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move that they be returned to their old home before very long.

Coroners for Lancaster and District.

John Gardner, Esq., of Sion Hill, died October 7th, 1852,
aged 73. John Cunliffe, Esq., died April 14th, 1855, at Myerscough
House, Lawrence Holden, Esq., appointed in April, 1855; present
and first resident coroner.

Old Officials. —Ecclesiastical and Secl'lar.

Most of the old officials, of whatever capacity in Lancaster,
seem to have retained office until age has compelled them to retire
and rest. The Rev. Robert Housman, was an active minister forty-
one years, Mr. Ralph Rqthwell, keeper of the court and usher 36
vears, who died March 25th, 1874; ant ' the Rev. Joseph Row lev,
master of the Grammar School 23 years. Mi - . Thomas Swainson
has been Town Clerk 33 years. Mr. L. Holden has been Coroner
35 years. The two latter gentlemen still retain office.

The Rev. Joseph Rowley, M.A., who was appointed curate
of St. Mary's Church, became curate of Stalmine. He was the son
of Benjamin Rowley, Esq., of Kirkburton, count) York He matri-
culated at Queen's College, Oxford, 5th July 1791, being then
eighteen years of age. For sixty-five years Mr. Rowley held the
incumbency of Stalmine, and was Chaplain of Lancaster Castle fifty-
four years. He died at the age of 90 on the 3rd of January, 1864,
and his remains lie in the Lancaster Cemeterv.



Ancient Tenures in Lancaster.

Roger, the Carpenter, holds ten acres of land in Lancastr' of ancient
feoffment, by the service of being carpenter in the Castle of
Lancaster, and it is worth 5s. Testa dc Neville fol. 372.

William, the Gardener, holds seven acres of land, in Lancaster, by
the service of finding pot-herbs and leeks in the Castle, and
his land is worth 2s. 4d. Ibid. fol. 372, 40/, 410.

Roger Blundus holds lands in Lancaster, b) the serjeanty of being
Carpenter, and his land is worth 3s. per annum. Ibid. fol.
401, 409, 411.

Roger Fitz John holds land in Lancaster, by the serjeanty of being
Smith (pur sejeanf faverie); his land is worth 3s. per annum.
Ibid. fol. 401, 410.

Roger Fitz John holds twelve arces ; he made the irons of the
King's ploughs for two manors yearly. Ibid. fol. 407,
409, 411.

Roger Albus holds eight acres in Lancaster, by carpentery. Ibid.
fol. 407. 409.

William Fitz Matthew holds in Lancaster one messuage and one
garden, by gardening. Ibid. fol. 409.

Gilbert Fitz Matthew holds one messuage in Lancaster by gardening.
Ibid. fol. 409.

The serjeanty of Reginald the Smith in Lancaster held of Adam de
Kellet two acres by serjeanty of Queen's Smith in Lancaster,
and two acres of the Prior of Lancaster by the same. Ibid,
fol. 410.


In the 3rd John (1201-2), Robert de Tateshall rendered an account
of two shilling's from Benedict Gernet, or the finna of a house
in Lancaster, which had been Jordan de Caton's for the past
two years, The burgesses of Lancaster held one carircate
of land (80 acres or thereabouts), in Lancaster, in free
burgage by charter at a rent of twenty marks per annum.

Maps of Lancaster.

The early maps of Lancaster are Speed's 1610, Stephen
Mackereth's 1778, and Jonathan Binn's 1821. Stephen Mackereth's
map is now rarely to be met with. A gentleman at Morecambe,
has a map of Lancaster dated 1612, and the Keeper of the Castle
has recently had one sent him said to date from 1598. It certainly
differs from that of Speed. But the name Vander, thereon seemed
to me to indicate a later date than 1598. Clark published a map in
1807 in his history of the borough. In 1877 a very good one was
issued by Messrs. Harrison and Hall.

A good copy of Stephen Mackreth's map is to be seen in
the offices of Messrs. Johnson and Tilly, solicitors. It is thus
inscribed: — " A plan ol the town of Lancaster, humbly dedicated
to the nobility, clergy, gentry, and merchants of the county and
town of Lancaster, by Stephen Mackreth, 177S." Above this
dedication is to be seen a shield containing the arms of the borough.
At the left hand of the top of the chart is a view of Lancaster
Castle with John o'Gaunt's arms, and on the opposite or right
hand is a south view of St. Mary's Church. There are the names
of property owners on the properties represented. Thus we have
Fenton House and Garden, with the name "Mr. Recorder" above.
Dr. Marton's Garden, the Sun Inn, and the Bowling Green,
Pudding Lane, Charles or New Street, Church Street, anciently
St. Mary's Gate, Covell Cross, Thomas Saul's land, called
Mount Street, Robert Lawson's house and garden, the Sugar
House, and Old Toll House, St. Leonardgate, Dr. Wilson's
garden, Mr. Gibson's garden (both between Damside and Church


Street), the White Cross, and the Poor House, the Rope Walk
(parallel with the Ladies' Walk), and the Castle, Castle Ditch,
Bowling" Green and Nip Hill. The map is a very good one and in
good condition.

Of eminent firms of an artistic rather than commercial
character the firm of Paley, Austin and Paley, formerly Sharpe and
Pale} - , established in 1835, stands the first and is well known for its
ecclesiastical work. No further testimony is needed in regard to
the skill of this house than that supplied by churches and institutions
in Lancaster and count}' designed by the above-named Architects.
Next we have Messrs Shrigley & Hunt, a firm of Stained Window
Glass Painters and Heraldic Artists, established before the year
1750. Messrs. Lambert & Moore, a firm only recently established,
are also rapidly making themselves a reputation in Heraldic and
Stained Glass Work.

On January 19th, 1796, the Society for the encouragement of
Arts, &c, presented Abraham Rawlinson, Esq., of Lancaster, with
a gold medal for planting 62,191 trees of different kinds on an estate
intersected with frequent veins of limestone, cobbles, &c. The like
spirit has been revived in the present Mayor, Charles Blades, Esq.,
who in 1888, planted trees on each side of the East Road. Speaking
in the Council Chamber, on Wednesday, the 23rd of January, 1889,
the Mayor expressed the "hope that trees would be planted upon both
sides of South Road up to Bowerham Lane, in order that the town
might possess an avenue on each side, which would render walking
in hot weather very pleasant and prove an advantage to the town.
Bowerham Lane and Quarry Lane have been widened. St. Peter's
Road improved, and the Friarage Bridge re-built; and on all sides
there is evidence of amendment and extension.

Of the Red Rose town we may fitly say : —

O gray old Ail Alaunum,

What visions of the past,
What golden chimes of other times

O'er me thy echoes cast.


Sea-perfum'd Ad Alaunum,
Thy pastures rich and rare

Reveal a charm that keepeth warm
The love for thee I hear.

Fair-valley'd Ad Alaunum,

Thy woods and streams are crown'd
With haloes soft like wreaths alofl
Circling the hills around.

Hail Roman Ad Alaunum,

The river goddess still
Rules o'er thy rucks, and for thy flocks

Yields many a purling rill.

O tear-stain'd Ad Alaunum.,

By fire and blood baptis'd,
Of Pictish pains and rule cf Danes

Thy daybook is compris'd.

Thy castle, Ad Alaunum.

A fabric gaunt and grim,
Tells of old days and older ways

In ages dark and dim.

O far-fam'd Ad Alaunum,

Whose Prince lov'd Freedom's sway.
May love and peace in thee increase

In this Victorian day.

O wondrous Ad Alaunum,

What changes thou has seen !

What crimson hues remind the muse
Of hours that erst have been.

Nunc floreat, Ad Alaunum,

And let the Red Rose yet
No evil brook as still we look

On bold Plantagenet.

A Knight of Ad Alaunum,

A portreeve true I vow,
Thy children here at once revere

And deck his lustr'd brow.

The Red Rose, Ad Alaunum,

The White Rose, Ebor's pride, —

Still win esteem and cheer my theme
Since now in love allied.

O mighty Ad Alaunum,
Great burgh of Saxon date,

Rare Palatine whose ducal line
Gives charm to royal state.

O gray old Ad Alaunum,

What visions of the past,
What golden chimes of other times
O'er me thy echoes cast.


Among' the poets who have visited Lancaster, we have to
name Thomas Gray, author ot the beautiful "Elegy in a Country
Churchyard" and other well known poems. He visited our ancient
town in 1769, and his description of the scenery around taken from
one of his letters has been quoted by Baines and others so often
that it need not be reproduced here. In 18 18, John Keats, of
"Endymion" fame, started from Lancaster on a pedestrian tour
through the lake district, on the 19th of June.

Boswell ix Lancaster.

At an Assizes at Lancaster Dr. Johnson's friend, James
Boswell, was found lying upon the pavement inebriated. His friends
subscribed at supper a guinea for him and half a crown for his
clerk, and they sent him next morning a brief with instructions to
move for a writ Quare adhaesit pavimento, with observations duly-
calculated to induce him to think that it required great learning to
explain the necessity of granting it to the judge before whom he
was to move. Boswell sent all round the town to attorneys for
books that might enable him to distinguish himself, but in vain.
He moved, however, for the writ, making the best use he could ot
the observations in the brief. The judge was perfectly astonished,
and the audience amazed. The judge said " I never heard of such
a writ —what can it be that adhaeres pavimento? Are any of you
gentlemen at the bar able to explain this ?" At last one of them
said, " My lord, Mr. Boswell last night adhaesit pavimento. There
was no moving him for some time. At last he was carried to bed,
and he has been dreaming about himself and the pavement."
What an attachment he must have had for it !



The Lancaster Waterworks— Discovery of an Old Bayonet — Past
Organists of St. Mary's Church— St. Mary's Church Bells-
Weight of each Bell — List of Ringers at the Churches of St.
Mary, St. Thomas, and St. Peter — Blue Coat and National
Schools — Duchy of Lancaster Rfceipts 1890— Value of Duchy
Livings — Old Books referring to the County — Note on i hi:
" Black Hole " — Past Master Mariners of the Port of Lancaster.

Lancaster Water Supply.

The water supply of Lancaster, which is second to none in the kingdom
for its purity and the excellence of ils quality, is obtained from spring-s which take
their rise on the Wyresdaie and Abbeystead fells, about five miles to the east of
Lancaster. The water is from millstone grit, and is conveyed in stoneware and iron
pipes from the source of supply to Lancaster and the other places supplied, and a
principal feature about it is that from the time the water is tapped at the several
springs it is never exposed to atmospheric influences till it is drawn for use in the
houses of the inhabitants. Prior to the year 1852 the inhabitants of Lancaster
obtained their supply of water from pumps and wells, of which there was a fair
quantity in various parts of the town. But in the year named — an improved system
of sewerage having been put down — it was decided to apply to Parliament for the
purpose of constructing waterworks with which to supply the borough with water.
Under this Act the Corporation took powers to take 300,000 gallons a day as a
minimum quantity, and which was obtained from springs on the fells already named,
ami which at that time belonged to Mr. Henry Garnett, of Wyresdaie, to whom
compensation was paid. The principal streams from which the water was taken
were the Tambrook, Wyre, and the Marshaw Wyre, the former being the principal
one, and the waters from which found their way into the river Wyre. There were
certain mills and riparian owners on the banks of the Wyre whose claims had to be
considered, and in order to compensate them for the water taken from the streams,
the Corporation agreed to construct in the valley at Abbeystead a compensation
reservoir to hold 28,500,001 gallons. In the Act already referred to powers were
also taken to supply Skerton, Scotforth, Poulton, Bare, and Torrisholme with water.
The waterworks thus obtained were sufficient for all requirements for seven or eight
years, when, the population having materially increased, it was decided to go to
Parliament for additional pi wet-. This was accordingly done, and on the 2 Jrd June,


1864, a second Water Act received the Royal assent. Under this Act the Corporation
were empowered to take not more than 400,000 gallons from the springs named as
an additional daily quantity, making with the previous supply 700,000 gallons per
day ; and the Abbeystead reservoir was enlarged to a holding capacity of 76,500,000
gallons. In 1864 the consumption of water sold by meter for railway and trade
purposes was about 70,000 gallons per day. The quantity computed for domestic
and sanitary purposes was at the rate of 25 gallons per head per day. This supply
continued sufficient for another decade, and then steps began to be taken for another
application to Parliament. In a report which Mr. James Mansergh, C.E., the
engineer for the water works, submitted to the Corporation he says : — " It is clear
then, as your powers extend to only 700,000 gallons, that the time has arrived when
you usually take active measures for increasing that quantity, and that you can come
to no other conclusion than that of deciding to deposit plans this year for the purpose
of securing the sanction of Parliament in the course of next summer for a compre-
hensive extension of your works. First of all we must determine the quantity of
water that this district will probably require say twenty years hence, or in 1898,
which in my opinion is the shortest period you ought now to make provision for.
At that date the population to be supplied in the summer months will be 46,388,
which at twenty-five gallons per head (for domestic and sanitary purposes) will
require 1,159,700 gallons per day. In the last ten years the quantity sold by meter
for railways, baths and washhouses, gasworks, and mills has nearly doubled, and is
now about 120, coo gallons per day. It is therefore a moderate estimate to put it a 1
340,300 gallons per day twenty years hence, which will bring the total daily require
ments up to 1,500,000 gallons. I feel satisfied that this is the very lowest figure you
sh mid now deal with. You therefore require to provide 800,000 gallons a day more
than you have at present powers to take." An application was accordingly made to
Parliament a third time, which resulted in the Act of 1876 being granted, and under
which the town is now supplied. Towers were also obtained for supplying Slyne-
cum-Hest, Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth, Bulk and Quernmore. But as regards
Carnforth, the Carnforth Water Act of 1877 repealed that part of the Corporation Act
so far as Carnforth was concerned. The additional water supply obtained under the
Act of 1876 was opened on May 5th, 1881, with considerable public ceremonial.
This led to the Abbeystead compensation reservoir being enlarged to a holding
capacity of 185,000,000 gallons, which was done by erecting the retaining wall lower
down the valley of the Wyre. This reservoir has now a surface area of 60 acres,
and an erroneous notion prevails amongst many of the inhabitants that the town is
supplied from this source. Under the Act of 1876 the Corporation obtained powers
to take not more than 1,300,000 gallons in any twenty-four hours, and this added to
the 700,000 gallons obtained under the Acts of 1852 and 1864, gives a daily quantity
of 2,000,000 gallons per day. There was practically no provision for any storage,
and as in a dry season the springs might run down below the quantity required for
the use of the town, provision was made — at the suggestion of Mr. Mansergh — for a


storage reservoir at Damas Gill. This storage reservoir, which is about a mile
nearer Lancaster than Abbeystead, occupies the valley of a small stream which
formerly flowed into the Damas stream. It has been formed by two embankments
being built across the valley, the lower or southern one being 576 feet long, and the
northern 400. Its length is nearly double its width, and when full will have a water
area of four acres, and an average depth of 32 feet, and a holding capacit) of
30,000,000 gallons or about one-sixth the size of Abbeystead. It is intended to store-
here in a wet season the surplus water up to 2,000,000 gallons per day which the
Corporation is allowed to lake, but which may not be used, and in the event of
the supply from the springs failing* in a dry season the supply for the town will be
supplemented out of this reservoir. There are two lines of pipes on the fells, one-
laid under the 1852 Act and extended by the 1864 Act, which takes in the water
from the higher springs, and another laid under the Act of 1876. This latter line of
pipes is at a much lower level than the former in order to catch the water from the
lower springs, and is conveyed through a new gauge basin on Abbeystead Fell,
having a measuring capacity of 1,300,000 per twenty-four hours. From here the
water is conveyed to Appletree basin, which was constructed for the purpose of
relieving the pressure on the pipes between the fells and Brow Top basin, which is
about three miles from Lancaster. It has a holding capacity of 450,000 gallons, and
before the water goes on its way to the town it passes through four screens to clear it
from any deposit. The 1876 line of pipes is carried round by Damas reservoir, the
two mains meeting at Brow Top, which is also a pressure basin, and where the water
is again screened. From this point three mains — a ten inch, an eight inch, and a
fifteen and thirteen inch —are carried along the highroad and convey the water to the
service reservoir above the workhouse. This reservoir hold.-, about 580,000 gallons,
and the quantity it contains is recorded twice daily, morning" and night. If it is
found at night that the water during the day has been drawn off down to a depth of
nine or ten feet, the supply to the town is curtailed during that night in order to get
a larger quantity stored, and if possible commence with a full reservoir each morning.
The total amount spent on the waterworks up to the 30th of June, 1890, was
,£80,545 ; and to this will have to be added the balance due on account of the
construction of Damas reservoir. The amount paid in interest and redemption to
the same period is ,£38,651, leaving the indebtedness on waterwork's account at
^80,545. *

It is to be regretted that in so many large centres of industry
nearly all the good old Wells have been covered over or entirely
done away with. In these days of increased population, of incessant
demand for water for manufacturing purposes, the slightest period

I am indebted to Mr. John Atkinson for the above lucid account, written during

indisposition by request.


of droughty weather occasions difficulties never dreamt of years
ago, and there can be no doubt that had every good Well been
retained, a great deal of annoyance and ground for complaint would
have been obviated, since there would have been for culinary uses
at least a pure supply to fall back upon in many instances in very
dry weather.

Discovery of an Old Bayonet.

Very recently, May 19th, 1891, an old weapon was found behind the
* Carpenters' Arms, on the west side of Bridge Lane, during the alterations of the
brewhouse and the buildings adjoining- the "forty steps." This instrument of warfare
is about one foot, twelve inches in length, the blade being eighteen inches long and
the haft, which is serrated, not quite four inches long. The blade is thin and grooved,
and is slightly bent near to the point, as if it had been used for a less sanguinary
purpose than fighting, namely, for poking the fire. It is also black at the end. On
the upper end of the haft is the number 470, which reasonably enough indicates that
he weapon was only one of many similarly brass-handled bayonets. Colonel Whalley,
to whom the weapon was given by Mr. Councillor Bowness, believes it to be a
specimen of the old " Plug Bayonet," It has been thought that the handle is of a
jater date than the blade ; that it has been attached to the blade in order to
render it more in accordance with the improvements then introduced in bayonet
manufacture. Mr. Councillor Bowness, looking at the implement from a mechanical
point of view, is of opinion that it is just a^ originally made so far as the style of it
goes. Judging from the locality in which it was discovered, a locality wherein the
rebels would doubtless be quartered, and likewise from the fact that in their haste to
escape seizure by General Oglethorpe's forces, many of these adherents of a forlorn
hope would either hide or throw away their weapons, it is most probable that this
old bayonet is a relic of the second rebellion (1745.)

Past Organists oi ; St. Mary's Church.

The town of Lancaster has turned out some good Church
Organists, and I shall here have the opportunity of mentioning a
few of those of St. Mary's Church, with dates kindly supplied by
Mr. Dean, conductor of the musical services, at the Church named.
Mr. Dean has been Organist of the Parish Church of Lancaster,
thirty-two years. The first Organist, so far as can be ascertained,

*The Carpenters' Arms was formerly known by the name of "The Three Mariners '



was Mr. Parren, or more properly Parrin, and concerning' him I do
not think I shall be violating the canons of good taste when I quote
the following information voluntarily given me by Sir Richard Owen.
Mr. Parren, Organist of St. Mary's Church, Lancaster, was Sir
Richard's maternal grandfather. "One of his daughters," says the
venerable writer, "became the first librarian of the Amicable
Society's Library. The Parrins were Huguenots, in the persecutor,
Louis XIV's. reign. The Parrin who succeeded in getting
to London, was sufficiently accomplished in music to fulfil the
functions of an Organist, and my grandfather was his direct
descendant. I have the family coat of arms on vellum, which the
exile brought to England from the South of France." Mr. Parrin,
died about 1794. Then the name of John Langshaw occurs, who
died in March, 1798, aged 72, after having been 25 years Organist
of St. Mary's Church. He was succeeded by his son in the March
of the' year named, who married a Miss Grundy, about the 7th
of February, 1800, "of Boiton-in-Lancashire."— query, which
Bolton? He died 5th December, 1832. On the 13th of April,
1833, Mr. J. P. Langshaw was elected Organist in the room of his
father. Following Mr. J. P. Langshaw was Mr. T. Evans,
Organist of St. Anne's, appointed successor to Mr. Langshaw in
June, 1835. He was succeeded by Mr. Samuel Reay, Mr. Reay by
Mr. J. H. Kemp, and Mr. Kemp by *Mr. F. Dean, (present
Organist) appointed 1859. Ii may be added that the Organ in St.
Mary's Church, was erected between the years 1809 and 181 1, by
G. P. England, at a cost of ^6,072. The Duke of Hamilton and
Brandon subscribed 50 guineas towards a new Organ for St.
Mary's Church, in November, 1810. It has, of course, been en-
larged some years ago. The old Organ of St. John's Church was
built by Mr. Langshaw, of this town, and opened early in January,
1785; the instrument was presented by Abram Rawlinson, Esq.,
one of the members for the borough. The old Organ belonging
St. Anne's Church was erected by Mr. James Davis, of London,
and opened on the 2nd November, 1802. See pages 331-347.

This gentleman is a native of Exeter.


Free Tuition in Vocal Music.

For about seven years Mr. Robert Brash has earnestly
laboured as a teacher oi vocal music, and the young people of
Lancaster who have availed themselves of his kindly instruction
cannot too highly appreciate the opportunities afforded them of
gaining- a sound and practical knowledge of singing. His musical
classes have been entirely free ; and in both theory and practice
nothing has been wanting on his part to render the members of his
classes as proficient in their training as if they had been taught by
an instructor charging just and equitable fees. As a proof of the
truth of this statement it is only necessary to refer to Mr. Brash's
annual concerts, which indicate a wealth of vocal talent that, but
for his anxiety to do good in his day and generation, might have
been wholly lost or entirely undeveloped.

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