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the rise that had taken place in the price of bow-staves, so that
those which had formerly cost only 40s. or 40s. Sd. per hundred at
the utmost, " had now, as the Act declared, risen to the out-
rageous price o{ ^8 the hundred," and all through the seditious
confederacy of the Lombards trading to this country." In the
same reign, 1482, it was enacted that from "the feast of Easter
next coming no bowman should take from any of the king's liege
people for a longbow of yew more than 3s. 4c!. The wood of the
stave was generally yew, this being the strongest and most elastic
material. Sometimes elm, ash, or Brazil wood was used. The
closest scrutiny was evinced in order to secure freedom from knot,
warp, or any blemish. The "cord" must not be too soft or it
would snap and leave the archer defenceless, nor must it be too
hard or too fine or it would cut the wood, and so render the bow
useless. The medium was a string of silk twisted with the utmost
care so that it might be sound and equal throughout. To save


both wood and string and have them ever ready for action the
weapon was usually carried in a sheath or case made of woollen or
canvas. At Agincourt the Genoese Archers were placed out of
action altogether owing" to a shower of rain which rendered their
cross-bows useless, and also relaxed their bow-strings, strings
made of gut, giving the English every opportunity of defeating
them, for their weapons had only to be unsheathed and were then
ready for work under any conditions of climate. When the archer
had no need of his bow and arrow he minded to lay it by in a place
neither too dry nor too damp, and he kept it well rubbed, oiled,
and polished. Ascham, in his Toxophilus, enumerates fifteen different
kinds of wood. The asp was preferred for target-shooting and
archery competitions and the ash for warfare. Asp wood was deemed
of such importance that in 1416 Parliament passed a decree forbidding
patten and clog makers from making their goods of this material.
It was not until fifty years later that the patten-makers obtained
permission to use such asp wood in their craft as was unfit for
archery purposes. Arrows were often of different weight and thick-
ness to suit the distance of the mark and the changes of the wind
Whistling arrows were sometimes used in war for signalling in the

On the village green over four centuries ago, you might have
seen the Archers in picturesque attire with all the village peasants
and dames around them busy practising, each Archer having a
bracer laced on his left arm, and a shooting glove on his right hand.
The bracer was made of hardened leather and so stiff that the motion
of the arm did not wrinkle it, and so smooth that it did not arrest
the free motion of the string ; while the glove which protected the
fingers from being chapped in drawing the " cord," had the leather
upon the forefinger thicker than the rest, as it was there that the
pull of the string was most felt. The Royal MSS., 14th Edward
IV., and the Cotton MSS., Julius E. IV., both give figures of
fifteenth century Archers. Specimens of arrow heads are to be
seen in the British Museum. They were found at New Farm,
Blenheim Park, Oxon, on the field of the battle of Barnet, in the


neighbourhood of Friday Street, London, and near Salisbury. At
the latter place a cloth-yard arrow head was discovered.

Great dexterity and a true eye were essential to the success
of the bowman who "stood uprightly, his left foot at a convenient
distance in advance on his right, holding the bow by the middle,
with his left arm stretched out, and with the three first fingers and
the thumb of the right hand upou the lower part of the arrow-
affixed to the bow-string. If the mark were a distant one, the arrow
had to be drawn to the head, but the pull required to be steady and
uniform, otherwise the string might snap, or the bow itself break."

The bow and arrow declined in Lancaster and district after
the battle of Flodden where the quiver of England was well nigh
expended. The hagbut and the arquebuse came in place of them,
and thus the practice of archery is now nothing more than a sport or
scientific amusement. The earliest Archer met with in the Bible is
Ishmael who " became an Archer." (Genesis XXI. 20).

John o'Gaunt's Bowmen.

The members of the John o'Gaunt's Bowmen in 1788, 1789,
and 1790, wore a dark green coat, plain yellow buttons, with a bow
and arrow embroidered on a black velvet collar ; white Kerseymere
waistcoat and breeches, white stockings, and a black hat, with two
feathers, one black and the other green. The members a hundred
years ago, were as follow : —

Charles Gibson, Quernmore Park, elected March 17th, 1788.

John Ford, Morecambe Lodge, elected same time.

Thomas Rawlinson, Ellel Hall.

William Cotton, Lancaster.

Josiah Baxendale, Lancaster.

Benjamin Satterthwaite, Lancaster.

Edward Suart, junr. , Lancaster.

Thomas Brayshay, Lancaster.

John Dodson, Lancaster.

James Noble, Lancaster.


David Campbell, Lancaster.
Edward Salisbury, Lancaster.
Daniel Wilson, Dallam Tower.
Edmund Rigby, Ellel Grange.
Edward Greenhalgh, Myerscough.
Abram Rawlinson, Ellel Hall.
Michael Jones, Caton, elected April 29th, 1788.
Bryan Greg, Lancaster, elected April 29th, 1788.
Edward Buckley, Beaumont Hall, elected June 13th, 1788.
William White, Lancaster, elected October 1st, 1788.
George Bigland, of Bigland, elected April 15th, 1790.
Thomas Harton, elected April 15th, 1790.
Robert Hesketh, Heysham Hall, elected July 8th, 1790.
John Dent, London, elected Jul}' 8th, 1790.
J. F. Caw tin Hue, Wyreside, elected July 29th, 1790.
Thomas Greene, Slyne, elected July 22nd, 1790.
William Dent, elected July 29th, 1790.
- C. H. Rhodes, Barlborough Hall, Derbyshire, elected September 17th, 1790.
Wilson Braddyll, Conishead Priory, elected October 8th, 1790.
Bold F. Hesketh, Rufford Hall, elected Vpril 29th, 1791.
Joseph Brookes, Liverpool, elected September 50th. 1791.


1788. Miss Wilson, Lancaster.

17S0. Miss Maria Rawlinson, Lancaster.

1790. Miss Welch, Lancaster.

1791. Miss Jane Salisbury, Lancaster.

Between 1820 and i860 the list of members represents 112, and the
patronesses between the same dates, 41. The Secretaries have been from 1820 to
1822, Thomas Worswick, Esq.; 1822 to 1823, R. M. Arthington, Esq.; i t S23 to
1824, A Kirkup, Estj. ; 1824 to 1827, Joseph Dockray, Esq. ; 1S27 to 1830, Joseph
Seed, Esq. ; 1830 to 1836, Richard Hinde, Esq. ; 1836 to 1842, John Sharp, I
1842 to 1853, John Kirkes, Esq.; 1853 to i860, George Robinson, Esq.; i860 to
1866, E. II. Satterthwaite, Esq. ; 1866 to 1868, Henry Ball, Esq.; 1868 to 1872,
William Ford, Esq.; 1872 to 1875, W. T. Sharp, Esq.; 1875 to 1870, B. P.
Greg-son, Esq.; 1S76 to i.SSi, W. T. Sharp, Esq.; 1S81 to 1882, F. Sharp. Esq.;
1882 to 1890, B. P. Gregson, Esq.

The Treasurers from 1820 to 1890 have been: 1820 to 1S22. Alexander
Andrade, Esq.; iSj2 to 1823, R. M. Arthington. Esq; 1823(0 1824, A. Kirkup,
Esq. ; 1824 to 1827, Joseph Dockray, Esq. ; 1827 to 1830, Joseph Seed, Esq. ; 1S30


to 1833, Richard Hinde, Esq. : 1833 t0 ^Crf, Henry Gregson, Esq.: 1837 to 1840,
Thomas Baldwin, Esq. ; 1840 to 1842, James Giles, Esq. : 1842 to 1845, John Bond,
Esq.; 1845 to 1847, T. G. Dodson, Esq. ; 1847 to 1853. John Kirkes, Esq. ; 1853 to
1857, Henry Ball, Esq.; 1857 to 1S62, Arthur R. Hinde. Esq. ; 1862101875.!'.
Mason, Esq. ; 1875 to l88 L J- D - Moore, Esq.. M. 1>. : 1S81 to 1884, F. Sharpe,
Esq. ; 1884 to 1890, B. P. Gregson, Esq.

Since 1884 the Secretaryship and Treasurership have been combined and
heid by Mr. Gregson.

The challenge prizes shot for between the years 1821 and
1890 have consisted of a gold medal, a large silver arrow, a small
silver arrow, and a small gilt arrow. There is a book of Rules and
Regulations revised and reprinted in 1850, in 1861, 1869, and again
in 187b. From the "Archer's Register, 1889," edited by Frederick
T. Foilet, archery correspondent to The Field, I take the following
items relating to the John o'Gaunt's Bowmen :

" The centenary of this well-known Lancashire Society, which was cele-
brated in 1888, was not the centenary of its foundation, but of its revival ; for there
is evidence that the society had been in existence for a considerable period prior to
17SS, although before that dale nothing is known of its doings, and no traces of its
constitution remain. Its origin is a matter of conjecture, some Lancashire men liking
to regard il as a growth of the Wars of the Roses; whilst others, less ambitious,
would not go further back than Flodden Field. In 1788 the Society was limited to
twenty-one member-.'' A sketch of a John o'Gaunt's Bowman is included in the
work quoted with a description of the uniform worn in that year, which I have already
noticed. " After 1788," continues the * Register,' "'an interval of thirty-two years
followed, timing which the Society languished more or less, and its proceedings
were imperfectly recorded ; but in 1820 it revived once more, and since then has
continued to grow and to flourish. Among the rules of the new rdgime there was one
requiring a member on election or marriage to present a ' bishop ' to the Society.
This was a dozen of wine, and though that was a minimum offering, there appears
to have been no limit to a maximum offering, for the old minute books tell of a
member in 1838 giving his 'bishop ' upon a sumptuous and magnificent scale. The
custom has gradually fallen into disuse, and only two ' bishops' have been ptesented
within the last 15 years.''

The same authority also informs the reader how " members began to be
elected by ballot, after due nomination, and it was necessary that two-thirds of the
Society should vote. The target ranges were fixed at 13 roods (91 yards), and 9 roods


(63 yards), the match shooting consisting of six rounds or twelve targets at each
distance, the colours of the rings and the values of the hits being the same as now,
except that the inner white of that day has been replace blue of ours. Altera-

tions were also made in the uniform, and there was a ceremonial as well as a shooting
uniform. The former consisted of a dark green body coat, lined with white silk,
with the society's buttons, and a bow and arrow embroidered on a black velvet collar,
white drill trousers, crimson militar) sash, and black neckcloth, or stock for full dress,
For shooting dress, a Kendal green frock-coat, with g-ilt button- with arrow thereon,
cloth upright collar, with an arrow embroidered thereon, white drill trousers, a green
foraging cap, and black neckcloth, or stock. This ha- long been discontinued and a
member now wears what he pleases : but the rules require that at all club gatherings
he shall display the society's badge, which is silver gilt, and has a design of three
arrows in the centre. The number of members, which had been limited to twenty-
one, was subsequently raised to thirty, and in July, 1888, to forty-two. The S01
warmly supported the (band National Archery Meeting when it was first organised at
York, in 1844, I >y guaranteeing the presence and subscriptions of twelve of its members ;
and since then several — notably Mr. II. II. Palairet (five times Champion of All
England), Mr. E. Mason, Mr. II. Garnett, Mr. W. lord, Mr. E. Sharpe, Mr.
Gregson, and Mr. Lloyd Evans— have secured g-ood places in the score lists at the
Annual National Meetings.*'

It may be remarked that Mr. H. H. Palairet has been National
Champion of England in 1876, 1878, 1880, 1881 and 1882. Mr.
Gregson held this distinguished position in 1889, and has likewise
held the Championship of the Ten Northern Counties no less than
six times. Mr. Edmund Sharpe has been Northern Champion twice.

The Target Meetings are in Springfield Park, Lancaster,
lent for the purpose by the Trustees of the Ripley Hospital, and
since 1875 the York Round has been adopted for members of the
first class, whilst only the latter half of the York Round is shot bv
those of the second and third classes. Bye-laws regulating the
transfer ol' members from one class to another, according to indi-
vidual merit, and determining the assignment of prizes, have been
found to work satisfactorily and impartially. It was decided earl)
in 1888, that a special programme should be arranged to comme-
morate the revival of the John o'Gaunt's Bowmen in 1788. This
took the form of a Centenary Dinner, a two days' Archery Meeting,
and a Fancy Dress Ball. The Dinner was held on May 9th, in the


King's Arms Hotel, Lancaster, twenty-one members and seven
guests being present. The Fancy Dress Ball was held on Thurs-
day, September 13th, 1888, many of the members appearing in the
costume of a century ago. The two days' shooting took place on
September nth and 12th, in the Giant Axe Field, a liberal supply
of prizes being provided both for members and visitors, and the
meeting proved a great success. There were 25 shooters, of whom
five were visitors. Tuesday, the first day was fine, but it was cold,
with a strong, gusty wind blowing throughout the round. At 80
yards Mr. C. E. Nesham and Mr. E. Sharpe were a tie, both in hits
(36) and score (158), and at 60 yards there was also a close struggle
between them, Mr. C. E. Nesham scoring 129 with 23 hits, and
Mr. E. Sharpe 120 with 22 hits. Wednesday was fine, but the wind
of the preceding day had dropped, and the shooting was continued
under favourable conditions. There was a large attendance of
spectators. Mr. C. E. Neshams's score at 60 yards of 162, with
24 hits (including seven golds), is the highest on record, the nearest
to it being a score of 160, with 24 arrows, by the same gentleman a
few years back, at the Crystal Palace Meeting.

After shooting, Mrs. Middleton presented the prizes. The
First Class Challenge Prize for the greatest number of points ; the
Champions' Medal and Clasp was won by Mr. E. Sharpe. The
Second Class Challenge Prize for highest gross score Large Silver
Arrow, was won by Mr. H. E. Jones ; and the Third Class Challenge
Prize for highest gross score, the Small Silver Arrow, was won by
Mr. W. A. Stackhouse. Mr. E. Sharpe won the Silver Cup and
the Societv's Medal and Clasp. In the prizes open to all classes
Mr. Gregson also won the Gilt Arrow, and Mr. E. Sharpe secured
the Centenary Challenge Jug. Mr. Gregson, Mr. Leigh Clare,
Mr. Nesham, Mr. W. A. Stackhouse, Mr. H. E. Jones, Lieut.
Col. Burton, and Captain C. H. Garnett, also figured as prize
winners in the Subscription Handicap Contest.

The Centenary Silver Challenge Jug (value ^30) was pro-
cured to be awarded year by year to the maker of the highest gross


score at any of the Society's Target or Prize Meetings during the

season. This prize is a fine old English Jug, plain in style, with
reeded bands round the lower pail : it holds aboul a gallon, and was
made in 1702, and is therefore, most appropriate tor the occasion.
It stands on a pedestal of olid ebony, the centre part having a
plain band, of silver the full depth of the pi ith, thus giving room
for engraving the name of each year's winner. Upon the body o(
the jug is engraved the badge of the club a crown, and rose of
Lancaster, surrounded with the inscription 'John o'Gaunt's Bowmen
Centenary Challenge Prize 1788 and 1888.' Besides this recent
acquisition the Society has other interesting challenge prizes. There
are the Champion Medal and Clasp, given by Miss. M. Rawlinson,
(lady patroness, 1789,) a unique trophy originally shot for by the
Members in October, 1789; the large Silver Arrow given by Miss
Wilson (Lady Patroness) in 1 78S ; the small Silver Arrow, given by
Mrs. Harrison (Lady Patroness) in 1820 ; and the Gilt Arrow,
presented to the society in 182c), by Mrs. Hesketh of Rossall Hall,

It now only remains for me to add that the Society possesses
an eleganl silver snuff box, the interior of the lid of the same bearing
this inscription : "Presented by the John o' Gaunt's Club, London,
to fohn o' Gaunt's Bowmen, Lancaster, 1832." Elsewhere will be
found one or two notes on the above named club.

The book of Rules and Regulations kindly handed to me !\\
a member of the Archer}- Society, has the following quotations on

its title page, taken from Shakespeare's Henry IV. Act III. Scene M.

Shallow. 1^ < >ld Double of your town living yel ?

Silence.— Head. Sir.

" Shallow.— Dead ! see, see, he drew a g I bow, and dead, he shot a fine shot '

ohn 'o Gaunt loved him well and betted much money on his head.
Dead ! he would have clapt ii in the clout, al twelve score, and caused you
afore hand shafl a fourteen and fourteen and a half, thai would have done a
man's heart good to see. "



The members of the club number at the present time
(June, 1891) forty-three; two of this number art- however,
honorary members. Here is a list courteously supplied for this
work by the Secretary, Mr. Gregson, to whom I am indebted for
information and corrections concerning" the Society.

Hon. Members.

S. 11. Hinde, Windham Club, St. James' Square, London; Col. Garnett-
1 )rme. Tarn I [ouse, Skipton.


William Ford, Ellel Hall. Lancaster; 1.. Graham Paley, The Greaves,
Lancaster; B. I'. Greg on, Caton, I ter ; T. F. Fenwick, Harrow Hall,

Kirkby Lonsdale; Col. Whalley, Queen Street, Lancaster; W. T. Sharp, Elierh
Street, Lancaster; K. 1 '•■ S. Hornby, Dalton Hall. Burton-in-Westmorland ; Col.
Marion. ( lapernw ra) . Burton-in-W estmorland ; Francis Sharpe, Bowerham, Lancaster :
II. II. Palairet, Chalky House, Norton St. Philip, Hath ; Capt. Garnett, Wyreside,
Lancaster; William Garnett, Quernmore Park, Lancaster: Edmund Sharpe, Halton
Hall, Lancaster: W. E. M. Tomlinson, MP., Heysham House, Lancaster; C. H.
Bird, Crookey, Garstang ; John Foster, Douk Gyhll, Horton-in-.Ribblesdale, Settle;
Charles M. Saunders, Wennington Hall, Lancaster: II. Dawson Greene, Whittington
Hall, Kirkby Lonsdale ; Major E. W. Stokes, Fairfield House, Lancaster; Rev. F.
T, Royds, Heysham Rector}-, Lancaster: Lt-Col. F. Cooper Turner, [nverbrae, Oak
Hill, Surbiton ; Dr. W. Wingate Saul. Fenton-Cawthorne House, Lancaster;
Aymer Ainslie, Gawithfield, (Jlverston ; Launcelol Sanderson 2, Garden Court,
Temple, London; Lloyd Evans, Grange House, Grange-over-Sands ; F. X. Garnett,
(.Ian Rhiew, Berriew, Montgomeryshire; W. G. Ainslie M.P., Grizedale Hall.
Hawkshead, Ambleside; Rev. F. R. Preston, Ellel Grange, Lancaser ; Captain I.
D. Kennedy, Scarthvvaite, Lancaster; ( ). Leigh Clare, Haverbrack, Miln thorp ; C.
li. C. Storey, Weslfield House, Lancaster; Rev. II. Edward [ones, Haj Carr,
Lancaster: W. H. Higgin, Q.C., Cloverley House, Timperley, Cheshire: Rev. G.
|. Horner, Flaxton Lodge, Vork ; Colonel Foster, Hornby Castle, Lancaster:
|. Williamson. M.I'.. Hydatids, Lancaster; J. A. Openshaw, Beechfield, \ calami
Conyers ; W. A. Slackhouse, Stackhouse, Settle; Rev. A. F. Clarke. Cockerham
Vicarage, Garstang; Charles Walker, Brettargh Holt, Kendal; Allien Greg,
Escow beck, Lancaster.

Freemasonry in Lancaster.

The history oi~ Masonry is extremely interesting'. The first
Lodge formed in Britain was foimed by St. Alban, in the year 287.



Masonry was known to the Mahometan Architects about the 9th
century, and many oi' ouv Gothic Cathedrals owe their existence
almost entirely to Masonry. So far back as the year 020 there was
formed under Prince Edward a Grand Lodge of York. Once
the symmetrical brotherhood was interdicted, viz.: in 1424. It was
not until 1717 that the Grand Lodge of English Masons was estab-
lished. In 1730, the Grand Lodge oi~ Ireland was instituted, and in
1736, the Grand Lodge o\ Scotland came into being. In 173N,
Pope Clement XII. excommunicated Freemasons, and in [865, the
order was again condemned by the head of the Latin Church.
Among 1 remarkable occurrences I may mention the following":













('•rant of a (barter to Fret mason-, by King Athelstan,

Revision of the Constitution by Edward III.

Initiation of I [enry \ I.

Regulation of the Lodges by the Earl of St. All li

Sir Christopher Wren, G.M.

Initiation of William III.

Valuable MSS. burnt l>\ unscrupulous brethren.

Initiation of Frederick . Prince of Wales.

H. R. H. the Duke of Cumberland elected G.M.

Initiation of George IV. (then Prince of Wales).

Initiation of the I Juke of York.

William IV (initiated when Duke of Clarence).

Initiation of the Duke ot Kent.

Initiation of George IV. (then Prince of Wales).

Initiation of Prince William of Gloucester.

Initiation of 1 1. R. 11. Duke of Sussex.

11. R. 11. the Duke of Sussex elected G.M.

Re-union of all the Lodges.

Initiation of 1 1. R. II. the Prince of Wales.

II. R. II. the Prince of Wales, installed G.M.

There is an old warrant issued by the Provincial Grand
Lodge, Liverpool, in [789, to the Lancaster Lodge of Fortitude
This document is suspended over the grand chair, and unfortunately .
owing to the dampness o\' the wall, it is much disfigured and mil-
dewed on the left side.


Here is the copy of the warrant which has been kindly
supplied to me by Mr. H. Longman and Mr. John Atkinson,
and I feel sure that those readers who take an interest in Societies,
especially in Masonry, will not think me out of place in including-
this old document.

Thk Ska i. of


To all and every one Righl Worshipful, Worshipful

ind Loving Brother. I. [ohn Allen, of Clements Inn, in the

j of Middlesex, Provincial Grand Master oi the most

id honourabh Si ciet) ol Free and Accepted Ma on .

Lojjck o] M \so\ry '" ani ' '"'"' ' '" ' ount ) Palatine of Lai i ter, undei His Royal

Highness, Hem - ) Frederick, Duke of Cumberland and

England. Stratheron, Earl of Dublin, &c, &c, &c. Grand Master send


Know ye that upon the humble petition of our right worthy and well

ved brethren, James Smith, Stephen Winder, Thomas Mackerall and others,

and in consideration of the greal trust and confidence reposed in them, / have

constituted and by the nts do constitute them, thi del brethren, into a regular

Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, to be opened at the house known by the name

of the Golden Shovel, in the town of Lancaster, to b< distinguished by the name of

the Lodge of Fortitude, being number 559 in the list ol Lodges, to be thus formed and

held on the second Tuesday in ever) month, until the time and place of meeting

shall, with the concurrence of me or my successors, be altered, with such power.

>, and advantages as of right belong to regular established Lodges. And

I do hereby nominate, institute, and appoint our said brethren lames Smith, Master :

Stephen Winder, Senior Warden; and Thomas Mackerall, junior Warden, for

opening the said Lodge, and for 5111 h further time only as shall be th mght proper by

brethren thereof, li being my will and intent thai thi- appointment shall not in

any way affeel the future election of officers of the said Lodge as shall be consistent

ilu General Law and Constitution of our Ancient Society. And I do hereby

will and require you, the said fames Smith, Stephen Winder, and Thomas Mackerall,

and your successors to take especial care that you and the rest of the members of the

said Lodge do at all times observe, perform, and keep all and every the Rules,

■rs. and Regulations contained in the Book of Constitutions, except such as have

been or hereafter shall be r< peali d at any Quarterlj or othi r < reneral Communication,

together with such other Rules, Orders, Regulations, and Instructions as shall from

ne to time by me or my Deputy, by my successors, the Provincial Grand Master for

the time being, be transmitted to you or your successors; and that you and your

successors omit not once in every year 01 oftener as occasion may be, to transmit to

me or my Deputy or our successors copies oJ all Mich Rules, < >rd< rs, and Regulations


as shall from time to time be made by your said Loci id order and

government thereof, together with a lisl oi the members ol the said I
respective titles or additions, and the respective times of theii several initiation- 01
admissions. And that you do duly remit such sum >i of monej as sh

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