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June 3rd, 1816, John Taylor Wilson.

May 19th, 1823, Jas. Barton Nottage.

May 31st, 1830, John Bond.

May 15th, 1837, J. H. Higgin.

May 27th, 1844, E. D. De Vitre.

June 9th, 1851, H. Gregson.

May 24th, 1858, Christopher Johnson.

June 5th, 1865, James Williamson.

May 22nd, 1872, Charles Blades.

June 2nd, 1879, G. Cleminson.

June 13th, 1886, James Hatch.

In 1851, Robert Blackburn, the colour carrier, completed his
tenth perambulation.

By the kind permission of the Town Clerk of Lancaster,
Thomas Swainson, Esq., I am able to give a copy of the first
recorded account of the perambulation of the boundaries of the
Borough of Lancaster. The items are taken from the Auditors'
book, 1771-2 to 1793-4.

The Boundaries of Lancaster, Rode the Twenty-third Day of May, 1774.

Edward Start, Esq., Mayor.

Iohn Watson and \ r , „„■ ,,

•> , , , -,- _. Gents. Bailiffs.


1st, from the Market Cross, in Lancaster, down the Long Marsh Lane to
the middle of the River Loyne, opposite Scale Lane, and from thence down the
middle of the same River on the north side of the Island called the Wharf, following



the mid stream thereof until you conic to a pool called Black Pool Foot, which
divides Heaton and Oxcliffe, and from thence over thwart the Rivei Loyne unto a
large stone called the Earn Stone, on the north side of a hedge or fence in Aldclifife
Hall grounds; from thence on the outside of Lower Holme, otherwise Sower Holme,
to Howgill Heck, at the foot of Killbrow, in Aldclifife Lane; from thence on the
outside of Haverbracke until you come to the Brigg Head, along th< Brook or
running Water ; from thence to Whitewell upon the Greaves, and so to Bouldram
Brook; from thence to Saint Patrick's Well, by Bouldrams; from thence to Woolfall
Well, below Gardner's house, formerly called Adamson's, .and sotoa Crabtree Thorn
at Barker Field Nook, in Longthwaite; from thence to Woodcross, which hath a
stone upon it marked with the letter.-, "R.P.," by George Padgett's house, formerly
called Robert Padgett's, upon the edge of the Moor; from thence to Locker Clough,
by the Dam Head, and so back to Greenhill, now a plowed field betwixt Yeathouse
and Edward Reeder's house, formerly called Oswald Croskell's, which divides Ellel
and Quarmore, and so to Welby Well; from thence to Damesgill House Nook, where
there lies a great stone and so up the Brook inclining to the Right in an eastwardly
direction untill you come to the common to a place called Hert Pott otherwise
Johnson's,, Well otherwise Willey Wife Well from thence to the Cross Stone or
Rig-get Stone which divides Wyersdale and Quarmore marked at the top tints
"HXS." and at the side with the figures "'1692" and from thence in a direct lineup
the common by several Mear Stones to a stone called Castle Syke Stone which also
divides Wyersdale and Quarmore marked with the letters " C.S.S." from thence over
the Red Moss to Red Moss Well from thence northwardly to the three chairs and so
to Clougha from thence northwardly down towards Littledale to Parkinson's of Cragg
to a great stone near the wall going into the fold to the house from thence to Faith-
waite's house called Potts and through the middle of a Barn there from thence
through a Wood leading down to Hawkshead house formerly called Dyneley house
and so following Lscoe Beck to Lead Gate Neat in Caton and from thence down the
Beck or Brook there to the middle stream of Loyne to Black Pool foot as aforesaid.
Witness our hands who rode the said Boundaries the said twenty-third day of May
one thousand seven hundred and seventy-four.

Edwd. Start, Mayor.

John Watson, i c -,•«-

-' ~, ' bailiffs.


Thomas Eidsforth.
Richd. Johnson.

lames Smethurst.

Witnesses. Richd. Fisher.

John Watson, elk. Peter Buttellmann.

Joseph Knowles. John Thompson.

Christ. Bland. John Gardnr.

David Saull.

Robert Cartniel.

Thomas Shepherd, Town Clerk.

The perambulation of 1 7S1 is much the same in substance.


1 now proceed to give a copy of the last perambulation
which took place on the fourteenth day of June, 1886.

."Jl3CUlloai'iC5 of Lancaster rode and perambulated the fourteenth day of
June, in the year of Our Lord one thousand, eight hundred and eighty-six.

From Germany Bridge in a northerly direction along the east side of land
belonging to the Corporation formerly the site of the ancient Mill Race and now
occupied partly as a twine walk, partly as a timber yard, and partly as gardens for the
bridge end houses belonging to the Corporation and so along the east side of the
Mill Race to a point opposite where the wall of the Midland Railway forms the west
side of the Ladies' Walk and thence across the Ladies' Walk and the Midland
Railway to the south end of the Weir at Dalton Dam. and then to the said stream of
Lune, from thence down the middle of the River Lune to Scale Ford opposite Scale
Lane end, from thence down the middle of the same River on the north side of the
Island" called the Wharf or -'Salt Area" following the mid stream thereof until you
come to a pool called Black Pool Foot which divides Heaton and Oxcliffe; and from
thence over thwart the River Lune by the south side of Freemen's Wood into a
place near where there was formerly a large stone called the Earn Stone on the north
side of a hedge or fence in Aldcliffe Hall grounds; from thence by the east end of
Freemen's Wood and by Lucy Brook to the foot bridge over the same and from
thence in a southerly direction along the footpath and on the outside of Lower
Holme otherwise Sower Holme to Howgill Beck at the foot of Kilbrow near Aldcliffe
Lodge in Aldcliffe Lane from thence crossing the Lancaster Canal and on the outside
of Haverbreaks until you come to the Brigg head, a place near the Brook or running
water, then re-crossing the Canal in a southerly direction to a place opposite the
entrance of the said Brook into the Canal, again crossing the Canal and along the
said Brook to Ashton Lane and then in a southerly direction to Whitewell upon the
( ireaves, so to Boldram Brook from thence to Thorn Stub on the east side of what
was formerly the Pinfold ; from thence to St. Patrick's Well by Boldrams ; from thence
along the south and east sides of the Inclosures of Boldram (now occupied by the
buildings of the Military centre) and so on the east side of certain Inclosures formerly
belonging to the heirs of the late Thomas Coulston and now belonging to the trustees
of the late John Coulston to Golgotha, and then through a Barn Fold and Garden in
the occupation of William Gardner to a place near Lancaster Moor trom thence in an
easterly direction on the north side of certain ancient Inclosures belonging to the
trustees of the said John Coulston until you come to the well in the field in front of
Well House and then in a southerly direction across the high road leading to Wyres-
dale and then in an easterly direction until you come to the south-east corner of
certain Inclosures called Fenham Carrs, and so in a northerly direction to the north-east
corner of the said Inclosures called Fenham Carrs, from thence in a north-easterly and
then in a westerly direction along the line marked and set out by the Commissioners


for enclosing Quernmore Moor as the division or boundary between Lancaster and
Quernmore Moors to the north-east corner of the wall of ground now belonging to
the County Lunatic Asylum, thence westwards along the said wall until you come to
the ancient Inclosures within the township of bulk; from thence in a southerly and
afterwards westerly direction along the fence which divides the township of bulk from
Lancaster Moor and so by the south side of the Stone Row Head Farmhouse and the
north side of Lancaster Cemetery until you come to an Inclosure formerly belonging
to the heirs of the late John Dalton and now reputed to belong to Edward Gorrill and
then on the north side of the said last mentioned Inclosure, and then in the same
direction on the north side of certain Inclosures belonging to the trustees of an estate
called "Brockbank's Annuity Trust'' then following a brook called Jolly Beck, and
crossing the aforesaid Canal and the Albion Mill until you come to Germany Bridge-
Witness our hands who amongst others rode and perambulated the said Boundaries
he fourteenth day of June one thousand eight hundred and eighty-six.

James Hatch, Mayor.

Edward Clark, Ex-Mayor.

Thom. Swainson, Town Clerk.

W. O. Roper, Deputy Town Clerk.

Alfred Creek, Borough Surveyor.

James Hatch, Junr., Borough Accountant

Frank Ward, Chief Constable.

Wm. H. Lord.

William Roper, Alderman.

Thos. P. Greene.

William Sharples,

About seventy-three Burgesses' names follow.

In the transcript of the 1774 perambulation a few singular place-names are
mentioned and perhaps their several meanings will prove interesting to some readers
of this chapter.

Earn or Ern. — Saxon for a place of some note; it also denotes an eagle. Probably
the Earn Stone was the Eagle Stone.

Brigg Head. — This would be the Bridge Head.

Kilbroiv. — Kit may be a corruption from or variant of Kel for keld, water, brow by
the water. In the Erse tongue Kit signifies a church, as in Kil-dara
(Kildare), Church of the Oak ; but this Kit can scarcely be applied here.

Hoivgill. — Ho-d\ a hill, and gill Norse for water.

Bouldrams ( Tent J. — Place of Ravens.

Yeat house. — Gale house.


Hert Pott. — Probably from the hart grass, and pott, Celtic for a dune or hollow.

Willey Wife Well— Allied in origin to "Batty Wife Hole.*'

Riggct Stone. — From Danish rig, a high backed hill, and dimuntive et, — head
stone on the hill.

Meat Stones. — From the Saxon niaera, a boundary, hence boundary stones or

Cnstle Syke Stone. — Syke denotes a furrow or ditch.

Escoe Beck. — From es, Saxon for water, and /ioiv, Saxon for Hill. It must not be
forgotten that es literally means separated, in Anglo-Saxon ; and the ow or
liuiv, a hill, might well indicate "brook fixing the boundary near the hill.''
The prefix es, may come from aesc or asc, or from esse, an ash, and signify
"beck by the Ash Tree Hill." But from the surroundings I prefer to
believe that in this instance the term es denotes water.

Here is a copy of the memorandum concerning the proclama-
tion of Queen Victoria.

" Borough of Lancaster in the County of Lancaster to wit. Be it remembered
that on the twenty-fourth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and thirty-seven, Thomas Housman Iliggin, Lsquire. Mayor of the Borough
and Town attended by the Council and Town Clerk of the town assisted by a
numerous assemblage of the free Burgesses and persons of Quality and inhabitants
of the town, proclaimed the high and might}- Princess Alexandrina Victoria, by the
grace of Cod. Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, defender
of the faith and that the proclamation was audibly read by the Town Clerk by the
direction of the Mayor, at Covel Cross, in Dalton Square, and lastly in front of tin-
Town Hall. In testimony whereof we have hereto subscribed our names.

Here follow the names of the Mayor and about forty-five other persons,
Clergymen, and Magistrates of the town.

The usual proclamation follows.

The Queen and the Title of "Duke" or "Duchess of


There is no title of "Duke or Duchess of Lancaster" named
in the above memorandum nor even in the proclamation. As to this
title the following letter will probably set the matter at rest. It
was received with one from the Duke of Rutland, in March, 1890.


"The Queen is neither 'Duke' nor 'Duchess' of Lancaster.
Sir Henry Ponsonby was quite correct in referring his questioner to
the 'Peerage,' where the Queen's titles are correctly worded. There
has been no change in this respect."

Writers assert that there was formerly "a mayor of the
horse shoe," owing to the fact that the castle was once saved during
a hostile affray owing to the horse of the leader of the enemy casting
its shoe at this spot. I have not, however, heard that there is any-
thing beyond tradition to support the assertion.

Old Lancaster Medical Men.

Dr. Barrow, who died by over-balancing himself while looking
at the Town Clock from his bedroom window, on the 12th of March,
1791, was a popular physician of the last century. So too, was
Dr. Croft, who died on the 6th of April, 1746. aged 42. The house
now occupied by Messrs. Paley, Austin, and Paley used to belong
Dr. Wright. After his decease, in 1797, it was valued at ^'2,000,
but shortly realised only ^500. This was the old Town Clerk's

In 1809 there were seven surgeons in Lancaster, viz.: —
Messrs. Braithwaite and Howitt, Francis Carter, junior. William
Edmondson, Isaac Greenwood, Christopher Johnson, and John
Smith. In 1818 there were ten, viz. : — Messrs. Samuel Anderton,
Josiah Baxendale, James Carter, Leonard Dickson, Isaac Greenwood,
Thomas Howitt, Christopher Johnson, John and Christopher
Sharpies (vet.), John Smith, and Edward Statter. Of physicians
there were three — David Campbell, James Cassells, and Lawson
Whalley, Esqrs. Dr. Campbell was mayor in 1796. He died on
t he 4th of February, at his house in Dalton Square, aged 83. Dr.
Cassells died on the 14th of November, 1822, in his Doth year ; and
Dr. Whalley, M.D., Edin., and J. P. County of Lancaster, on the
26th of May, 1841, aged 59 years. Dr. Whalley was appointed
physician to the County Asylum on the 7th ot January, 1832. This


gentleman took his M.D. degree on the 4th of September, 1804.
His mother was Mrs. Arthington. He held the position of officer
for the Eagle Life Assurance Company, established in 1807. In
1825 there were the same number of surgeons as in 1818, but four
names different, viz. : — Henry Foxcroft, James Harrison, John
Richardson, and John Smith ; and four physicians, among them a
John Edwards and an Alexander Morton. In 1889-90 I find we
have no less than twenty-one physicians and surgeons, nearly as
many again as in 18 18.

Dr. Christopher Johnson, the esteemed father of the present
Dr. Christopher Johnson, was an able contributor of articles on
scientific subjects.

Epidemics in Lancaster.

Lancaster was last visited with a serious epidemic in Novem-
ber, 1755, when 200 persons died of smallpox. In 1890-91 the
influenza epidemic was very prevalent. A "malarial influence"
of this kind occurred in 1813 and in 1847. A local cause may
doubtless be assigned to the severe attack of cholera which raged
at the County Asylum in the years 1832 -4. Out of a total number
of patients in the County Asylum, namely 354, there were 246 cases
of persons whose ages ranged from 24 to 84 years of age, and of
these 94 died. In some of the wards there were so many coffins of
victims to this malady that the doctor had to walk or stride over
them (Dr. Whalley). In the workhouse, containing at this time
152 inmates, there were 29 cases (ten being those of persons
under 12). There were 15 deaths in this institution, and five died
belonging the town. In August, 1849, tne scourge re-appeared,
and 17 persons died. Monday, September 12th, of this year, was
a day of humiliation and prayer, owing to the prevalence of the
terrible disease. The epidemic first appeared at the above-named
asylum in the September of 1832. At that time the town was free
from the disease.


High Sheriffs who dwelt near Lancaster.

A List of the High Sheriffs of the County of Lancaster from
the seventh year of William Rufus, when one Godfrid served the
office of sheriff, was published by Mr. William King of The Lancaster
Gazette, in 1881. To include the same in this work would be an
act of supererogation. Then again, the inclusion of such list is
more for the historian of the county than for that of the borough or
county town. Mr. King's list is ably got up, all necessary dates
being given up to the aforenamed year, 1881.

Of those living near to Lancaster since the 7th Richard I. down to the
present period, I may name the following :— Walter and Benedict Garnet, 1 196 ;
William de Lancaster. 19th and 21st Henry III. (1235, 1237, 1248, 1250); Matthew
Redmain 1250, 1253: Roger Lancaster, 1265: Ralph de Dacres, 1272: Robert
Urswick, circa 1417, Henry V., and in 6th of Edward IV.; Edward Stanley, Lord
Monteagle, 16th Henry VII. ; Marmaduke Tunstall, 1554. Mary I.; Robert Bindloss,
1613, James I.; Roger Kirkbv, 1638, Charles I.; Robert Bindloss, of Borwick,
1658 and in 1672; Edmund Cole, 1707: Roger Kirkbv, 1709, died during year of
office, succeeded by Alexander Hesketh ; William Tatham, ofOverhall, 1724; Miles
Sandys, of Graythwaite, 1725; Daniel Wilson, of Dallam Tower, 1727; James
Fenton, of Lancaster, 1751 ; Richard Whitehead, of Clighton, 1759; Samuel Hilton,
of Pennington, 1760; Charles Gibson, of Lancaster, 1790 ; William Townley, of
Townhead, Cartmel 1816; Thomas Richmond Gale Braddyll, of Conishead Priory,
1S21 ; Thomas Greene, of Slyne, 1823 ; James Penny Machell, of Penny Bridge,
1826; Charles Gibson, of Quernmore Park, 1827; G. R. Marlon, of Capemwray,
1832; William Garnett, of Bleasdale Tower, 1843; Pudsey Dawson, of Hornby
Castle, 1845 I (; - R - Marton, of Capernwray, 1858; W. A. F. Saunders, ofWenning-
ton Hall, 1862 ; William Preston, of Ellel Grange, 1865 ; H. Fletcher Rigg, ot
Wood Broughton, 1870 ; Sir James Ramsden, of Furness Abbey, 1S73 ; G. B. H.
Marton, of Capernwray, 1877 ; William Garnett, of Quernmore, 1879; William
Foster, of Hornby Castle, 1881 ; James Williamson, of Ryelands, 1SS3 ; Major Bird,
of Crookhey, 1S90 ; G. T. R. Preston, of Ellel Grange, 1891 (died) ; Colonel Foster,
of Hornby Castle, succeeded.

Constables of Lancaster Castle.

Owing to want of clearness or power to discriminate between
Governors, Keepers, and Constables proper of Lancaster Castle, only
a disjointed or broken account can be given. At the time of the



Conquest, Sir Roger de Poictou would be the Constable. Then,
probably, Robert de Belesmne would follow as Constable and
Governor. (He was the turbulent Earl of Arundel and Surrey.)
Warin, son of Gilbert, brother of William de Lancaster; Ranulph
de Blundeville, Edmund Crouchback (1206), Earl Ferrers (1247),
and Adam de Yealand, all seem to have held the post or what was
equivalent thereto. Christopher Barton, 1480; Temp. Edward III.,
Thomas Ratclif ; 1485, Thomas Ratclif; 1597, William ffarington ;
181 1, Thomas Butterworth Bailey, Alexander Butler, Sir Richard
Clayton ; 1840, William Hulton ; i860, Edward George Hornby ;
1865, Thomas Greene ; 1872, Thomas Batty Addison : 1874,
Robert Townley Parker ; 1879, Lord Winmarleigh.

Governors of the Castle.

The past Governors of the Castle have been, so far as I can
ascertain, Thomas Covell, from 1591 to 1639. In 1749, the name
of Edmund Styth appears, and that of his son James. In 1758, we
find a James Jackson, succeeded in 1779, by John Dane. From
1779 to 1783, John Higgin, followed his son, John Higgin, who
held the office until 1833, and died January nth, 1847. In 1833,
came Captain James Hansbrow, who governed until 1862, when his
son, Mr. Arthur Hansbrow, was appointed in his stead, and held the
post until 1867, when Mr. Harrington Welford Parr, son of the late
Canon Owen Parr, vicar of Preston, became Governor. This gentle-
man had been Harbour-master, Police Magistrate, and Postmaster of
Labium. He received 70 votes — a majority of 30 over one opponent
and 46 over another. Mr. Parr remained Governor until 1884, at
which period Mr. W. R. Shenton was appointed, and is the present
chief resident officer at the Castle. In ancient times Governors and
Constables seem to have been a blend and formed one office. The
salary of the last Governor was ^325 per annum, with house, coals,
and gas.

Two fuller lists of keepers of the Castle may finally be given
selected from various works: — Circa, 1199, Warinus Jointor or


s j

Janitor; 1208, Henry de Lea; [216, Adam dejeland ; 1591, Thomas
Covell ; 1643, Captain Shuttleworth ; 1644, Colonel George Dodding
(died 1650); 1644, James Hunter; 1710, E. North; 1714, John
Beardsworth ; 1726, Anthony Holme ; 1747, Henry Bracken ; 1764,
Edward Styth and James Styth; 1769, John Dane; 1779, John
Higgin, senior ; 1782, John Higgin, junior ; 1833, James Hansbrow ;
1862, Arthur Hansbrow; 1867, Harrington Welford Parr; 1884
William Shenton, chief warder.

Taken from a list published in the Lancaster Guardian in
1870 : — 1265, William Botoler, 49th Henry HE; 1342, John Travers,
15th Edward HE; Thomas Covell, 33rd Elizabeth ; 1647, William
Ripon (met with in the Church Register) ; 1714-15, John Beards-
worth, who kept the Horse and Farrier and farmed the vicarag'e
lancL governor 4 years or thereabouts (he signed his name Birds-
worth, 9th February, 17 16) ; 1726, Anthony Helme, great uncle of
Anthony Eidsforth, of Poulton Hall. Henry Bracken succeeded
Mr. Helme. He had once refused the office. Dr. Bracken was
son-in-law of John Beardsworth, and mayor in 1 747-1 757, and died
13th November, 1764, aged 68. Edmund or Edward Styth, keeper
12 or 13 years. The name, "Thomas Styth," and date " 1749,"
appeared on the lead roof of the Gateway Tower. James Styth
succeeded, and on becoming heir to a large property he took the
name of Greenhalgh, and his descendants are the Greenhalgh
family of Myerscough. Then came John Dane, who in a fit of
insanity hanged himself in the Judges' Lodgings. He was a very
tall powerful man. A Mr. Cowburn, keeper of the House of
Correction, Preston, seems to have followed and was keeper in
October, 1770, according to the Debtors' Register. In 1779 Mr.
John Higgin, who had been master of a vessel which he built in
America, was appointed governor. He died in 1783 of gaol fever,
aged 48. His son John succeeded him, and remained keeper until
1833 when he resigned. He died January nth, 1847, aged 85. In
1833 Captain and Adjutant James Hansbrow, 3rd Lancashire
Militia, became governor, and died holding office July 3rd, 1862,
aged 72. He is interred in the Lancaster Cemetery. His son


Arthur succeeded. He died in 1868. Mr. H. W. Parr then

obtained the appointment.

The grave of Captain James Hansbrow, twenty-nine years
Governor of the Castle, is to be seen in the higher part of the
Lancaster Cemetery. His son Arthur was Governor four years,
and died on the 9th January, 1867, aged 45, and was interred at
Davenham, in Cheshire.

The following inscription is from an old brass in the
Church : — " Here lieth the remains of Rachael Styth, wife of
Edward Styth, of Lancaster, who departed this life the 21st day of
February, a.d. 1752, aged 18 years, four months, and eight days.
Here lieth also the remains of Edward Styth, of Lancaster, who
departed this life the 6th day of April, a.d. 1769, aged 68 years."

Castle Chaplains.

Of Castle Chaplains I meet with the Rev. Mr. Spicer followed
in 1782, by the Rev. J. Watson; after him come the Rev. Mr.
Woodrow, (resigned, January 10th, 1804), the Rev. Richard
Withnell, who since August 27th, 1802, had been writing master
and accountant at the Grammar School. Then came the Rev.
Joseph Rowley, chaplain for fifty four years, and during whose
chaplaincy 168 persons were executed. Mr. Rowley succeeded Mr.
Withnell, on the 28th of June, 1804. His successor was the Rev.
H. F. Smith, present chaplain.

Surgeons. — 1777, Mr. Dixon; 1779, Mr. Dixon, £10 10s.
(no salary paid then, he made his bill); 1801, Josiah Baxendale,
,£84; 1822, J. Smith, £84, advanced in 1824 to £120; 1837, James
Stockdale Harrison; 1854, James Pearson Langshaw, £80, advanced
to^ioo; 1874. William W T ingate Saul, ^100, advanced in 1877

The removal of the vast quantity of ancient documents in
1874, from Lancaster Castle to London, previously alluded to, is


much to be regretted. Could these documents not have been taken
care of in Lancaster Castle still, as they have been taken care of in
the past? Would they not have been available to the historian and
the antiquarian, instead of placed beyond their reach, at any rate,
beyond the easy reach of the Palatine count)' most of their contents
relate to? It certainly seems to have been a very great pity to
transfer to the metropolis an)- antique records concerning Lancaster
and the duchy generally. Perhaps some member of Parliament will

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