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dissolved, 2nd July, 1702.

Robert Heysham, Merchant. Roger Kirkby, Esq. [1st December, 1701.]

1st Anne summoned to meet at Westminster, 20th August, 1702; dissolved, April

I7°5-
Robert Heysham, Esq. Sir William Lowther, Bart. [27th July, 1702.]
4th Anne summoned to meet at Westminster, 14th June, 1705; declared to be the
first Parliament of Great Britain, by proclamation dated 29th April, 1707.
Robert Heysham Esq. William Heysham, Esq. [15th May, 1705.]
7th Anne summoned to meet at Westminster, 8th July, 1708; dissolved, 21st
September, 1 7 10.
Rohert Heysham, Esq. William Heysham, Esq. [12th -May, 170S.]
9th Anne summoned to meet at Westminster, 25th November, 17 10; dissolved, 8th
August, 1713.
Robert Heysham, Esq. William Heysham, Esq. [18th r, 1710.

1 2th Anne summoned to meet at Westminster, 12th November, 1713; dissolved, 3th
January, 17 14- 15.
Robert Heysham, Esq. William Heysham, Esq. [3rd September, 1713.]
1st George I. summoned to meet at Westminster, 17th March, 1714-15; dissolved,
10th March, 1721-22.

William Heysham, Esq., Senr. Doddin Braddill, Esq. [10th February, 1714-15.]
William Heysham, Esq., vice William Heysham. Esq., his father, deceased.

[16th July, 1716.]

8th George I. summoned to meet at Westminster, ioth May, 1722; dissolved, 17th

July, 1727.

Sir Thomas Lowther, Bart. William Heysham, Esq. [26th .March, 1722.]

Christopher Tower, Esq., Junr., vice * William Heysham, Esq., deceased in 1729.

[1st Ma), 1727.]
1st George II. summoned to meet at Westminster, 28th November, 1727; dissolved,
17th April. 1734.
Christopher Tower, Junr., Esq. Sir Thomas Lowther, Ban. [22nd August, 1727.]

8th George II summoned to meet at Westminster, 13th June. 1734; dissolved 27th
April, 1 74 1.
Sir Thomas Lowther, Bart. Robert Fen wick, Esq. [4th May, 1734.]
15th George II. summoned to meet at Westminster, 25th June, 1741 ; dissolved,
iSth June, 1747.
Sir Thomas Lowther, Bart. Robert Fenwick, Esq. [nth May, 1741.]
21st George II. summoned to meet at Westminster, 13th August, 1747 ; dissolved,
8th April, 1754.
Francis Reynolds, Esq. Edward Marton, Esq. [30th June, 1747.]
Mr. Heysham was one of the Clerks in Chancery-



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 491



27th George II summoned to meet at Westminster, 31st May, 1754; dissolved, 20th
March, 1761.

Francis Reynolds, Esq. Edward Marton, Esq. [16U1 April, 1 754 - J
1st George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 19th May, 1761; dissolved, nth

March, 1768.
Francis Reynolds, Esq. Sir George Warren, Knt. of the Bath. [31st March, 1761.]
8th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, ioth May, 1768; dissoh

31th September, 1774.
Sir George Warren, Knt. of the Bath. Francis Reynolds, Esq. [21st March, 1768.]
Richard Cavendish, commonly called Lord Richard Cavendish, vice Francis

Reynolds, Esq., deceased. [15th September, 1773.]
15th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 29th November, 1774; dissolved,

1st September, 1780.
Sir George Warren, Knt. of the Bath. Richard 'Cavendish, commonly cailed Lord

Richard Cavendish. [Sth October, 1774.]
21st George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 31st October, 1780 ; dissolved,

25th March, 1784.

Wilson Braddyil, Esq. Abraham Rawlinson, the younger, Esq. [nth Sept., 1780.]

24th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 18th May, 1784 ; dissolved,

nth June, 1790.

Abram Rawlinson, Esq. Francis Reynolds, Esq. [26th April, 1784.]

Sir George Warren Knt. of the Bath, vice Francis Reynolds, Esq. called to the upper

House as Lord Ducie. [4th May, 1784. J

30th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, loth August, 1790; dissolved,

20th May, 1796.

Sir George Warren Knt. of the Bath. John Dent Esq. [30th June, 1790,]

First parliament of the United Kingdom. 41st George III. summoned to meet at

Westminster, 12th July, 1796; Dissolved, 29th Juue, 1802.

John Dent Esq. Richard Penn, Esq. [30th May, 1796.]
42nd George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 31st August 1802 ; dissolved,
24th October, 1806.
Alexander, Marquis of Douglas. John Dent, Esq. [14th July, 1802.]
47th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 1 5th December, 1806; dissolved,
29th April, 1807.
John Dent, Esq. John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq. [1st November, 1^06.]
46th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 22nd June, 1807 ; dissolved,
29th September, 1812.

John Dent, Esq. Peter Patten, Esq. [19th May, 1807.]
53rd George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 24th November. 1812;
dissolved, 10th June, 1818.
John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq. Gabriel Doveton, Esq. [7th October, 1812.]



492 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



58th George III. summoned to meet at Westminster, 4U1 August, 1S18; dissolved,
29th February, 1820.

Gabriel Doveton, Esq. John Gladstone, Esq. [1st July, 1818.]

1st George IV. summoned to meet at Westminster. 2 1st April, 1S20; dissolved, 2nd

June, 1826.

John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq. Gabriel Doveton, Esq. [iotn March, 1820.]

Thomas Greene, Esq., vice Major-General Gabriel Doveton, deceased. [20th

April, 1824.]

7th George I V. summoned to meet at Westminster, 25th July, 1826; dissolved,

24th July, 1830.

John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq. Thomas Greene, Esq. [9th June, 1826.]

1st William IV. summoned to meet at Westminster, 14th September, 1830;

dissolved. 23rd April, 1S3I.

John Fenton Cawthorne. Esq. Thomas Greene, Esq. [2nd August, 1S30.]

Patrick Maxwell Stewart, Esq. vice John Fenton Cawthorne, Esq., deceased.

[14th March, 1831.]
1st William IV. summoned to meet at Westminster, 14th June, 1831; dissolved,
3rd December, 1832.
Thomas Greene, Esq. Patrick Maxwell Stewart. Esq. [2nd May, 1831.]
3rd William IV. summoned to meet at Westminster, 29th January, 1S33; dissolved,
29th December, 1834.
Thomas Greene, Esq. Patrick Maxwell Stewart, Esq, [nth December, 1832.]
5th William IV. summoned to meet at Westminster, 19th February, 1835; dissolved,
17th July, 1837.
Thomas Greene. Esq. Patrick Maxwell Stewart, Esq. [7th January, 1835.]
1st Victoria summoned to meet at Westminster, nth September, 1837; dissolved,
23rd June, 1841.

Thomas Greene, Esq. George Marlon, Esq. [25th July, 1837.]
5th Victoria summoned to meet at Westminster, 19th August, 1841 ; dissolved 23rd

July, 1847.
Thomas Greene. Esq, of Whittington Hall, County Palatine of Lancaster. George
Marton, Esq, of Capenwray Hall, County Palatine of Lancaster, [1st July, 1841.]
nth Victoria summoned to meet at Westminster, 21st September, 1847 ; dissolved,

1st July, 1852.
Samuel Gregson, Esq., of 32 Upper Harley Street, County Middlesex. Thomas

Greene, Esq.. of Whittington Hall, County of Lancaster. [29th July, 1847.]
Robert Paynes Armstrong, Esq., of 29, Chester Square, Westminster, County of
Middlesex, vice Samuel Gregson, Esq., whose election was declared void. [9th

March, 1S48.]
1 bih Victoria summoned to meet at Westminster, 20th August, 1852 ; dissolved 2ist

March, 1857.
Samuel Gregson. Esq., oi' Upper Harley Street, County Middlesex. Robert Baynes
Armstrong, Esq., of Chester Square, Conty Middlesex. [9th July, 1S52.]



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 493



29th Victoria summoned to meet at Westminster, 30th April, 1 S 5 7 ; dissolved, 3rd

April, 1859.
Samuel Gregson, Esq., of Upper llarley Street, County Middlesex. William James

Garnett, Esq., oi Bleasdale Tower, County Lancaster. [28th .Match, 1857.]
22nd Victora summoned to meet at Westminster, 31st May, 1859; dissolved by

proclamation, dated 6th July, 1865.
Samuel Gregson, Esq. (same address as before.) William James Garnett. (same

address as before.) [30th April, 1859.]
Edward Matthew Fenwick, Esq., of Burrow Hall, County Lancaster, vice William

James Garnett: Esq., who accepted the stewardship of the manor ol

Northstead, County York. [13th April, 1859.]
Henry William Schneider, Esq., of Leighburn House, in the parish of Ulverston,

County Lancaster, vice Samuel Gregson, Esq., deceased. [20th Feb., 1865.]
27th Victoria summened to meet at Westminster, 15th August, 1865; dissolved by

proclamation, dated nth November, 1868.
Edward Matthew Fenwick, Esq. Henry William Schneider, Esq. [12th July, 1865.]
32nd Vietoria summoned to meet at Westminster, 10th December, 1S68; dissolved

by proclamation, dated 26th January, 1S74. Disfranchised.

(from blue books kindly forwarded by Mr. Williamson, M.P. )

18S5, Dec— Major Marton...C 4387 ; (the Liberal candidate, Mr. McCoan,
polled 3,530.1 r885 J. Williamson... L 3886 ; (Col. Marton (C) polled 3691.)

In 1623, the learned Seldon was member for Lancaster. Sir John Harrison,
the local benefactor, was also member for the Borough, in 1678-9.

According to the " Autobiography of William Stout" in Lane. M.S.S.. vol.
XL, p. 345. the William Eleysham, M.P. for Lancaster, in 1727, died at Bath, and
he is mentioned "as an indolent man.'" This is the donor ol the Greaves estate.
The *Christopher Towers who succeeded him was a young unmarried gentleman only
30 years of age. The John Dent, Esq., returned in 1790, was evidently the recipient
of a handsome present from his constituents. Simpson gives an extract from a
Metropolitan police notice, C Division, July 25th, 1849, in which it appears that
there was 'Stolen from Hertford Street, Mayfair, a silver tripod candelabra, with
six branches, supported by a dolphin on the tripod, and two views of Lancaster,
with presentation inscription: "To T. Dent, Esq., from his constituents.' The
whole was worked in frosted silver, made by Rundell and Bridge, and was presented
thirty-live years ago" (from date of notice).

On June 29th, 1818, after nine days' polling. John Gladstone, Esq., father of
the Right Hon. W. E. Cdadstone, M.P.. was returned, along with General Doveton.

Mr. James Williamson, M.P. for the Lancaster Division,
was born on the 31st December, 1844. He is a gentleman who
has proved himself a true philanthropist. To recount his excellent

He was Deputy Collector of the port of London (inwards).



494 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



deeds would be extremely distasteful to him. Suffice it to remark
that all broad and right-minded persons give him the credit for
disinterested motives and true single-heartedness in all he has
done. His munificence to the town on the occasion of the
Queen's Jubilee, together with his former additional gift, in regard
to the public park and its endowment, are fresh in the minds of all
Lancastrians. The native of Lancaster may hereafter sav, Lector,
si monwnenfum queens, circumspice.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



495



CHAPTER XVI,



Further Discoveries at the Castle — George Marsh — Executions at
Lancaster Castle of Persons said to have been innocent
- Last Execution in England by Strangulation — Imprisonment of
an Infant — Luxe Shipbuilding Company — The Coffee Hoi
Movement — Borough Perambulations — Proclamation of Queen
Victoria — Is Her Majesty Duke or Duchess of Lancaster? —
"Mayor of the Horse Shoe" - Old Esculapians - Epidemics in
Lancaster — List of Constables of Lancaster Castle— Governors
or Keepers of the Castle- — Castle Chaplains and Surgeons —
Coroners for Lancaster and District of the Century — Old
Officials — Ages of and Years of Service — Ancient Tenures in
Lancaster.

ORE "antiquity" has been discovered since
the excavations and improvements effected
at the Castle two or three years ago,
resulting in the opening up of a large part of
the fine old staircase which led down to the
corn-mill at the base of Hadrian's tower. An
ancient doorway has also been discovered and
there arc many traces of Roman work \ isible
in the same. The floor lias, consequently,
been lowered to the original base and several
feet of the strong Roman Masonry is now
revealed. The effect is excellent, the interior
of the tower having a nobler and brighter appearance than it has
had for ages. It is computed that the old staircase, the steps of
which appear as if only wrought and prepared a few years ago, has
been built up for the long space of seven centuries. The upper
part of the staircase has not yet been exposed to view-, but sufficient
has been accomplished to render the entrance into the ground floor
of the Roman tower much more interesting, since the visitor passes
through one of the series of six dungeons instead of along the foot-
way and steps last year erected, leading to the former basement of
the tower.




496 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Mounted and framed in this ancient tower are some
fragments which reveal the keen mental thirst for liberty manifested
by their respective owners. There is a label to this effect attached
to the relics : — " Implements taken from prisoners attempting to
escape from Lancaster Castle. Collected by A. Hansbrow, Esq.,
Deputy Governor. The gift of Colonel Whalley. June, 1891."

George Marsh and Oliver Atherton.

The most prominent protestant martyr who suffered imprison-
ment in Lancaster Castle was George Marsh, who was brought
to Lancaster in 1554 and taken to Chester in 1555, where he suffered
martyrdom. Dr. Hallev has the following notice concerning George
Marsh :—

"This Protestant martyr remained in Lancaster Castle from
Easter to the Autumn of 1554. In one of his letters is a description
to which those who know the picturesque building can easily give
reality and life : — ' I and my fellow prisoner Warburton, every day
kneeling on our knees, read morning and evening prayer, with the
English Litany twice, before noon and after, with other prayers, and
also read every day certain chapters in the Bible, commonly towards
night, with so loud a voice that the people without might hear us
read, and sit under our windows.' Some of these good people (and
among them the Mayor of the town) contributed to supply the
wants of the sufferers, who, by their devotions, made the Castle
Hill ' a place where prayer was wont to be made.' "

Mr. Oliver Atherton, a member of the societv of Friends,
died a prisoner in Lancaster Castle in 1603, having been persecuted
to death for conscience sake by the Countess of Derby, for refusing
to pay tithes amounting to 2s.

A few more martyrs — for martyrs they were— must not be
omitted. Joseph Clark, a well read young man, and said to have
been a decent violinist was charged with rape, the charge being the



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 497



outcome of a lad)' in whose employ was the young woman Clark
had been paying his addresses to. The facts are as follow : -" On
returning from church she caught her maid in the bedroom with
Clark, and became so enraged with jealousy that she forced her
servant to make the charge named, and this was done, probably the
girl submitting from sheer terror and coercion. Strange to state,
the poor fellow who protested his innocence, was convicted chiefly
on the evidence of the girl's mistress rather than upon that of the
girl." Great excitement prevailed during the trial, and many be-
lieved that he was innocent ; and some, we are told, felt so certain
of an acquittal that they had a coach in waiting, with a change of
clothes. When the jury brought in a verdict of " guilty," Clark fell
down at the bar, and cried aloud, "Oh! God, I am a murdered
man ; I never knew the woman carnally in my life." Every possible
means were taken to save him, particularly by the girl herself.
" The man was hanged on Gallows Hill, and a death-bed confession,
made many years afterwards by his wretched persecutor, proved
that he was hanged innocently." This execution took place
in the year 1793. In 1817, another painful episode occurred when
William Holden, David Ashcroft, James Ashcroft, and James Ash-
croft, junr., were executed for being concerned in a murder and
robbery, at the house of a Mr. Littlewood, of Pendleton, near Man-
chester. The prisoners (father, two sons, and son-in-law) declared
their innocence to the last. William Holden appeared first at the
drop, and, with great composure, addressed the crowd thus :—
" Strangers and neighbours, friends and relatives, and foreigners,
I am now going to meet my God, and in the face of Him I declare
that I am as innocent of the concern as the child unborn, and hope
that the Lord in heaven will be merciful to my poor soul for all my
former sins. Dear friends, I could tell you no more if 1 were to
talk to you all day. The Lord bless you, for the Lord Jesus
knows I forgive every one that has sworn my life away. The
Lord receive my soul ; 1 have been a very wicked man." David
Ashcroft next stepped forward, and avowed his innocence likewise
in the most earnest manner. He said ; "I declare I left them at
half-past two o'clock ; and I believe they are all as 1 am." James



K2



498 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



Ashcroft, junior, then prayed as follows : "Thou knows, O Lord,
we are not deserving of this ; Thou knows we are innocent." He
then asked for his father, who, at this point, was led on to the
scaffold, and he kissed him. James Ashcroft, senior, then turned
to the spectators, and, with very great solemnity, exclaimed : "I
declare we are all innocent." While they were being tied up they
all joined in singing a hymn, the words of which David Ashcroft
gave out —

I'll praise my Maker while I've breath,
And when my voice is lost in death

Praise shall employ my nobler powers,
My day- of praise shall ne'er be past,
While life and thought and being last,

< )]• immortality endures.

Happy the man whose hopes rely
On Israel's ( lod —

At this third word of the second stanza the bolt was drawn, the poor
fellows, whether innocent or guilty— and it was matter of precious
little moment in those days, no time being" allowed for further
inquiry — the bolt was drawn and they were strangled, their bodies
being given over to the surgeons, when dead, for dissection. For
twelve months the popular excitement knew no bounds, everyone
being satisfied that these unfortunate men were all innocent of the
crimes with which they were charged. The old files of the Lancaster
Gazette, 1842-5, state that a man confessed while on his death-bed,
twenty-six years after, that he was the real criminal.

Of criminals and their executions or the circumstances con-
nected therewith, I may mention the following : — In 1799, James
Case, a surgeon, was condemned to death for " making bad notes."
After his death it was found that a small pipe or tube had been
inserted into his throat, and that the prisoner had also worked the
knot ot the rope as much under his chin as possible. His coffin,
provided by his friends, was also found to be perforated with small
holes both at the sides and ends, in anticipation that by this means
his life would be saved. But all failed, for when the man was cut
down he was quite dead. At the Summer Assizes of 1803, three



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 499

youths, not more than seventeen years of age, were executed, two
of whom were charged with burglary and one with forgery. In
1809, thirteen persons were hanged for " passing bad notes." In
1831, William Worrall kicked off his shoes on the scaffold, because
his mother had often told him that if he did not amend his ways he
would never die with his shoes off — a broad hint as to the end he
was likely to come to. In 1862, Walker Moore, a Colne tailor, who
murdered his wife committed suicide on the morning which was to
witness his execution. He had asked for a few minutes to go to
the closet and while there had spared the executioner his task, and
the morbid public a fearful sight, for he drowned himself in the
tank of the water-closet by holding his head therein. On that occa-
sion people had travelled over hill and dale for many miles in order
to see one of their fellow-creatures deprived of his life, and they
were disappointed.

The Last Execution of a Murderess by Strangulation and

Fire.

In the Gentleman's Magazine for the year 1772, page 195, is
the following paragraph : —

6th April — Mary Hilton, committed at Lancaster Assizes for
poisoning her husband, was this day drawn upon a sledge to the
place of execution at Lancaster, where, after hanging fifteen
minutes, she was cut down and her body burned to ashes."

From the recollections of an old inhabitant, taken down in
1825, we find that " Mary Hilton, of four lane ends, was burnt
opposite the second window of the workhouse from the north, for
poisoning her husband. Mr. Cunlifte Shaw was Sheriff about the
year 1772. She was strangled by a man with one arm, and before
she was dead was let down into the fire, consisting of faggots and
two barrels of tar. She was beginning to move before the fire got
hold of her."



;oo TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



Imprisonment of an Infant in Lancaster Castle.

In Mr. Hepworth Dixon's work on iC London Prisons,"
published in 1854, mention is made of a child between 2 and 3 years
of age having been imprisoned in Lancaster Castle. The incident
might have occurred about the time the work was published (1854),
as Mr. Dixon refers to it as though it would be quite familiar to his
readers.

Up to the time of writing 228 persons have been executed at
Lancaster Castle between 1799 and 1890.

The statue of John of Gaunt, placed in a niche of the
gateway tower of Lancaster Castle was cut by a working mason
of Lancaster, named Claude Nimmo, during his leisure time. The
plaister cast was the work of Mr. Michael Angelo Rigby, a carver,
whose place of business was in Market Street.

Lune Ship Building Company.

The Lune Ship Building Company was established in the year
1863. There were two shipyards existing in Lancaster about
the close of the last century. There were but three cotton mills in
1825. spinning 7,ooolbs. of yarn weekly, and a worsted mill for bom-
basens, producing about 5,ooolbs. weekly.

The Coffee House Movement.

It may be stated that Lancaster has been enamoured of the
coffee-house movement long before the general revival of coffee-
houses, which took place in 1879, for as far back as 1770 we find
that our old borough had its Merchants' Coffee-house, wherein sales
and other commercial transactions were largely carried on. This
house was in Penny Street, not far from the celebrated Horse Shoe
corner, where animals seized under distraint were sold. Happily
the Coffee House system in Lancaster has done much good, and as



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 501



the catering is unlike that too often met with in other parts of the
country, the success that has attended the Lancaster Coffee Tavern
Company is not to be wondered at. There are no less than eight
of these taverns in and about the town. There are branches in
Market Street, Penny Street, Green Ayre, Moor Lane (Gregson
Memorial), Corn Market Street, Stonewell, Skerton, and recently a
branch has been opened in connection with the Wagon Works.
The secretary is Mr. W. Ritson.

The Merchants' News Room was formerly a place much fre-
quented by the leading merchants and gentlemen of various profes-
sions in Lancaster. Indeed it was a kind of club in which all local
and district matter was discussed ; and no doubt politics would form
a lively theme in the old days referred to. There is, within the
precincts of the news-room an old book headed " Coffee Room
Intellig-ence Book, December, 1778," and 1 have observed many
entries therein concerning shipping in Lancaster. There is also an
" Extract of a journal of an officer on board his Majestie's ship the
Boyne at the cid de sac of St. Lucie, 24th December, 1778." The
position of the French fleet is duly noted among many other inter-
esting items. 1 am indebted to Mr. Joseph Parkinson for the list
of past hon. secretaries and hon. treasurers given as supplied :

Lancelot Sanderson ; 1838 to 1858, Abram Seward ; 185910
1862, Joseph Fenton ; 1863 to 1876, Richard Bond ; 1877 to 1879,
Robert Palmer ; 1880, John Allen ; 1881 to present time, Joseph
Parkinson. Before Mr. L. Sanderson's time Mr. John Walker and
Mr. J. Thompson were hon. secretaries.

Borough Perambulations.

Perambulations of boundaries are of Saxon origin and appear
to be allied to the old Roman Terminalia festival held in honour oi~
Terminus, god of boundaries. A note book before me states
that the peregrinations usually took place in Rogation days or gunge
days ; and also states that in Lancaster a number o( boys were
usually whipped and ducked in the water at critical points of the



5 o2 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



perambulation in order to impress upon their memories the borough
bounds. They were afterwards regaled with halfpence in order to
pacify them and prove that there was no malice in the unpleasant
punishment. The perambulations for this century are as follow : —

Date. Mayor.

June 7th, 1802, James Parkinson.

May 22nd, 1 Soy, Thomas Moore.



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