
they occur being filled by the appointment of suitable persons. In
the administration of the Trust, great care is exercised by the
Trustees in admitting to the list of candidates only those who are
needing help and deserving oi' it. All candidates appear before a
Special Committee, and full enquiries are made into their circum-
stances.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 45



After providing" for the Heysham Pensioners, and for the
pensions to the inmates of the Almshouses, the remainder of the
income of the Charities is bestowed in outdoor pensions. Owing'
to reductions in Farm rents and to some heavy repairs to house
property, the net income has been declining for some years past.
The Trustees have therefore been compelled to reduce the number
of outdoor Pensions by making no new appointments when vacan-
cies have occurred by death. Yet notwithstanding these reductions
the Charities were in debt at the close of 1889 to the amount of
£156."

Let us hope some good friends will come forward and make
up the deficit.

" At the beginning of this year a kind friend gave a donation
of ;£ioo to enable the Trustees to make some grants of outdoor
pensions, and on the strength of this donation, and in the belief
that before the end of 1891, the debit balance would be wiped out,
the Trustees resolved to grant five out-pensions of six shillings per
week. For these pensions forty-two eligible applicants presented
themselves. More than half of the applicants were upwards of 70
years of age. Thirty of the applicants were widows. So many of
the cases seemed thoroughly deserving that it was most difficult to
make the selection of the most necessitous five, and the Trustees
felt deep regret that their funds would not admit of an increased
number of pensions."

It may be apposite to mention that a donation of ^500 is
sufficient to establish a pension of six shillings a week for ever ;
such annuity could bear the Founder's name, and the patronage, if
he wished it, be reserved to him for life.

On the 25th February, 1890, those persons living in the
Gardyner cottages were Elizabeth Benn, Ann Edmondson, Esther
Walmsley and Jane Bird. I found the following persons residing in
the almshouses established by Mrs. Gillison ; — Mary Slinger,



46 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Hannah Mc. Grady, Mary Butcher, Mary Handby, Jemima Oliver,
Ann Alston, Ellen Bradley, Ann Townley.

Miss Gillison died on New Year's Day, 1790, in her 72nd
year. Her father was Ambrose Gillison, Esq., merchant, of
Lancaster.

On the 25th of February, 1890, I found the cottages of
Penny's Charity in the occupation of the following persons : — John
Hinde, John Haythorn, William Markland, Henry Atkinson,
Henry Carr, Elizabeth Magee, Robert Lee, John Starnforth, Ralph



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